Exam 2 review guide
Exam 2 review guide ARTH1001
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Lundstrom on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARTH1001 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Erin Hackmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see History of Art 1 in Art History at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/21/16
Exam two study guide: Section 1: Vocabulary review Amphora: A large two handled storage jar made in ancient Greece. They were often painted on. black-figure painting: A method of painting on pots (like amphora pots). Black slip is painted on the pot, and then scraped off with a then tool revealing the red color beneath and allowing fine details. buon fresco: A fresco is a wall painting on the plaster of a wall. A buon fresco is one that is painted while the plaster is still wet, making it look better and more permanent. Canon: Written by Polycleitus. Defines the ideal proportions that make the perfect human form. Capital: Top of a column, look at the picture of the Ionic order. Column: a vertical support, look at the Greek order pictures for examples. Contrapposto: A statue of a human figure where most of the figure’s weight is on one leg and the body is a bit twisted. corbel vault: A roundish building with a roof with no internal supports. Each layer protrudes slightly beyond the previous layer until they meet in the center. dressed stone: Stone cut into shapes to make it work and fit better. Entablature: This is something on top of a column. Look at the doric order for an example. Entasis: the way that a column swells around the middle to make it appear straight to the eye. Example: fresco secco: A fresco that is painted on plaster after the plaster has already dried. frieze: A decorative band over a column that has a relief sculptures carved over it. Humanism: A part of Greek art, culture, and religion that focuses on humans and human perfection. Kore: A freestanding statue of a young woman common in the Archaic period if Greece. Kouros: A freestanding statue of a young woman common in the Archaic period if Greece. Krater: Krater is a kind of pot with a lot of geometric shapes and a meandering pattern around the top. Also, Kraters were used to either mix wine with water, or as a grave marker. Metope: Any of the square spaces, either decorated or plain, between triglyphs in the Doric frieze. Look at the doric order picture for an example. Pediment: A sloping sort of roof that is over top of a column. Look at the picture of the doric order as an example. Peripteral: A temple surrounded by a single row of columns. red-figure painting: Painting on pots where the black slip is applied to the background with a soft brush, allowing for greater realism. relieving triangle: A triangle over a doorway designed to push some of the weight and load off of the doorway and onto a sturdier part of the wall. Repoussé: A design in metal formed by hammering on the back of it. Rhyton: A kind of pot used to drink wine out of made in Minoan culture. Tholos: A beehive tomb. It is a large round building that has no internal supports holding up the roofs. Triglyph: Part of the Doric order of columns that is a repeating vertical pattern. Section 2: Different artistic styles Cycladic art: Art is the most important part of understanding their culture, as no writing is left behind. Most artifacts are found at graves. Female figures are much more common than male figures. Minoan art: Architecture: is unfortified and built using dressed stone. Buildings have wood to help with earthquakes. Frescos are very popular, and art has a strong sense of movement. Minoan art is strongly characterized by a sense of movement, marine life, and curvilinear designs. Mycenaean art: Very well fortified cities. Uses cyclopean masonry: Greeks thought that the buildings were so large that they were made by cyclopes, not humans. Created the corbel vaults. Greeks: Geometric period Pottery was painted with distinct geometric patterns. Not naturalistic at all. Fill in the blank spaces with patterns. Greeks: Orientalizing period Greeks traded a lot, and those other cultures influenced their art. Greeks: Archaic Period Charcterized by a new degree of naturalism, especially with the human figure. Very strongly influenced by Egyptian culture. Creates red figure painting. Look for the braided hair, almond shaped eyes, and so on. Girls wear clothes, guys don’t. Greeks: Doric Order Massive columns without a base. Very plain, vanilla. Much more support is provided than is needed. Greeks: Ionic Order Thinner and more ornamental columns.. There is a coiled capital. A bit more complicated, or ‘chocolate’ Greeks: Corinthian order More exotic columns, or