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UVM / Economics / EC 002 / Three ways of sustainable development.

Three ways of sustainable development.

Three ways of sustainable development.

Description

School: University of Vermont
Department: Economics
Course: World Food, Population and Development
Professor: Shoshanah inwood
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: CDAE, capitalism, development, and Globalization
Cost: 50
Name: CDAE 002: Test 1!!!!!!!
Description: These notes cover what will be on Thursday's exam.
Uploaded: 02/22/2016
20 Pages 3 Views 7 Unlocks
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World, Food, Population, and Sustainable Development: Test 1 Development and Capitalism


Three ways of sustainable development.



Development

“A process of improvement”

- Improve quality of life

- Promote higher standards of living

- End poverty and hunger

- Sustainable Development- 3 ways

o 1) Economic Growth

o 2) Human Development (through education, health, gender) o 3) Environmental Objectives

Capitalism

“An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are  controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state” - Encourages the production and sale of commodities

- People of Capitalism

o Capitalists: accumulation of profit

o Laborers: accumulation of wages

o Consumers: accumulation of goods

- How to make a profit

o Labor is considered a commodity to be purchased or rented o To make a profit, keep the money spent on input as low as possible  (minimize production costs)


What are the advantages of developing/globalizing the textile industry for developing countries?



We also discuss several other topics like What is used to test a theory?

Fashion: Consumption and Production

Commodity Chain

“Linkages connecting the many places of production and consumption in a system,  in order to make a commodity in the end” (gather resources, transform them into  goods, distribute them to consumers)

- Externalities: “a side effect or consequence of an industrial or commercial activity  that affects other parties without this being reflected in the cost of goods or  services”


Shaping human behavior.



We also discuss several other topics like Remains of Saints are supposed to have what?

o Can cause market failure if the price mechanism does not take into account  the full social and/or environmental costs/benefits of production and  consumption

▪ Positive externalities: extra money going to ipads for kids in school ▪ Negative externalities: pollution (not taking into account  

environmental benefits)

- Globalization: development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked  by free trade, free flow of capital, and having access to cheap foreign labor markets  o Interdependence: sense of equality in the markets

▪ “I depend on you, you depend on me”

o Interconnectedness: impacts on different societies  

▪ Global relations are asymmetrical

▪ Everything affects everything else

• Human and cultural activities have an impact on the Earth  

and the environment  

▪ Produces winners and losers

Development and Globalization

Maquiladoras  

Assembly plants in developing countries, often involving textiles, electronics, and auto  parts that can be assembled with low skilled workers Don't forget about the age old question of What drives the matter?

- Mexico

- What are the advantages of developing/globalizing the textile industry for  developing countries?

o There is job creation for low skilled workers

o The pay is higher than traditional agriculture

o There is potential to learn new technical skills

- What are the disadvantages?

o Advancement opportunities are limited for many workers

o There is NO accounting for environmental, mental, and physical health costs  o Cost ownership is foreign and the plants are mobile, they want the workers  to move the second they are asked  

- Working Class Laborer Necessities Don't forget about the age old question of Why Carbon is tetravalent?

o Mobility (be able to move whenever)

o Discipline (subject to new kinds)

o Resistance

o Segmentation (divided by race, ethnicity, age, and gender)

- Averages for Maquiladoras Workers

We also discuss several other topics like What are the different market conditions?

- Worker Segmentation

o Segmented by Race, Religion, Ethnicity, Age, Gender

o Ex) Segmentation by Race

▪ Filipino migrant workers came to Hawaii for many reasons, but  began to take Hawaiians’ jobs because Hawaii sugar planters  

preferred Filipinos over Hawaiians

• Pitted the two peoples against each other

• Factories could pay Filipinos less, also cheaper to import  

them to Hawaii

▪ Ex) Segmentation by Gender

• Factories tend to hire women over men

o Men tend to be the managers  

o “More likely to be rebellious, restless, more likely to  

unionize” so need position of power

• Women are “biologically suited for assembly work”

o More docile and willing to comply

o Girls below 30 are easier to train and adapt quicker  

(older and married women have too many obligations)

• Don’t have to pay women and children as much as men

Shaping Human Behavior

Structure vs. Agency  

- Structure: Recurrent patterned arrangements which influence or limit the choices  and opportunities available

o Individual lives are shaped by:

▪ Economic policies, trade agreements, job opportunities, the quality  of education, family, values, and culture  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the Basic terms of classical condition?

