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Land Use Planning Review

by: Maddy Moldenhauer

Land Use Planning Review GPY 310

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Geography > GPY 310 > Land Use Planning Review
Maddy Moldenhauer
GPA 3.9

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Mid Term Review
Land Use Planning
Study Guide
Land Use, Planning
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddy Moldenhauer on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GPY 310 at Grand Valley State University taught by Houser in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Land Use Planning in Geography at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Land Use Planning Review VOCABULARY Use – what is supposed to occur on the land, or the land’s purposed  Ex. Residential = Homes/sleep, Commercial = business/sale, etc Land use – Anything we “Do” with land, any activity we carry out there, or anything we build there Biodiversity – incorporating nature into our communities in a way that sustains the ecosystem Ecosystem services – the services which land (nature) offers and which helps sustain human life Demography –  The study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease, which illustrate the changing structure of human populations.  How many people are expected to leave the region MSA – Metropolitan Statistical Area  Geographic cluster of population including a city of at least 50,000 people or urbanized area of at least 100,000 people.  83.6% of the U.S. population lives in MSAs but comprise roughly 19% of its land surface Urban area – location characterized by high human population density and human built features Urbanization – the growth of rural to urban areas Common law – certain customs about what is right and wrong that were inherited from old England and is the basis for our law system today As of right projects – acting within zoning ordinances and regulations Baby boom – period march by a greatly increased birth rate Baby boomer – person who was born between 1946-1964 Generation X – “baby bust generation” Generation Y – “echo boomer” or the “millennial generation” Millennials – person reaching young adulthood around the year 2000 Economies of agglomeration – used in urban economics to describe the benefits that firms obtain by locating near each other (agglomerating) Feudal Feudalism –  Political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century, based on the “holding” (use and control) of land by permission of the king in exchange for service.  system where the nobility had peasants (serfs) that obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce in exchange for protection Capitalism –  An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development occurs through the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.  system where the goal is to optimize profit and use the land to make the most money Socialism -  political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole Communism – (totalitarian)  A theoretical economic system characterized by the collective ownership of property and by the organization of labor for the common advantage of all members.  system for the good of everyone and distribute the wealth in society for everyone to benefit Commons – the fields Usufruct - the right to enjoy the use and advantages of another's property short of the destruction or waste of its substance. Municipal charter – a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town Enclosure laws – (1801)  the enclosure of land through the mutual agreement of landowners that began in the 16 century  enclosures were regulated by parliament  separate act of enclosure was required for each village  Positive Effects: less land wastage, farmers encouraged to experiment (crop rotation), machinery could be used on larger plots, animals diseases less spreadable, less labor needed to tend crops and animals on compact farms Laissez Faire –  the world of the free market is regulated within itself by certain “natural laws” such as supply and demand  all persons should follow their own enlightened self-interest and the sum of all the people will add up to the general welfare and liberty of all  government should do as little as possible and should confine itself to preserving security of life and property Market forces – economic factors affecting the price, demand, and availability of a product/service Free market – market economy based on supply and demand with limited gov’t control Libertarian – value personal liberty, economic freedom, and have a skepticism of governmental power Economic system – system of production, resource allocation, exchange, and distribution of goods and services in a society or a given geographic area Private property - legal designation for the ownership of property (non- governmental) Externalities – a side effect/consequence of an industrial or commercial activity that affects other parties w/o this being reflected in the cost of the goods or services involved  Ex. A nuisance or pollution from a factory Adam Smith/Wealth of Nations/“Invisible Hand” – See Whos Who Social equity – state in which all people within a specific society have the same status in certain respects Tragedy of the Commons – See Garret Hardin Whos Who WHO’s WHO – Know People & Quotes Adam Smith – 1776  “The Wealth of Nations” & “laissez-faire” economics  The true free market is run by an invisible hand – where the gov’t doesn’t interfere but only assists the people as needed  People should act in regard to their own interest to create a functional economic system  Act out of self interest Jean Jacques Rousseau – 1754  “On the Origin of the Inequality of Mankind”  “THE first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground, bethought himself of saying This is mine, and found people simple enough to believe him, was the real founder of civil society.” John Locke – 1680  “Two Treatises of Government”  Wrote about “natural rights” such as the rights to life, liberty and property Ralph Waldo Emerson –  “To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing.”  “If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore. . . ” (Essay on Nature, 1936) Aldo Leopold –  “A conservationist is one who is humbly aware that with each stroke [of the axe] he is writing his signature on the face of the land.”  “The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants, and animals, or collectively: the land.”  Leopold emphasized the need for a “land ethic.”  “Ethical behavior is doing the right thing when no one else is watching- even when doing the wrong thing is legal.”  “We abuse land because we see it as a commodity belonging to us. When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.” John Nolen – (1932)  “The future city will be spread out, will be regional, it will be the natural product of the good road, electricity, the telephone and the radio, combined with the growing desire to live a more natural, biological life under pleasanter and more natural conditions.” James Howard Kunstler – “The Geography of Nowhere” (1994)  The rise and decline of Americas man-made landscape  tragic landscape of highway strips, parking lots, housing tracts, mega-malls, junked cities, and ravaged countryside that makes up the everyday environment where most Americans live and work  “[Suburban sprawl] is the greatest misallocation of resources in the history of the world.” Joel Garreau – “edge city” David Owen –  “Green Manhattan: Everywhere should be more like New York” (2004)  “[The car is] the great destroyer of urban life” Garrett Hardin –  Creator of the “tragedy of the commons” that pointed out that the pastures of England were “protected from ruin by limiting each tenant to a fixed number of animals.”  