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Study Guide for Exam 1

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by: Erin Berch

Study Guide for Exam 1 TVR 124

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Film > TVR 124 > Study Guide for Exam 1
Erin Berch

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About this Document

This study guide covers the first 4 weeks of class with material about the Television System, Mass Communications and Other Forms, Perspectives of Mass Communication, and Uses and Gratifications. I...
Intro to Media Industries
Jack Powers
Study Guide
Media Industries, mass communication, television, Studio System
50 ?




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1 review
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"Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this..."
Cora Cummerata

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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Berch on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TVR 124 at Ithaca College taught by Jack Powers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media Industries in Film at Ithaca College.


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Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...

-Cora Cummerata


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Date Created: 02/21/16
Television Systems in the U.S. Networks:  1. ABC 2. CBS 3. NBC 4. FOX 5. CW Affiliates: individual television stations that air network programming in return for  payment from the networks  Required to show: o Early morning news o Soap operas  o Evening news o Prime time (8­11 Mon­Fri; 7­11 Sat­Sun) o Late night o Breaking news  o Sports on the weekends (if in the contract)  Stations need more programming to fill up the time slots that the networks don’t  use o Local news o Non­scripted shows o Buy reruns – syndication  Networks sell some commercial slots and pre­insert the commercials into their  content; they leave some empty slots for affiliates to sell   Affiliates make money by: 1. Sell space to networks 2. Sell empty commercial slots during network shows  3. Buy syndicated shows   Every station MUST show non­network programming from 7­8; they can air  shows that are not produced anymore Syndication: sells finished programming to affiliates and stations for reruns  Syndicators sell directly from studio to station, no network involved   Money in entertainment television comes from syndication   Very slim odds for a show to reach syndication   Half­hour program  100 episodes  o Equals 20 weeks of episodes o Each episode shown twice, a few shown 3 times o Usually see an episode 1­2 times per year  People don’t like to see it more than 2 times a year  Hour program  88 episodes  o Only airs Monday­Thursday (not Friday)  4 days a week (not 5) Off­Network Syndication   Not involving the networks  Studios want to be in syndication but also making new episodes First Run Syndication  Don’t show reruns  Shows new episodes  Network not involved  Sell the show directly to local stations, sell the concept to different countries  Occurs if the show is originally pitched to the networks, and they say no.  o Local stations still need programs so studios use first run syndication  Studios:   Make money by selling/leasing products to networks  All the money comes from advertisers   Each own cable stations and movie lots  Studio Parent Company Warner Bros.  Time Warner Disney Disney CBS­P CBS­C Paramount Viacom Sony Sony Fox NewsCorp Universal Comcast Cable  Networks  Syndication  Production Studios  2 ways to make money:  1. Sell commercial slots a. Producing in­house, then sell commercials  b. Syndication, then sell commercial slots c. Original content i. Pay the studio and produce in studio  ii. Smaller market for original content than on broadcast networks  2. Subscriptions a. Cable networks get a small percentage of your cable bill b. Carriage fee: how much a cable company pays to a cable network to show  the show.  c. Sometimes offers stand alone apps that you can pay monthly rather than  paying for cable  cord cutting  Television revenue is much higher than films  Cable networks sometimes act like broadcast networks, sometimes like local  affiliates  Cable networks get the product and give it to a cable company (Time Warner,  Comcast, etc.) Public  PBS Distributes to affiliates around the country  Local affiliates hold local fund raisers  local fundraising   Flagship station has to pay PBS to produce content  national fund raising  Corporate Sponsorship: corporations give some money to PBS  Taxes – a portion of federal income tax goes to supporting public programming –  to Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Make Money: 1. Local campaigning and fundraising 2. National campaigning and fundraisinf 3. Corporate sponsorship (and private foundations) 4. Taxes (only 5% of their money)  CPB gives money to NPR and PBS  Controversial because PBS and NPR sometimes report negative stories about the  government  They report stories the networks won’t   Still works with Hollywood studios Share: Percentage of the audience that was watching TV at the time  Rating: Number of households who tune in to watch the content Neilsen uses Designated Market Areas (DMA) for research  Neilsen is now researching “Social Content Rating” to follow TV­related posts on Twitter Ad Prices  Sunday Night Football ­ $637,330  Empire ­ $521,794  Big Bang Theory ­ $289,621  The Walking Dead ­ $502,500 Major Network Parent Company ABC Disney NBC NBC Universal, Comcast FOX News Corporation CBS CBS Corp CW CBS Corp, Time Warner Communication: Mass and Other Forms Elements in the Communication Process:   Source – initiates the process with a thought or idea that he or she wants to  transmit   Encoding – translate thoughts and ideas into a form that can be perceived   Message – the actual product the source encodes  Channel – the ways the message travels to the receiver  Decoding – translate the message into a form that has meaning for a receiver   Receiver – the target of the message  Feedback – the receiver’s responses that alter future messages from the source o Positive Feedback likes the communication in progress o Negative Feedback wants to change the communication o Delayed in Mass Communication  Noise – anything that interferes with the delivery of the message  o Physical noise o Psychological noise (not paying attention) o Physiological  o Semantic (when the message doesn’t make sense) SMCR The source encodes a thought using symbols into a  message, then it moves through a channel, then to the  receiver that decodes the message and provides feedback.  