Study Guide for Exam 1
Study Guide for Exam 1 TVR 124
Popular in Intro to Media Industries
Popular in Film
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Berch on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to TVR 124 at Ithaca College taught by Jack Powers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media Industries in Film at Ithaca College.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 1
Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/21/16
Television Systems in the U.S. Networks: 1. ABC 2. CBS 3. NBC 4. FOX 5. CW Affiliates: individual television stations that air network programming in return for payment from the networks Required to show: o Early morning news o Soap operas o Evening news o Prime time (811 MonFri; 711 SatSun) o Late night o Breaking news o Sports on the weekends (if in the contract) Stations need more programming to fill up the time slots that the networks don’t use o Local news o Nonscripted shows o Buy reruns – syndication Networks sell some commercial slots and preinsert the commercials into their content; they leave some empty slots for affiliates to sell Affiliates make money by: 1. Sell space to networks 2. Sell empty commercial slots during network shows 3. Buy syndicated shows Every station MUST show nonnetwork programming from 78; they can air shows that are not produced anymore Syndication: sells finished programming to affiliates and stations for reruns Syndicators sell directly from studio to station, no network involved Money in entertainment television comes from syndication Very slim odds for a show to reach syndication Halfhour program 100 episodes o Equals 20 weeks of episodes o Each episode shown twice, a few shown 3 times o Usually see an episode 12 times per year People don’t like to see it more than 2 times a year Hour program 88 episodes o Only airs MondayThursday (not Friday) 4 days a week (not 5) OffNetwork Syndication Not involving the networks Studios want to be in syndication but also making new episodes First Run Syndication Don’t show reruns Shows new episodes Network not involved Sell the show directly to local stations, sell the concept to different countries Occurs if the show is originally pitched to the networks, and they say no. o Local stations still need programs so studios use first run syndication Studios: Make money by selling/leasing products to networks All the money comes from advertisers Each own cable stations and movie lots Studio Parent Company Warner Bros. Time Warner Disney Disney CBSP CBSC Paramount Viacom Sony Sony Fox NewsCorp Universal Comcast Cable Networks Syndication Production Studios 2 ways to make money: 1. Sell commercial slots a. Producing inhouse, then sell commercials b. Syndication, then sell commercial slots c. Original content i. Pay the studio and produce in studio ii. Smaller market for original content than on broadcast networks 2. Subscriptions a. Cable networks get a small percentage of your cable bill b. Carriage fee: how much a cable company pays to a cable network to show the show. c. Sometimes offers stand alone apps that you can pay monthly rather than paying for cable cord cutting Television revenue is much higher than films Cable networks sometimes act like broadcast networks, sometimes like local affiliates Cable networks get the product and give it to a cable company (Time Warner, Comcast, etc.) Public PBS Distributes to affiliates around the country Local affiliates hold local fund raisers local fundraising Flagship station has to pay PBS to produce content national fund raising Corporate Sponsorship: corporations give some money to PBS Taxes – a portion of federal income tax goes to supporting public programming – to Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Make Money: 1. Local campaigning and fundraising 2. National campaigning and fundraisinf 3. Corporate sponsorship (and private foundations) 4. Taxes (only 5% of their money) CPB gives money to NPR and PBS Controversial because PBS and NPR sometimes report negative stories about the government They report stories the networks won’t Still works with Hollywood studios Share: Percentage of the audience that was watching TV at the time Rating: Number of households who tune in to watch the content Neilsen uses Designated Market Areas (DMA) for research Neilsen is now researching “Social Content Rating” to follow TVrelated posts on Twitter Ad Prices Sunday Night Football $637,330 Empire $521,794 Big Bang Theory $289,621 The Walking Dead $502,500 Major Network Parent Company ABC Disney NBC NBC Universal, Comcast FOX News Corporation CBS CBS Corp CW CBS Corp, Time Warner Communication: Mass and Other Forms Elements in the Communication Process: Source – initiates the process with a thought or idea that he or she wants to transmit Encoding – translate thoughts and ideas into a form that can be perceived Message – the actual product the source encodes Channel – the ways the message travels to the receiver Decoding – translate the message into a form that has meaning for a receiver Receiver – the target of the message Feedback – the receiver’s responses that alter future messages from the source o Positive Feedback likes the communication in progress o Negative Feedback wants to change the communication o Delayed in Mass