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Exam 1 Study Guide-Biology 1362

by: Kavya Pasumarti

Exam 1 Study Guide-Biology 1362 biology 1362

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Kavya Pasumarti

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Entire study guide for Exam 1-Dr.Cheek
Biology 2
Dr. Ann Cheek
Study Guide
Biology, 1362
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kavya Pasumarti on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to biology 1362 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Ann Cheek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 177 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Exam 1 Preparation Guide Chapters 24 – 27, 19, and 11 Concepts Biodiversity – Chapters 24 - 27 List characteristics shared by Archaea & Bacteria, but not Eukarya They do not have nuclear envelopes, membrane bound organelles, and they have circular chromosomes List characteristics shared by Archaea & Eukarya, but not Bacteria They do not have peptidoglycan cell walls; Do not have a ribosome assembly sens to antibiotics List characteristics unique to each domain Eukarya: contain nuclear envelope and membrane-bound organelles Bacteria: contain peptidoglycan cell wall, membrane lipids: unbranched hc tail, initiator aa=formyl Met Archaea: growth at >100 degrees Celsius Name the 5 kingdoms within Domain Bacteria and be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the 5 kingdoms - PB(proteobacteria) - Chlamydia - Spiro (parasitic) - Cyano (parasitic) - GP (gram positive) Know the kingdom for each species of bacteria listed in lecture Cynaobacteria = Lichen Proteobacteria = Salmonella Spiro= Barrelia burgdorferi Gram positive = streptomyces Know characteristic that differentiates gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and which kingdoms belong to which category GN (gram-negative) all have LP membrane that surround cell wall - PB - Cyano - Chlamydia - Spiro GP lack the LP membrane that surround cell wall. Name the 4 supergroups within Domain Eukarya and be able to draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the supergroups - Animalia - Fungi - Plant - Charophyte algae Know the supergroup to which each single-celled eukaryote listed in lecture belongs Excavates Explain what the branching pattern on a phylogenetic tree indicates about evolutionary relationships An unknown shared trait  Compare phylogenetic trees to see if they represent the same or different relationships between groups  Use a phylogenetic tree to identify which groups descend from a more recent or more ancient common ancestor 1 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016  Define the ancestral characteristics that unite the Archaeplastida - alternation of generations - sporangia - gametangia - apical meristem - embryo containing spore  Define the shared derived traits that unite the plant kingdom Shared w/ green algae: chlorophyll A/B Shared w/ charophyte algae: - process for making cell wall - sperm w/ flagellae  Draw the cycle of alternation of generations – name each generation, indicate ploidy (1n or 2n) and type of cell division that produces the single cells that develop into the next generation 1. Sporophyte (2n) - First generation MEIOSIS 2. Spore (n) MITOSIS 3. Gametophyte (n) - Second generation MITOSIS 4. gamete (n)FERTILIZATION 5. zygote (2n) MITOSIS  Name the 7 phyla within Kingdom Plantae and be able to match the name of plants listed in lecture to the correct phylum - Liverworts - Mosses - Hornworts - Lycophytes - Monilophytes - Gymnosperms - Angiosperms  Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among the 7 plant phyla  Draw a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among these animal phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Chordata, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Athropoda  Be able to indicate on the phylogenetic tree which groups are part of the Bilateria, Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa, and Ecdysozoa  List ancestral characteristics common to all animals and choanoflagellates, distinguish animals from choanoflagellates by shared derived characteristic of animals Choanoflagellates are collared flagellates having a funnel shaped collar of interconnected microvilli at  the base of a flagellum.  They have a distinctive cell morphology characterized by an ovoid or spherical cell body 3–10 µm in  diameter with a single apical flagellum surrounded by a collar of 30–40 microvilli  List and map shared derived characteristics of Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Deuterostomia, and the protostomes onto a phylogenetic tree Characteristics of eumetazoans include true tissues organized into germ layers, the presence of  neurons, and an embryo that goes through a gastrula stage.  List the 4 protostome phyla discussed in lecture • Phylum Chordata (vertebrates and their kin) 2 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 • Phylum Echinodermata (sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, etc.) • Phylum Hemichordata (acorn worms and possibly graptolites) • Phylum Xenacoelomorpha (2 species of worm­like animals) [1]  List shared derived characteristics of Lophotrochozoa and list 2 phyla that belong to this group  Some animals, such as ectoprocts, develop a lophophore, a horseshoe­shaped crown of ciliated tentacles used for feeding. Other phyla, including annelids and mollusks, have a distinctive larval stage called a trochophore larva.  List shared derived characteristics of Ecdysozoa and 2 phyla that belong to this group The name Ecdysozoa (nematodes, arthropods, and other phyla) refers to animals that secrete external  skeletons (exoskeleton). As the animal grows, it molts the old exoskeleton and secretes a new, larger one, a process  called ecdysis. While named for this process, the clade is actually defined mainly by molecular evidence.  List the 4 classes of arthropods and be able to match the name of arthropods listed in class (and in the Life video) to the correct class - Chelicerata - Myriapoda - Crustacea - Insecta/Hexapoda Darwin and Natural Selection: Chapter 19  Describe Lyell’s ideas about geologic processes and inferences about Earth’s age Geologic processes operate today at same rate as the past. Inference: Earth must be at least 6000 y/o.  