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Bio 94 Burley Midterm 2

by: Karina Martin

Bio 94 Burley Midterm 2 05220

Marketplace > Biological Sciences > 05220 > Bio 94 Burley Midterm 2
Karina Martin
GPA 2.214

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These notes cover chapters 30-34 for Bio 94 with Burley. These chapters will be included in the midterm coming up this Thursday. Hope this helps!
Nancy Burley
Study Guide
Bio 94, Biology, Biology 94, Nancy Burley, Burley, midterm 2, bio 94 midterm, protists, fungi, origin of metazoans, animals
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karina Martin on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 05220 at a university taught by Nancy Burley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views.


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Date Created: 02/21/16
1 CHAPTER 30 ­ PROTISTS a Protists = first eukaryotes i Paraphyletic group  ii Mostly single­celled (but large) iii Membrane­bound nucleus and other organelles iv Cytoskeleton (protein fibers imbedded in cytoplasm) v Plastid  vi Earliest fossils ­ 2.1 by old vii 60,000 known species viiiMove by pseudopodia, flagella, cilia ix Other innovations: meiosis, multicellularity b Evolution of early eukaryotes i Ancestral protist 1 flexible cell surface (heterotrophs) 2 large size, cytoskeleton 3 nuclear envelope, (novel) flagellum, storage vacuoles ii Mitochondrion (aerobic respiration) 1 Two hypotheses: a mitochondrion evolved de novo b mitochondrion evolved by endosymbiosis of aerobic bacteria and anaerobic  protest 2 Protists acquired mitochondria from alpha­proteobacteria and chloroplasts from  cyanobacteria. iii Endosymbiosis ­ one organism lives inside another  1 Benefits of endosymbiosis   a to bacterium b  to protist host 2 Chloroplasts also evolved by endosymbiosis a Primary (“plant” and cyanobacterium) ­ one time b Secondary (protist and plant) – several iv Evidence about structure of mitochondria consistent with hypothesis of  endosymbiosis: 1 Size 2 Replication pattern 3 Ribosomes 4 2 membranes 5 Genome ­­ similar in form & gene sequences to bacteria c LGT in Bacteria i Lateral gene transfer – bacteria can acquire genes from each other and from the  environment d Other Protist Innovations i Structures for support and protection 1 Synapomorphies that identify monophyletic groups ii Sexual reproduction 1 meiosis and syngamy   2 Why Reproduce sexually? a Meiosis produces genetically more variable offspring b Advantageous in changing environments. c For example, (Some) offspring more resistant to parasites that infected  parents.  d Because parasites evolve faster than hosts, parasites constantly changing.   e Food scarcity, high population density linked to switching from asexual to  sexual reproduction iii Multicellularity 1 cell­to­cell communication, cell specialization, cell adhesion      e Ecological Roles i Food chain: producers & consumers  ii Parasites/pathogens  iii Mutualists  iv Decomposers      v Nutrition not reliable taxonomic trait 2 CHAPTER 31 – GREEN PLANTS a Plantae i land plants  1 Evolved from fresh­water algae 2 Monophyletic (clade)  3 Embryophytes a fertilization and early development take place on parent b zygote/embryo stays with parent  c doesn’t have to manufacture its own food or nutrition (gets that from mother  plant) 4 Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b, beta­carotene 5 Cell wall composition, chloroplasts synthesize & store starch, sperm structure,  etc. ii green algae 1 Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b, beta­carotene 2 Cell wall composition, chloroplasts synthesize & store starch, sperm structure,  etc. 3 Single cells to multicellular  4 Marine and freshwater forms  5 Paraphyletic  iii red algae iv glaucophyte algae b Green Algae and Land plants have synapormorphies linking one to the other: i Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll a and b beta­carotene ii Cell all composition, chloroplasts synthesize c History of Green Plants i Adaptive Radiation Timeline 1 No need to know actual dates, but know the order a Origin of Land Plants i First evidence of land plants: cuticle, spores, sporangia b Silurian­Devonian Explosion i Most major morphological innovations: stomata, vascular tissue, roots,  leaves c Carboniferous i Lycophytes and horsetails abundant; extensive coal­forming swaps d Gymnosperms Abundant i Both wet and dry environments blanketed