- Agency: Capacity of individuals to act independently and to make their own free  choices

o Based on individuals thoughts, actions, and power  

Globalizing Industries

Bangladesh: labor costs: $0.22…US: $7.47

Workplace conditions in a sweatshop: low wages, long  

work hours, health and safety hazards, bad discipline,  

no job security, physical abuse, no voice in  

government, child labor

Cotton

Environmental Impacts

- Water

o Needs 7,000-29,000 liters of water per kg of cotton, compared to wheat that  only needs 900 l/kg

o Channel Irrigation (taking from rivers) or Overhead Irrigation

o Top cotton producing countries are all going through fresh water withdrawal - Pesticides

o Cotton pesticides are 25% of the global insecticide market

o Impact of freshwater ecosystems

▪ Drift and Soil Contamination lead to surface water contamination ▪ Runoff and drainage water lead to groundwater contamination

Uzbekistan & Cotton Production

- Economic Impacts

o Unemployment

o Loss of fishing industry leads to no jobs

▪ Leads to no reinvestment into the society  

- Social Impacts

o Children being forced into labor rather than going to school

o Many are affected with diseases caused by pesticides

- Political Impacts

o Government controls the market (dictatorship)

o Concentration of wealth in the elite of business and government o No freedom of press or information

- Environmental Impacts

o ARAL SEA!!! Completely dried out

▪ Contaminated water, air

o Pesticides lead to birth defects

Critical Thinking and Paradigms of Development

Paradigms

- A set of simplifying assumptions and informal theories that describe how the world  works and which provides the frame of reference through which the world is viewed  - “A frame of reference, A world view”

Critical Thinking: Essential for understanding, evaluation, and evolving paradigms - Interpretation

- Analysis

- Inference

- Evaluation

- Explanation

- Self-Regulation

- Difference between Fact and Opinion

o Fact: can be proven true

o Opinion: a statement of a person’s feelings (can come from the facts) ▪ Doesn’t have to be true

- What are we doing with critical thinking?

o Considering fundamental questions and problems

o Gathering and accessing relevant information

o Coming to well-reasoned conclusions

o Promoting open-minded questioning (also assessing other viewpoints) - Critical thinking does not mean that we all come to the same conclusions! - When critically evaluating…

o What is the author’s POV?

o What is the basis for the argument?

o Are there alternative views?

o What are the language and sensory elements?

Who is controlling our information?

- Misinformation: false information that is often deliberately intended to deceive  someone

o Ways to misinform: fabrication, oversimplification/demonization,

manipulation, questioning  

- 90% of our media is controlled by 6 companies

o GE: Comcast, NBC, Universal Pictures, Focus Features

o NEWSCORP: FOX, Wall Street Journal, New York Post

o DISNEY: ABC, ESPN, Pixar, Miramax, Marvel Studios  

o VIACOM: MTV, Nick JR, BET, CMT, Paramount Pictures

o TIME WARNER: CNN, HBO, TIME, Warner Bros

o CBS: Showtime, Smithsonian Channel, NFL.com, Jeopardy, 60 Minutes - Filter Bubble  

o http://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter_bubbles  

o When you are online, you are being tracked 24/7

o We don’t get exposed to information that isn’t tailored to us and what the  computer thinks we like

▪ Therefore, don’t get both sides of an argument

▪ Impacts your paradigm

Important things to know about Paradigms  

- Within a paradigm, it is hard to see the other views

- They strongly influence our decisions

- They can change over time

o “A paradigm shift”

▪ Often caused by crisis

Examples of Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts

- 9/11

o War on terror

o Politics of fear

o How did the government respond and how did we judge the government for  that?

o Shifted our thinking about first responders and how well we care about them ▪ Needed a bill to cover health care costs for 9/11 first  

responders…finally passed after 14 years

- Hurricane Katrina

o Proved the importance of Wetlands and Restoration (every 40 minutes, Gulf  Coast loses a football field of land)

o Shifted the paradigm from reducing risk ???? BETTER PLANNING ▪ People left Louisiana on buses without names written down, after the  fact families and friends couldn’t find each other

▪ Better Planning seen in Boston Bombing

• Google Tracker instituted immediately to see if people were  

okay and where they were

o Families and friends could find eachother  

- 1929 St. Valentines Day Massacre

o North Side Irish (Bugs Morgan) gang vs. South Side Italian (Al Capone)  fighting to take control of crime in Chicago

o Many murdered

o Led to gun control outcry

▪ National Firearms Act (NFA): statutory excise tax on manufacture  and transfer of certain firearms

- 2008 Presidential Race

o First African American President

▪ How does America feel about this? How will we react?