pistachio. Distinguished by the leafy capital. Most commonly used in the interior of buildings. Greeks: early classical period Starts with the Greek defeat of Persian invaders and creates a sense of Greekness. Tries to capture how the human body moves in space. Much more realistic than the Egyptians. Not as idealized as high classical period. Temples are rectangular with steps in all sides. They are still not that complex Greeks: High classical period Very idealized art. Follows the canon that is the dimensions of the idealized human body. Perfect beauty is in math and harmonic ratios There are cult statues inside in the statues and worship happens outside the temple. Greeks: Late classical period Marked by political instability. Sparta beats Athens in the Peloponnesian war and Athens is not longer the strongest party. Art is on the individual level, and looks like the real world. It no longer looks perfectly idealized. Greeks: Hellenistic period Begins the year Alexander the great dies. Two main art trends: anti-classical, or those influenced by the classical period. Expressionism: meant to show emotion and tug at your heart strings. Has much more chaos Shows old and feeble people, which is new. Etruscan art: Known for pottery and metal work Used a lot of terracotta. Their architecture had a large influence on the romans, and loved to use perishable materials like wood and mud brick. Section 3: Art piece review Figure of a woman: 2600-2400 BCE Cycladic art Called a plank idol The body is pared down to the essentials and made of geometric shapes. These figures were painted very non- symmetrically Lots of eyes all over the body. Found in grave sites. Planned out with compass Head with Remains of Painted Decoration: Cycladic art Would have been ritually painted and repainted to represent important parts of life. A very important part of the culture. Reconstruction of the “Palace” Complex Minoan art On the island of crete, origin of minotaur myth Destroyed once by an earthquake and rebuilt. Not fortified. Lots of different things in the palace, like a market, cult center, theater, and so on. Lots of decorations internally. Bull leaping: Minoan Art A very heavily restored fresco. The dark parts are part of the original. Depicts a ceremony where someone grabs a bull’s horns and jumps over it. The art is heavily characterized by a sense of movement. Woman or goddess with snakes Minoan art. Female figures are very common in Minoan art. Snakes were good in their culture. Either a priestess or a goddess. Very heavily restored and may be very far from what it originally was. Two views of the Harvester Rhyton Minoan art Very curvilinear Used ceremonial to drink wine Is very new in the sense that it shows what is actually under the skin, such as the ribs of the singer. Very dymanic Octopus Flask: Minoan Marine style, which is very common and involves art containing marine life. Very curvilinear and dynamic. Citadel at Mycenae Mycenaean art Cyclopean masonry, made of such huge stones that the Greeks thought that it was made by cyclopes. Possible city of troy Well fortified Built with dressed stone Mask of Agamemnon: Mycenaean art Found in a shaft grave. Made using repousse. Very thin, and put on the face of the dead. Not actually of Agamemnon At least partially a forgery. Lion Gate: 1250 BCE Mycenaean art A gate into the city of troy. Has horizontal lintel and relieving triangle. Has spots for archers to fire on invaders and is made to defend the city. Lions represent protectors. They sleep with an eye open and are powerful, and so on. Cutaway Drawing of the treasury of Atreus: Mycenaean art Known as beehive tombs Named incorrectly One of the first and largest open, clear, vaulted buildings of his time. Method of construction is important and historical. Exterior view of the treasury of Atreus: Mycenaean art Same thing as above. A doorway once flanked by columns, and with a relieving triangle. Corbel Vault, the treasury of Atreus: Mycenaean art This is the same structure as the above two. corbel vault: A roundish building with a roof with no internal supports. Each layer protrudes slightly beyond the previous layer until they meet in the center. Funerary Krater: Greek Geometric period Very unrealistic Simple geometric shapes The black space is filled in entirely willed with patterns and designs. Greek funeral rites are inscribed on the side of it. Ople (Pitcher): Orientalizing period A very open design Horizontal freezes of animals are very popular Plan and Exterior View of the Temple of Hera: Archaic period Temple is rectangular Built following the Doric order Peripteral: built with a single row of columns instead of walls. There are steps that lead to the temple on all