with green plants for the first  time e Angiosperms Abundant i Diversification of flowering plants 2 Trends: a ↑ independence from water b ↑ size c ↑parental contribution to zygote 3 Fossil Record a Green algae fossils – 725 million years ago (mya)  b Land plants fossils – 475 mya c Several major adaptations evolved once d Transition to Land i In algae: 1 Spore a a single cell produced by meiosis (reduction division  diploid to haploid)  i can develop into multicellular adult  b haploid, not formed by fusion of gametes c spores can also be produced by mitosis d present in ancestors of extant green algae e on surface, have durable substance called sporopollenin 2 Sporopollenin a durable polymer, water­tight material that encases spores and pollen i an outer wall of spores and pollen b prevents drying out c protects reproductive cells from dehydration ii Protists already had spores and flagellated sperm (flagellated sperm in Charophyceae, flag spores in other green algae) iii Benefits to moving onto land 1 More sunlight and CO2 a More photosynthesis 2 There was dehydration, but land plants evolved iv Innovation of Land Plants 1 UV absorbing compounds flavonoids a Land plants have flavonoids  a group of plant metabolites thought to provide health benefits through cell signaling pathways and antioxidant effects 2 Cuticle – waxy coating on outermost cell layer  a Help resist drying  interferes with gas exchange 3 Stomata – structures on plant surface permitting gas exchange for photosynthesis  – pores with guard cells a Helps gas exchange occur for photosynthesis b When stomata closes (guard cells), water doesn’t escape  e Alternation of Generations i Only happens in plants ii Evolved once in land plants through convergent evolution iii Multicellular haploid stage (gametophyte) alternates with multicellular diploid stage  (sporophyte) 1 Sporophyte cannot make another sporophyte; the same goes for gametophytes 2 Meiosis and Mitosis are involved iv SPOROPHYTE (2N)   (MEIOSIS)  SPORES  (1N)(single celled)  (MITOSIS)   GAMETOPHYTE (1N)  (MITOSIS)  GAMETE 2X (1N)  (SYNGAMY)   ZYGOTE (2N)  (MITOSIS)  SPOROPHYTE (2N) v There are four diagrams we need to know 1 Non­Vascular Plants a Gametophyte dominant  b Homosporous c No cone d No flowers e No vascular tissue f Rhizoids, but no roots, stems, leaves  i Rhizoids: specialized root­like tissue, anchor gametophyte (but don’t  absorb water/minerals)     g Obtain water by diffusion (mostly) h No support against gravity i Small size, Resistant to desiccation, Need water for reproduction 2 Seedless Vascular Plants a Sporophyte dominant b Homosporous c No cone d No flowers e Vascular tissue: conducts water/solutes throughout plant; lignin provides  strength i allowed plants to defy gravity & improved water conduction 3 Gymnosperms a Sporophyte dominant b Seeds c Heterosporous d Cones e No flowers f Vascular tissue 4 Angiosperms a Sporophyte dominant b Heterosporous c No cones d Flowers e Vascular tissue f Seeds f Plant­Animal Coevolution i Coevolution: 2 interacting species influence each other’s adaptations on a sustained  basis ii Mutualistic coevolution 1 Both species benefit  a Angiosperms with pollinators iii Antagonistic coevolution (“arms race”)  1 Evolution of adaptations and counter­adaptations between competing species or  between predators and their prey  g Plant defenses against herbivory i Mechanical 1 Thorns, spines, prickles, etc.  ii Chemical  1 alkaloids, amines, diterpenoids, saponins, carenolides, phenols, curcubitacins,  canogenic glycosides 2 One organism’s toxin is another’s medicine… h Uses of Seed Plants i Ecosystem services:  1 O2, soil composition, water retention, primary producers, carbon cycle ii Food, fiber, fuel to humans iii Source of compounds for medicine & industry 3 CHAPTER 32 – FUNGI  a Intro to Fungi i Poor fossil record ii Came about ~ 1.5 billion years ago (bya) according to molecular evidence 1 Oldest fossils ~ 650 my iii There are 80,000 species that have been described b Traits/Characteristics i unicellular (“yeast”) or multicellular (mycelium composed of hyphae) ii Heterotrophic Extracellular digestion iii Cell walls – similar to plants but made of chitin (animals) iv Store food as glycogen (animals), not starch (plants) v Have (Chytrid) flagellum like animals vi Clade = Opisthokonta vii Hyphae = thin, branching filaments, divided by septa; pores allow flow of cytoplasm  between cells 1 Hyphae grow towards food; die