Communication Noise – anything that interferes with the delivery of the message o Physical noise o Psychological noise (not paying attention) o Physiological o Semantic (when the message doesn’t make sense) SMCR The source encodes a thought using symbols into a message, then it moves through a channel, then to the receiver that decodes the message and provides feedback. Major Mass Media: Print Media o Books o Magazines o Newspapers Electronic Media o TV o Movies o Radio o Sound recordings o Video Games o Internet Types of Communication Intrapersonal Communication thinking, talking to yourself; “within” Interpersonal Communication communication between 2 people (sometimes 3); “across” or “between”; one person is interacting with another person o Machine Assisted Interpersonal Communication – combines characteristics of interpersonal and mass communication situations; allows the source and receiver to be separated in time and space At least two stages of encoding and decoding Receiver can be individual, small group, or large group Feedback immediate or delayed Noise Small Group Communication – usually to make a decision; usually only works with a maximum of 4 people Public Communication one person talking to a group in real time Mass Communication similar to public, but uses media to transmit the communication outside real time (to different locations) o “The process by which a complex organization with the aid of one or more machines produces and transmits public messages that are directed at larger, heterogeneous, and scattered audiences” o Encoding is a multistage process o Audience in heterogeneous, geographically spread, anonymous, and self defined o Message termination (turning off) is easiest o Feedback is difficult o Mass Media: Channels used for mass communicaton o Media Vehicle: a single medium for mass media, such as newspaper or TV network Common Characteristics of Mass Media: Complex o “Requires a welldefined organizational structure characterized by specialization, division of labor, and focused areas of responsibility” Multiple gatekeepers at multiple levels o A person who has control over what material eventually reaches the public Large operating expenses o Hundred of millions of dollars Exist to make a profit o Sell audiences’ attention to advertisers Highly competitive o To work in o Company vs. Company Future of Mass Media: Segmentation o Audience members are becoming less “mass” and more selective o Time is scarce o Tons of media today to choose from Convergence o “Process of coming together or uniting in a common interest or focus” o Corporate Convergence: the merging of companies with holdings in one medium with companies that have assets in another media o Operation Convergence: when owners of several media properties in one market combine their separate operations into a single effort o Device Convergence: combining the functions of 2 or 3 devices into 1 mechanism (ex: smartphone) Disintermediation o The process of delivering a product or service directly to the consumer Perspectives on Mass Communication Functions of Mass Communication Surveillance o News and information o Beware surveillance – media informs of us threats o Instrumental surveillance – transmission of information that is useful in everyday life o Credibility Interpretation o Meaning and significance of events o Columnists, commentary, critics, reviews, etc. o Stories that make it past gatekeepers have been judged more important than others Linkage ********************************************************** o THE MOST IMPORTANT o Provide a link between advertisers and consumers, the link is the content o A network sells access to their guaranteed audience o Another type of linkage occurs when geographically separated people are connected through mass media Transmission of values, Socialization o “The way an individual comes to adopt behavior and values of a group” o Learn appropriate/”normal” behavior o Ideas of what other experiences are like o How people are supposed to act and what values are important Entertainment o Make the audience feel entertained but still make a profit (with linkage) o Advertisers pay for product placement Uses and Gratifications: Cognition o The act of coming to know something o We need to be intellectually stimulated o Something interests you more than other people Diversion o Stimulation or seek relief from boredom o Relaxation, escape from pressures and problems o Emotional release of pentup emotions and energy; catharsis Social Utility o Use the media to stay current in what’s going on so we can talk to others Conversational currency – common ground for social conversation; “many people use things they have read, seen, or heard as topics for discussion with others” Parasocial Relationships – “almost social relationships”; develop feelings of kinship or friendship with media characters; you imagine you are or would be friends with someone you never met (Oprah, Jimmy Fallon, etc.); can be friendship or hatred Withdrawal o Withdraw from society with media o “Create a barrier between themselves and other people” ****REMEMBER: ****Also study the material from Tuesday Feb. 23. ****Read the blog!!!! ****Know general material about App Inventor
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'