Compare & contrast Lamarck’s ideas vs Darwin’s idea regarding mechanisms of change in living organisms Lamarck: use v disuse Darwin: natural selection  Define descent with modification Refers to the passing on of traits from parent organisms to their.offspring  List and recognize examples of descent with modification in living organisms, both within and between species, and fossil organisms The evidence for this includes: • The correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes. The closest human relative, the  common chimpanzee, has near­identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found  in two separate chromosomes. The same is true of the more distant gorilla and orangutan. • The presence of a vestigial centromere. Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in  chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere The presence of vestigial telomeres. These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but  in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the middle  Define 2 conditions necessary for natural selection and give examples that satisfy each condition - variation in inherited traits - more offspring than environment can support  Evaluate conditions under which natural selection could occur  A. More organisms are born than can survive. 3 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016  B. Organisms vary in their characteristics, even within a species.  C. Variation is inherited.  D. Differences in reproduction and survival are due to variation among organisms.  Understand that natural selection acts on individuals, but causes changes in populations  Compare and contrast natural selection and artificial selection: conditions necessary, selection pressure, result Both- variation in heritable trait Artificial selection - trait desired by humans - desired trait increases Natural selection - selection pressure - trait desired by environment - favorable trait increases Chapters 11: Heredity  Define Mendel’s Law of segregation (in vocab list below)  Define Mendel’s Law of independent assortment (in vocab list below)  Monohybrid cross – use Punnett square to detail possible genotype of gametes and progeny and indicate progeny phenotypes cross b/w heterozygous parents for 1 character; 3:1  Dihybrid cross – use Punnett square to show possible genotypes of gametes and progeny and indicate progeny phenotype cross b/w heterozygous parents for 2 characters; 9:3:3:1  Identify dominant or recessive modes of inheritance from the notation (example: A is the dominant allele, a is the recessive allele)  Analyze a pedigree to determine whether a trait is dominant or recessive  Use information in a pedigree to determine genotype and calculate the probability of a dominant or recessive trait being inherited by a son or daughter  Use a Punnett square to figure out possible gamete genotype and progeny genotypes for autosomal traits  Use genotype and phenotype of parents to figure out genotype and phenotype of offspring (and vice versa)  Use correct notation for dominant, recessive, co-dominant, wild-type, mutant, sex-linked  Define gene, locus, and allele. Know how many alleles an individual diploid organism can have for each locus. Gene: the biological code of all traits Locus: location on a chromosome where a gene sits Allele: version of gene that codes for specific version of a character An individual can have 2 alleles, one from each parent, in each locus.  Explain why the number of alleles per gene in an individual can be different from the number of alleles per gene in a population An individual has one allele per gene in each chromosome, meaning the individual exhibits only one trait.In a population, many different alleles may exist for one gene due to variation in a population. Key Study Method: 4 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Solve practice problems: Chapter 11 Concept Check questions: 11.1 Q’s 1 – 3; 11.2 Q’s 1 – 3; and Test Your Understanding: Q1-4, 6-12, 16-18, 20 (VOCAB ON NEXT PAGE) 5 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Vocabulary Phylogenetic tree: is a branching diagram or  Giardia: an intestinal infection marked by  "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea and bouts of  among various biological species or other entities— watery diarrhea. Giardia infection is caused by a  their phylogeny microscopic parasite that is found worldwide,  Archaea: microorganisms that are similar to  especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe  bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but  water. radically different in molecular organization. They  Trypanosoma:  a genus of kinetoplastids (class  are now believed to constitute an ancient  Kinetoplastida), a monophyletic group of unicellular  intermediate group between the bacteria and  parasitic flagellate protozoa. eukaryotes. Plasmodium: a form within the life cycle of  Bacteria: a member of a large group of unicellular some simple organisms such as slime molds,  microorganisms that have cell walls but lack  typically consisting of a mass of naked protoplasm  organelles and an organized nucleus, including  containing many nuclei. some that can cause disease. Autotroph:  an organism that is able to form  Eukarya: The defining feature that sets  nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic  eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells (Bacteria substances such as carbon dioxide. and Archaea) is that they have membrane­bound  Heterotroph: an organism deriving its  organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains  nutritional requirements from complex organic  the genetic material, and is enclosed by the nuclear  substances. envelope. Saprotroph:  an organism that feeds on or  Cyanobacteria: also known as Cyanophyta, is  derives nourishment from decaying organic matter. a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through Archaeplastida: a major group of eukaryotes,  photosynthesis. comprising the red algae (Rhodophyta), the green  Excavata: are a supergroup of protists that are  algae and the land plants, together with a small  defined by an asymmetrical appearance with a  group of freshwater unicellular algae called  feeding groove that is "excavated" from one side glaucophytes. Stramenopile:  Any of numerous mostly aquatic Ancestral characteristic: trait state shared  organisms in the group Heterokonta, having  by two or more taxa zoospores or other swimming