back 2 High surface­to –volume ratio c Lifestyles i Decomposers ­­ (saprophytes) 1 Organisms that absorb dead plants 2 Digest lignin and cellulose 3 Cycle carbon into sugars (glucose) 4 Cycle N and minerals ii Parasites/predators 1 To plants 2 To animals 3 Frequency dependent selection 4 To protists 5 Other fungi iii There are lots of fungi that can kill animals 1 Most fungi types specialize/focus on one species iv Mutualists 1 mycorrhizae – association between fungi and living roots of most (> 90%)  vascular plants; d Types i Ectomycorrhizae 1 hyphae surround plant cells – (Nitrogen, some Phosphorous)   ii Endomycorrhizae (Arbuscular)   1 hyphae penetrate plant cells – (mostly Phosphorous)  e Uses i baking ii brewing iii antibiotics, drugs, steroids, etc. (penicillium, the Pill) iv commercial acids (citric acid in Coke – Aspegillus) v stinky cheeses (blue, Camembert) vi cheese substitutes, popcorn topping, mycroprotein (Ascomycotes) vii microremediation 4 CHAPTER 33 – ORIGIN OF METAZOANS a Metazoans i Multicellular animals 1 1.3+ million species b Traits of Metazoans i chemoorganoheterotrophs ii lack cell walls (instead have structural proteins)  iii development:  cleavage and gastrulation iv Diploid phase dominates life cycle v Sexual reproduction vi Nerves and muscles c Origins of Metazoans i Monophyletic ii Ancestor = colonial protest similar to extant choanoflagellates d When did they evolve? i Best estimate of origin of kingdom Animalia: 1 535 – widely accepted fossils 2 750 mya (recently discovered tiny fossils) 3 Approx. 1 bya (molecular evidence) ii How does molecular evidence give us a different estimate? 1 Molecular clock a hypothesis that amino acid base substitutions accumulate as a linear function of time. b Method to estimate divergence dates of lineages (when one lineage splits into 2)  i Valid when: # of nucleotide substitutions is a linear function of time ii Useful: when common ancestor of taxa of interest is not known  iii Reliability: when multiple clocks give similar dates c Molecular clock evidence indicates animal lineage originated 1+ bya 2 Mutations are random – but over long spans – may occur at “constant” rate e Cambrian Explosion i What happened?  1 The simultaneous appearance of metazoan phyla in fossil record and rapid diversification (starting ~543 mya)  2 Larger, more complex, FOSSILIZABLE animals suddenly appeared (tougher exterior, harder parts) ii Contributors 1 Increase in free oxygen (cynobacteria, 2.5 bya; eukaryotic algae, 1.8+ bya) 2 Colonization of new biotic niches a As some organism got larger, new biotic niches were created b Example: Parasites: 7 spp mites on 1 sp parrot 3 Intensification of co­evolutionary “arms races” among animals a previously only soft­bodied animals, probably not active hunters 4 Proliferation of hox genes a Specify axis and segment identity (location) within embryo to develop certain structure  5 Interacting factors  extensive positive feedback  iii Process whose result is reinforcing, accelerating the process. 5 CHAPTER 34 – ANIMALS a Metazoan diversity i 34 phyla of animals  ii Phylogeny: based on DNA sequences iii Survey 9 phyla iv 1.3 million named species b Major Steps in Metazoan Evolution i Step 1 1 Multicellularity, with cell­to­cell communication, increasing cell specialization a Sponges (Phylum: Porifera) i No plane of symmetry ii Lack nerves, muscles  iii Several cell types iv Suspension feeders v Sexual and asexual reproduction ii Step 2 1 Presence of germ layers (diploblasty) a Phylum: Cnidaria i 2 germ layers  ii First true Hox genes iii Nerves and muscle­like tissue  iv Most Cnidarians possess radial symmetry iii Step 3 1 Triploblasty a Triploblasts – 3 germ layers b Ectoderm – skin, nervous system c Endoderm – lining of digestive tract d Mesoderm – muscle, circulatory system, bone, organs e Cephalization f CNS – orient and move in one direction  g Coelom ­­ a fluid­filled body cavity completely lined by mesoderm  h 99% of extant animals iv Coelom categories 1 Acoelomates 2 Coelomates 3 Coelom reduced/lost several times v Hydrostatic skeleton  1 system of body support with body wall surrounding fluid under compression 2 Allows “worms” to move. vi Protostomes: 2 radiations 1 22 phyla  2 Most have “worm: design:  tube within tube  3 Broad radiation of mouth parts, feeding styles 4 Protostomes = “first mouth”   mouth 5 Deuterostomes = “second mouth”   anus


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