Major Mass Media:  Print Media  o Books  o Magazines o Newspapers  Electronic Media o TV o Movies o Radio  o Sound recordings o Video Games  o Internet Types of Communication  Intrapersonal Communication ­ thinking, talking to yourself; “within”  Interpersonal Communication ­ communication between 2 people (sometimes 3);  “across” or “between”; one person is interacting with another person o Machine Assisted Interpersonal Communication – combines  characteristics of interpersonal and mass communication situations; allows the source and receiver to be separated in time and space   At least two stages of encoding and decoding   Receiver can be individual, small group, or large group  Feedback immediate or delayed  Noise   Small Group Communication – usually to make a decision; usually only works  with a maximum of 4 people  Public Communication ­ one person talking to a group in real time  Mass Communication ­ similar to public, but uses media to transmit the  communication outside real time (to different locations) o “The process by which a complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at  larger, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences”  o Encoding is a multi­stage process o Audience in heterogeneous, geographically spread, anonymous, and self­ defined o Message termination (turning off) is easiest  o Feedback is difficult  o Mass Media: Channels used for mass communicaton o Media Vehicle: a single medium for mass media, such as newspaper or  TV network Common Characteristics of Mass Media:  Complex o “Requires a well­defined organizational structure characterized by  specialization, division of labor, and focused areas of responsibility”  Multiple gatekeepers at multiple levels o A person who has control over what material eventually reaches the public  Large operating expenses o Hundred of millions of dollars  Exist to make a profit o Sell audiences’ attention to advertisers   Highly competitive o To work in o Company vs. Company Future of Mass Media:   Segmentation o Audience members are becoming less “mass” and more selective o Time is scarce o Tons of media today to choose from  Convergence o “Process of coming together or uniting in a common interest or focus” o Corporate Convergence: the merging of companies with holdings in one  medium with companies that have assets in another media o Operation Convergence: when owners of several media properties in one  market combine their separate operations into a single effort o Device Convergence: combining the functions of 2 or 3 devices into 1  mechanism (ex: smartphone)  Disintermediation  o The process of delivering a product or service directly to the consumer  Perspectives on Mass Communication Functions of Mass Communication  Surveillance o News and information o Beware surveillance – media informs of us threats o Instrumental surveillance – transmission of information that is useful in  everyday life  o Credibility  Interpretation o Meaning and significance of events  o Columnists, commentary, critics, reviews, etc. o Stories that make it past gatekeepers have been judged more important  than others  Linkage ********************************************************** o THE MOST IMPORTANT o Provide a link between advertisers and consumers, the link is the content o A network sells access to their guaranteed audience o Another type of linkage occurs when geographically separated people are  connected through mass media  Transmission of values, Socialization o “The way an individual comes to adopt behavior and values of a group” o Learn appropriate/”normal” behavior o Ideas of what other experiences are like o How people are supposed to act and what values are important  Entertainment  o Make the audience feel entertained but still make a profit (with linkage) o Advertisers pay for product placement  Uses and Gratifications:   Cognition o The act of coming to know something o We need to be intellectually stimulated  o Something interests you more than other people  Diversion o Stimulation or seek relief from boredom o Relaxation, escape from pressures and problems  o Emotional release of pent­up emotions and energy; catharsis   Social Utility o Use the media to stay current in what’s going on so we can talk to others  Conversational currency – common ground for social  conversation; “many people use things they have read, seen, or  heard as topics for discussion with others”  Parasocial Relationships – “almost social relationships”; develop  feelings of kinship or friendship with media characters; you  imagine you are or would be friends with someone you never met  (Oprah, Jimmy Fallon, etc.); can be friendship or hatred   Withdrawal o Withdraw from society with media o “Create a barrier between themselves and other people” ****REMEMBER: ****Also study the material from Tuesday Feb. 23. ****Read the blog!!!! ****Know general material about App Inventor


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