- Ray Anderson

o Owner of interface Carpets

o Environmental effects of carpets: petroleum based products, not sustainable o Customers would ask him what he was doing to help the environment, he  couldn’t give an answer, led to his Paradigm Shift

▪ Began creating sustainable products

▪ By 2020, wants zero carbon footprint

- So, what leads to paradigms changing?

o Family, Peers, Friends, Personal experience, Educational systems, Economic  opportunity, Literature, Art, Religion, Culture, Geography, Government,  Crisis, Technology

Sustainability and Resilience

Resilience: How to help vulnerable people, organizations, and systems persist (ways to  manage the imbalanced world)

Sustainability: aims to put the world back in balance  

The world has gone through a paradigm shift…Sustainability ???? Resilience  1980

Economy, Environmental, Society Issues are  

non-overlapping (can be working on one,  

but not the other)

Next: Venn-Diagram View: NOW: SYSTEMS VIEW Coexistence, but not all Simultaneous Development!

Systems View shows Resilience  

- Ability to adapt, recover from shocks in a manner that reduces vulnerability and  facilitates growth

o Persist, Adapt, Transform

Ways to be resilient…

Economic and Human Development

- GNL: Gross National Income: sum of a nation’s gross domestic product (GDP) plus  net income from overseas

o GDP: monetary value of all the finished goods and services produced within  a country’s borders in a specific time period

- Income per Capita: measures the amount of money that’s earned per person in a  defined area

- Distribution of Wealth

o Low: 60% 85% of the world’s population o Middle: 25% lives in low and middle-income o High: 15% countries

- Human Development Index (HDI): measures and ranks countries’ levels of social  and economic development based on

o Life expectancy at birth

o Mean years of schooling

o Expected years of schooling

o Gross national income per capita

- Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index: uses different factors to determine poverty  beyond income-based lists

- Gender Development Index: measures gender gaps by accounting for disparities  between women and men in three dimensions

o Health

o Knowledge

o Standard of Living

- Inequality

o Equality: Sameness

▪ Giving everyone the same thing…it only works if everyone starts  from the same place

o Equity: Fairness

▪ Access to the same opportunities…must first ensure equity before we  can enjoy equality

- Income Inequality

o How evenly or unevenly income is distributed in society

o Gini Coefficient: measure of statistical dispersion intended to show income  distribution of a nation’s resident  

▪ Most common use to measure inequality

▪ Shows the gap between the rich and the poor

- Impacts of Inequality

o Decreased levels of trust

o Increased rates of mental illness

o Decreased life expectancy  

o Increased infant mortality

o Decreased children’s education

o Increased teen births

o Increased homicide

o Increased imprisonment rates

o Decreased social mobility (ability to move up the ladder)

- Minimum Wage vs. Living Wage

o Minimum Wage: minimum hourly wage an employer can pay (lowest  amount you need to keep your family from slipping)

o Living Wage: income needed for a family’s basic needs…enables the  working poor to achieve financial independence while maintaining housing  and food security

- US Restaurant Industry

o 980,000 locations

o $660.5 billion in sales in 2013

o 13.1 million employees (10% of the workforce)

▪ 12.3 million of these use food stamps 2x more than ‘normal’ US  workers, and are 3x more likely to be below the poverty line

- Trying to Help this Inequality

o Warriors: Resistance

▪ Protect and contest/challenge inequality

o Builders: Reconstruction

▪ Seek alternative approaches and models

o Weavers: Connection

▪ Build links for social movements

Eras of Development

Basic Definitions

- Race: a group of people who have differences and similarities in biological traits  deemed to be socially significant by society

- Sex: biological identity as male or female

- Gender: social differences based on definition of masculinity and femininity  - Ethnicity: shared culture and way of life (language, religion)

- Class: education, income, and occupation

Era 1: Gatherer/Hunter Societies

Characteristics

- Small bands of people

- Low population densities (people/unit of land)