sides. The roof does not remain since it was made of more perishable materials, such as wood. Dying Warrior, West Pediment: Archaic period The warrior is nude, but used to have bronze armor and clothing, but it was valuable and taken. The art makes the warrior look heroic. Has the features of the archaic period, like archaic smile. Is more developed than metropolitan Kouros Dying Warrior, East Pediment: Archaic period Created 10 years after the above piece, and already shows a large difference in art. Softer flesh, and more pathos/emotion. Looks more like a thinking and feeling human being than the older dying warrior Metropolitan Kouros: 600BCE Archaic period Very typical Egyptian pose. Has the stylized hair, almond eyes, and is naked. All very archaic style. Made at the very start of the Archaic period, one of the first ones. Peplos kore: Archaic period Has the archaic smile, the almond eyes, and stylized hair. It is female, so clothed. She probably once had a crown, was once painted She might have been a priestess or a goddess Exekias (potter and painter). Ajax and Achilles Playing a Game: Archaic period Black figure painting The scene is not displayed in any literature, and may just be part of Exekias’ imagination. There are a lot of details shown, and even some depth Kritios Boy Early classical period Very important work. First time that a sculptor shows how a human really stands. Musculature is more realistic, subtle, and has real shapes. Riace Warrior Early classical period Most Greek sculptures were made of bronze, but they were melted down because of the value of the metal. Most survive as roman, marble replicas. This statue survived because it was lost as sea in a shipwreck. Created using lost wax technique. Has a more chiseled and idealized look than possible in real life. No tailbone for astetics. Other materials inlaid for color contrast. Kallikrates and Iktinos. View and plan of the Parthenon: 446-432 BCE High classical period Doric temple. Perfect beauty is math and harmonic ratios. Temple is made to house cult statues and worship is done outside. Cult statue is contained within the stela. Recreation of Pheidias’ figure High classical period The original has vanished, but descriptions have allowed recreation East Pediment of the Parthenon: High classical period The statue in the middle is missing. How the clothes drape more realistically to the figures show that we are in the high classical period, not the early classical. Polykleitos, spear bearer (Doryphorus): 450- 440 BCE High classical period Polykleitos created the canon, a very important series of geometric proportions that defined the ideal human form. The dynamic and ready to move pose in another characteristic of high classical art. Nike Adjusting her sandal: Late classical period A surviving part of a destroyed temple Her tunic is slipping slighty Her wings are balancing her out as she leans forwards. Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos: Late classical period Female nudity for an important person was relatively new. There is less idealism than high classical There is the pronounced body crvature. Athena Attacking the Giants: Hellenistic Period Much more chaotic than the high classical Very dramatic with powerful poses and a sense of movement Athena is above the battle and supporting those around her Nike of Samothrace: 180BCE Hellenistic Period Strong contrast of light and dark. Her clothes are whipped by the wind. Shows the strong emotion of the Hellenistic period. Venus De Milo: Hellenistic Period Also called the Aphrodite of Melos. Continuation of the classical period, and relates back to Praxiteles, with the undressing. Her left hand holds the golden apple, and her right hand may have held her clothes. She has Hellenistic traits lke stepping into space and having a very curved body. Model and plan of Etruscan Temple: Etruscan art Their architecture had a very stong influence on the romans. None of their works survived because they preferred to use perishable materials, like mud bricks or wood. They made some pots to replicate their architecture. Their temples are very different from the greeks: different column types, rooftop sculptures, the pillars don’t go all the way arounf, there are only stairs on one side. Master sculptor Vulca, Apollo: Etruscan art Made of terracotta Was part of a temple Similar to archaic greek art. Burial Chamber, Tomb of the Reliefs: Etruscan art Had stone furniture, reliefs of everyday objects. Essentially a big dollhouse, since they believed that the dead kind of live on in these houses. Section 4: general review I will fill this section out after the review on Monday and repost this document.
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