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February 4- 18 Notes

by: Gabriel Brooks

February 4- 18 Notes ARC 1013

Gabriel Brooks

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These notes will cover what will be in Exam 2.
Architecture Appreciation
William Jones
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Brooks on Sunday February 21, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARC 1013 at Mississippi State University taught by William Jones in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Architecture Appreciation in Architecture at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 02/21/16
Structure Forces on Architecture:  “dead” loads- forces from all the “immovable” elements of a building o Ex: weight of building materials, walls, forces, built-ins  “live” loads- forces from all the “movable” elements of a building o Ex: people, equipment, furniture, Resistance to Forces in Architecture  Compression- capacity to resist being pushed together  Tension- capacity to resist pulling apart *post and beam Types of Construction and Structural Systems Frame (Trabeated)  Wood  Steel o Tall Buildings o Light weight o Think Walls o Take veneers of brick stone, stucco, etc. Masonry (constructed)  Bric  Concrete  Stone o Heavy o Thick Walls o Costly o Good insulation Structural Failure 1. The planes crash into the building, damaging many other columns a. Some interior columns are also damaged, but buildings are still standing 2. Fire erupts instantly and is spread by jet fuel down the core 3. Temperature  Skidmore, Owings, and Merill (SOM) Freedom Tower *stone megaliths= big rocks  Menheirs- single stone standing upright  Dolmen- several stones supporting a stone slab  Hinges- circular ditches around which some megalithic monuments are arranged  Cromlech- a circle of stones  Stonehenge o Most famous of Neolithic monuments o Built – 3,0000- 2100 BC o Trabeation- post and lintel o Remarkable joinery: mortise and Three Types of Pyramids 1) Step 2) Bent a. Shekerus south pyramids, Danshurf, Egypt 3) Straight Sided a. Cheops’ Pyramid, Giza, Egypt  Ziggurats- stepped structures o Some of the oldest pyramids (2125 BC) o Built from mud bricks  Seven wonders of ancient world o Great pyramid o hanging gardens o temple of Artemis o statue of Zues o lighthouse of Alexandria o colossus of Rhodes o Mausoleum of Halicarnassus  First recorded architect o Egyptian named Imhotep o Imhotep- building maters of mud, wood, and stone o Astronomer, magician, and doctor o Worshipped as a good by Eygptians  Pyramids o Gold veneer found at the top o On West bank of Nile o Sculptural objects, sealed o Represented rays of the sun (GOD of SON)  Pyramids of Gizo o Grouping of pyramids o Cheops =great pyramids  Post Pyramids o After pyramids were looted, Kings built into sides of mountain o Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut  Most Famous Temples o Temple at Karnae of Amun o Temple of Luxor o Hypostyle hall- large space with flat rood supported by rows of columns. o Temple of Karnae- bud columns, papyrus bundles  Pyramids in Central America o Used as temples o Often added onto temples o Palace at Knossos 1700-1380 BC  Like a maze o o o o Forerunner to Post and beam (trabeated system)  Precursor to Greek arch  Lions Gate  Mycenae, CA 1300 BC  Post and lintel  Greeks will refine post and lintel  Triangular roof o Greek Architecture  Greeks united by language  Founded on:  Private property  Individual freedom (less than 35% of population)  Democracy  Colonnade- a series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature  Temples housed Gods- impressed non-greeks  The orders= 3 styles (details, melding, capitals) Doric= oldest, simplest, most massive, plain tops, close together, often no bases Ionic= smaller building and interiors, swirly tops Corinthian order= variation of ionic, more ornate tops, often interiors  Perfection of ionic order Temple of Athena Nike  Entasis slight convex bulge given to a column to offset the illusion that is thinner in the middle  Golden section  Agonal open meeting place/market  Perfection of Doric order Parthenon Structural Innovation  Barrel vault  Groin Vault o 2 barrel vault o Opens a space in 4 directions o Used to created huge interiors  In bathes  Gyms  Pont Du Gard (near Nimes, France) o 20-16 BC  Coliseum in Rome o Completed around 80 BC Pantheon (125 ACE)  pediment: triangle shape over colonnade o portico- a colonnaded space forming an entrance or vestibule  HADRIAN (117-138 AD) Constantine (AD 306-337)  Edict of Milan 313 AD  Proclaimed tolerance of all religions Early Christian Churches  These churches were based on timber roofed basilicas 1) Apse 2) Nave 3) Aisle  Pendentives- curved triangular panels  People seen Christ as “Light of the world”  Hagia Sophia o Pendentive- a spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the polygonal plan of its supporting structure S. Miniato and Monte  Florence, Italy o 1062-90 Pisa Cathedral and Companile  Pisa, Italy o 1063: 1089-1272  Structure is also ornament  NOT THICK WALLS- use buttresses at right angles to take collected pressure of ribbed vault or arch  Pointed arches signals gothic styles o English gothic- shown without cloisters o French gothic- shown without chapels  Notre Dome de Paris, 1163-1250  Chartess Cathedral. 1130-1260 o Pilgrimage church  Apse- semi-circular projection, containing an altar  Transept- the two arms in a “Latin cross” plan  Nave- soave beyond the transept crossing toward the West or “front” of the church


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