- Highly mobile and nomadic

- Ecological knowledge

- Wide diet (but a few sources of food are disproportionally important) - Community Interconnectedness

- Dominant Culture

o Individual autonomy

o Non-directive child rearing methods  

▪ Self directed play and exploration

o Reverse dominance and nonviolence

o Sharing and cooperation

o Consensual decision making

o Equality of individuals  

- Egalitarian: shared food and land resources

o There is no concept as food as a commodity

o Land resources are occupied based on use

o Redistribution of wealth

Indigenous Peoples (in general)

- Descended from pre-colonial/pre-invasion inhabitants  

- Close tie to land culturally and economically  

- Suffer from economic and political marginalization as a minority - Groups are considered Indigenous if they define themselves that way!  Land was IMPORTANT

- SOIL!

o “Don’t treat your soil like dirt!”  

o Basis for food, feed, medicines, ecosystem services, fuel…

o It’s alive

▪ Organisms don’t just live in the soil, they are a component of it

• Alter the appearance of soil as a result of their biochemical  

and physical processes

▪ Antibiotics come from soil fungus

o One cup of coil holds as many bacteria as there are people

- Soil leads to the shift into agriculture…

Era 2: Early Agriculture “The Rise and Fall of Civilization” Food Foraging: oldest type of human adaptation

- Residence: requires people that move their residence according to changing food  sources

- Group sizes were kept small

- Carrying Capacity: the number of people that the available resources can support at  a given level of food-getting techniques

Pastoralism

- Relying on raising and managing herds of domesticated migratory animals - AKA “Animal Husbandry”: the care, tending, and use of animals  - Usually nomadic, moving as needed to provide for the animals

Horticulture (Crop Cultivation)

- The art or practice of garden cultivation and management

- Gardeners working with simple hand tools

- Ex) Swidden Farming

o Shifting cultivation

o Technique of rotational farming in which land is cleared for cultivation (by  burning) and then left to regenerate after a few years)

Agriculture

- Practice of farming that includes the cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops  and the rearing of animals to provide food and other products

- Cultivation that involves using technology other than hand tools o Irrigation, fertilizers, eventually pesticides

- Grows a surplus of food rather than providing for only what you need at that time - Why would hunter and gathering societies transition into agriculture? o Theories of Emergence

▪ Ratchet Effect: one thing leads to another

▪ Increased population ???? abuse of less favorable habitats

▪ Less favorable habitats ???? increased effort to get food

▪ Increased effort to get food ???? increased effort to intensify locally  available food (easier)

▪ Increased food production effort ???? environmental modifications,  selection of the best-suited species…Agriculture!

o Plants and animals domesticated ???? Food surplus and food storage ???? Large,  dense and sedentary people (Stratified societies) ???? New technology (ocean  going ships, steel, guns)

- Three Core Areas of Agricultural Development

o Mesopotamia “The Fertile Crescent” & The Sumarians

▪ By 6,000 BC settled agriculture was the norm in the region

▪ Wild, Ancient Grains

• Wheat and barley grew in high densities

▪ Large legumes, large domesticated mammals  

▪ Early domesticated crops

• Able to germinate easily

• Produced large seeds

• Quick growing

• Dry season tolerance

• Self-pollinating

▪ Had a difficult environment

• Low rainfall, high summer temperatures, many drylands and  

swamps, irregular flooding

▪ 5,000 BC-2,370 BC

• Developed agricultural surplus

• Large Cities

• New technologies

o Irrigation, written language, wheeled carts

• Social Stratification became depended upon

o Elites, artisans, farmers, Armies  

o Power determined wealth

• Efforts to maintain surplus of food  

o Brought more land under cultivation

▪ Led to erosion and siltation, waterlogging and  

salinization

o Switched from wheat to barley (because barely is  

more tolerant)

• Sumarians fell to an invading army in 2370 BC

(European agriculture developed from the Fertile Crescent, so it was not one of  the core areas. Settled agriculture here began around 3,000/2,000 BC)

o China

▪ Millet domesticated 6,000 BC: Rice domesticated 5,000 BC ▪ 4,000 BC wet rice varieties developed (paddy rice)

▪ Later

• Aquaculture

• Soybeans (1,100 BC)

o MesoAmerica & The Mayans

▪ Settled Communities around 2,000 BC, agriculture 4,500 BC ▪ Region was slow to develop agriculture

• Leads to lots of variation

▪ What is MesoAmerica?