cells usually with a  Shared derived trait: trait state that  pair of flagella, one of which has brush­like  distinguishes a clade from other organisms extensions, and whose photosynthetic members  Apical meristem: tip of a plant shoot or root  have a distinctive form of chlorophyll that produces auxin and causes the shoot or root to  Alveolate: The alveolates ("with cavities")  is  increase in length. one of the major groups of protists, considered a  Sporangia: a receptacle in which asexual  clade and a superphylum  of Eukarya spores are formed. Plastid: any of a class of small organelles, such  Gametangia: a specialized organ or cell in  as chloroplasts, in the cytoplasm of plant cells,  which gametes are formed in algae, ferns, and some containing pigment or food. other plants. Diatom: a single­celled alga that has a cell  Sporophyte: the asexual and usually diploid  wall of silica. Many kinds are planktonic, and  phase, producing spores from which the  extensive fossil deposits have been found. gametophyte arises Dinoflagellate: a single­celled organism  Gametophyte:  the gamete­producing and  usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from  with two flagella, occurring in large numbers in  which the sporophyte arises marine plankton and also found in fresh water.  Some produce toxins that can accumulate in  Sporopollenin: a major component of the  tough outer (exine) walls of plant spores and pollen  shellfish, resulting in poisoning when eaten. grains 6 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Unikonta: motile cells having a single flagellum Hutton:  British geologist who proposed the  Metazoa: comprises all animals having the body  theory, which became a foundation for modern  composed of cells differentiated into tissues and  geology, that the Earth is shaped by slow, uniformly  organs and usually a digestive cavity lined with  acting processes including intrusion, erosion, and  specialized cells. sedimentation. Eumetazoa: is a clade comprising all major  Lyell:  British geologist whose Principles of  animal groups except sponges, placozoa, and  Geology (1830­1833) advocated uniformitarianism  several other obscure or extinct life forms, such as  rather than catastrophism and influenced Charles  Dickinsonia. Darwin's theory of evolution. Bilateria: a major group of animals, including the Lamarck:  French naturalist. He outlined his  majority of phyla but not sponges, cnidarians,  theory of organic evolution placozoans and ctenophores Cuvier:  French zoologist and statesman; founder  of the sciences of comparative anatomy and  Lophotrochozoa:  are a major grouping of  protostome animals. palaeontology Edysozoa: a group of protostome animals,  Extant:  still in existence; surviving. including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata,  Allele: one of two or more alternative forms of a  crustaceans, and myriapods), nematoda, and  gene that arise by mutation and are found at the  several smaller phyla. same place on a chromosome. Gastrulation: a phase early in the embryonic  Blending hypothesis:  The discredited theory development of most animals, during which the  that inheritance of traits from two parents produces  single­layered blastula is reorganized into a  offspring with characteristics that are intermediate  trilaminar ("three­layered") structure known as the  between those of the parents. gastrula. Particulate hypothesis: his states that Mycorrhizae: a fungus that grows in  parents pass on to their offspring, separate association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or  and distinct factors (genes) that are responsible for inherited trait mildly pathogenic relationship. Adaptation: a change or the process of change  Character:  the mental and moral qualities  by which an organism or species becomes better  distinctive to an individual. suited to its environment. Trait:  a genetically determined characteristic. Natural selection: the process whereby  organisms better adapted to their environment tend  P generation:  refers to the traits or genes that  are passed on from one parental generation to their  to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles  offspring. Darwin and is now believed to be the main process  F1 generation: the first filial generation of  that brings about evolution. offspring of distinctly different parental types. Artificial selection:  the intentional breeding  F2 generation: the result of a cross between  of plants or animals. It means the same thing as  two F1 individuals selective breeding. Law of segregation: states that allele pairs  Evolution: the process by which different kinds  separate or segregate during gamete formation, and  of living organisms are thought to have developed  randomly unite at fertilization. and diversified from earlier forms during the history  Law of independent assortment:  states of the earth. that allele pairs separate independently during the  Homology:  similarity in sequence of a protein or  formation of gametes. nucleic acid between organisms of the same or  Genotype: the genetic constitution of an  different species. individual organism. Analogy:  a comparison between two things,  Phenotype:  the set of observable  typically on the basis of their structure and for the  characteristics of an individual resulting from the  purpose of explanation or clarification. interaction of its genotype with the environment. Biogeography: the branch of biology that deals Dominant allele: An allele that expresses its  with the geographical distribution of plants and  phenotypic effect even when heterozygous with a  animals. recessive allele 7 BIOL 1362 Spring 2016 Recessive allele: Of, relating to, or being an  Punnett square: a diagram that is used to  allele that does not produce a characteristic effect  predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding  when present with a dominant allele. experiment. Heterozygous: refers to a pair of genes where  Monohybrid cross:  a mating between two  one is dominant and one is recessive — they're  individuals with different alleles at one genetic locus  different. of interest. Homozygous: a pair of matching alleles, which  Dihybrid cross: a cross between two different  are the two genes that control a particular trait. lines (varieties, strains) that differ in two observed  traits. 8


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