• Southern Mexico

• Guatemala

• Belize

• Parts of Honduras

• El Salvador

▪ MAIZE (Corn)

• Developed from teosinte

• Wild Vs. Domesticated  

▪ Chinampas  

• Small, rectangular areas of fertile arable land to grow crops  on the shallow lake beds

• Opposite of monocultures

o Multiple crops between each raised bed

o RESILIENT

- Domesticated Animals

o Selectively bred in captivity and modified from wild ancestors

o Used by humans who control the animal’s breeding and food supply - Seed Saving

o “Heirloom seeds”: any garden plant that has a history of being passed down  within a family

o Centuries ago, there were many varieties of each vegetable, now there is less  than 20 for each

• Of the 7,000 crop species domesticated by humas:

o 30 species provide 90% of the global caloric intake

o 3 provide more than 50% of the intake (wheat,  

rice, and corn)

o Why do seeds matter today?

o Cultural connections

o Agricultural biodiversity

o Food security

o Population

o Hunger

o Production Systems

o Food Access

- World Population Growth

o How are we going to feed everyone?

o In 2008 the world went from majority rural to majority urban

- Agriculture

o Subsistence Agriculture

▪ Farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their  families

▪ Small scale sustainable farms

o Farming for the Market

▪ Growing to sell

Era 3: Colonialism & Plantation Agriculture

Colonialism: the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over  another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically China

- 1400s China was the richest in the world

- Epicenter of trade ???? social, economic, political systems

o Pottery and silk

- Don’t have high levels of consumption

- 1400s-1500s…Europe’s economic power grew and China declined (power shift) Europe

- Columbus

o Explorer or Merchant Sailor?

o Working for the Spanish, went on the expedition in order to bring back gold  for the King and Queen

o 1st found land: Hispaniola  

▪ Now known as Haiti/Dominican Republic

▪ Indigenous people: Arawaks

• Helped when ship came, “never said no” –Columbus  

▪ Couldn’t find gold, but needed to bring something back to King and  Queen

• Enslaved the Arawaks

• Sold 10-11 aged girls to the sex trade

o Second Expedition: Back to Hispaniola

▪ Sent the Arawaks into mines to find gold, had a quota each day and  if it wasn’t reached, their arms/legs were cut off

▪ Arawaks had to stop having children because they didn’t see their  spouse for 8-10 months, too tired to procreate when together, and  

decided that mass suicide and aborting children would be better than  living in torture  

o His Impact

▪ 1496: 2-8 million people

▪ 1514: 27,000 people

▪ 1542: 200 people

▪ In one century, 95-98% of the indigenous population died

- How do we know all of this?

o Bartolome de las Casas

▪ Witnessed Hispaniola

▪ Started as a plantation owner, realized how horrible what he was  doing was, freed his slaves  

- European Colonialism  

o (policy and practice of a power extending control over weaker peoples or  areas)

o 1500s: Spain and Portugal

o 1600s: British and French

o Tendencies during this period

▪ Grab for land

▪ Movement of people

• Slaves, indentured servants

▪ Transfer of wealth

• Natural resources  

o Spanish in Americas (all they want is silver and gold)

• Economic Transformation

o Dutch East India Company

Plantation Agriculture: large area of land that is privately or government owned and  employs resident labor to cultivate a single commercial crop  

- Plantation: big field of a monocrop

o Need large acreage

o Reliance on one export crop

o Cheap and abundant labor

- Sugar

o Sugar Cane Sugar Beets

▪ 80% 20%

o Why was sugar desirable?

▪ Could use unskilled labor

▪ Can be gorwn on a large scale

▪ Lucrative and growing markets in Europe, so why not?

▪ Used in addictive things! (Coffee, deserts…)

o Who benefits from sugar?

▪ Planters, slavers, shippers, bankers, refiners, grocers, government  officials  

Sugar led to the Triangle Trade  

- Middle Passage: “Slaves to the Americas”

o Slaves held 23 inches apart

o Takes 6 weeks to 3 months  

- Slavery

AFRICA EUROPE

Seen as subordinate family members Seen as private property Land was common, so the more family Needed people to work the land members, the more land to make money

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