Says the commons were “managed”  Refers to the alleged destruction of common pastures in England as a result of overgrazing, each tenant maximizing his gain by grazing as many animals as possible and ignoring the long-term impact of overgrazing. Charles M. Haar (from Platt, Ch.8) – planning law professor  “For the most part, zoning has preceded planning in the communities which now provide for the latter activity, and indeed, nearly one-half the cities with comprehensive zoning ordinances have not adopted master plans at all.” Sense of place – when a place has a strong identity and character that is deeply felt by local inhabitants Central Cities – city centralized within largest development Edge cities – city on the outskirts of the big city CBD’s – “Central Business Districts” centralized business areas that are contain within the city Core and hinterland – Central and surrounding outer area of a city Infrastructure – the basic physical and organizational framework or features of a system Shrinking city –  a city that has experienced population loss, employment decline and social problems as symptoms of a structural crisis  Washington D.C. (1990-1996) = 9,000 residents/year Zombie suburb – suburb filled with empty lots where houses are needing to be constructed Climate Change— greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere 5 “D’s” and walkability  Density  Diversity of land uses  Design (connectedness of streets)  Destination accessibility (the more centralized/downtown the better)  Distance to transit (<.25mi) Car dependent suburbs – the outer suburbs rely on car transportation to take them to the city, shops/stores, and other localities that are spread out due to sprawl Subsidize – to help someone pay for the costs of something Public transit – public transportation system Exclusionary zoning – the utilization of zoning ordinances to exclude certain types of people from a given community Energy policy in the U.S. vs. Europe  Abundance of reserves in U.S. allows gas and energy to come at cheap prices  Europe is more expensive and uses less energy Public Housing policy in the U.S. vs. Europe –  Europe has a large share of households that are publicly funded housing, socioeconomic mix  Generally racially segregated in U.S. Transportation policy in the U.S. vs. Europe –  Americans drive more frequently, shorter distances  Europe generally relies more on public transport and stay out more Tax policy in the U.S. vs. Europe –  U.S. revenue = Income Tax  Europe Revenue = Tax on consumption of goods and services Policies that contribute to sprawl  Parking v. transit  Superstores  Industry Mortgage interest deduction – Would it cause sprawl? Highway funding and dedicated fund –  U.S. spent dramatically more funds on highways than public transport = sprawl  Taxing of people who use highway facilities and services Gas subsidy –  “bargain basement” fuel prices drive U.S. consumers to buy more and bigger vehicles and use more intensively than foreign consumers Hypermarket – supermarkets (lead to sprawl) Producer subsidy equivalent (PSE) – the annual monetary value of gross transfers from consumers and taxpayers to support agricultural producers U.S.= $67/hectare Europe=$761/hectare Intra urban – within an urban area Ominibus – term used to describe the several bus lines that annexed surrounding Philadelphia Suburbanization - The growth of the edges of the urbanized area at a rate faster than that of the already developed interior. DATES to KNOW Induced transit – the process of  the Walking-Horsecar era eliminating existing traffic lanes and (1800-1890) parking spaces gradually, forcing more drivers to use less environmentally damaging alternatives  the Electric Streetcar Era (1890-1920) Rocky Mountain Institute –  RMI is 4,000 sq. ft. building, super insulated, passive solar structure with curving 16in thick walls  Recreational Automobile Era  Innovative features of chutes for recyclable materials and curtain wall construction with exceptional shading and insulating properties. New York City as a green utopia  Historical accidents  NY arose on small island surrounding water acted as a physical restraint to outward expansion  Street plan was created by merchants primarily focused on economic efficiency  City wasn’t built for automobile Tax increment financing (TIF) – tool that allows municipalities to promote economic/private development by financing the public costs associated with a development project. The property tax increases resulting from development are targeted to repay the public infrastructure investment required for the project. Business improvement district (BID) – a defined area within which businesses are required to pay an additional tax in order to fund projects within the district’s boundaries Easement – the right to cross or otherwise use someone else’s land for a specified purpose Eminent domain – right for government to take private property for public use, with payment of compensation Climate change – the global changing of climate, mostly due to CO2 emissions The green house effect (or the blanket analogy) –  Carbon dioxide = greenhouse gas that acts like a blanket that traps heat in the atmosphere  CO2 lets the sun’s light in but not letting all of the heat produced by the sunlight back out again Carbon footprint  Human CO2 emissions took a giant leap during the Industrial Revolution (1750) with the use of coal for manufacturing, heating homes and transportation  China (27%) U.S. (18%) of total CO2 emissions in 2011  Caused by energy (48%) Transportation (23%), Waste (9%)  50% from commercial and industrial section  Texas 688 metric tons of CO2 emissions Oregon standoff – armed occupiers of a wildlife refuge in Oregon fought the federal Bureau of  Land Management over grazing rights for his cattle in 2014 Zoning variance – a request to deviate from current zoning requirements that allows the land  owner to by permit to not follow the ordinance, but doesn’t change the actual ordinance itself Exclusionary zoning ­ the utilization of  zoning ordinances to exclude certain types of people  from a given community. Gained prominence in US land­use regulations in the late 19  century Fiscal zoning – refers to the significant consideration in many zoning disputes concerning the  impact a particular decision or plan may have on local property taxes NIMBYISM – “Not In My Back Yard”, term for a person who resists unwanted development,  such as manufacturing plants, prisions, power companies, or chemical companies in a  neighborhood or town Municipality – a city or town with a local gov’t  Extraterritoriality powers – refers to a court’s ability to exercise power beyond its territorial  limits/normal boundaries Tax rate – the percentage at which taxes are paid on the dollar of income Tax base – the total amount of assets or revenue that a government can tax Mills – the amount per $1,000 that is used to calculate taxes on a property.  $1 out of $1,000 tax unit Special assessment – A real property tax proportionally levied on homeowners and landowners  to cover the costs of improvements that will be for the benefit of all upon whom it is imposed  Ex. Special assessment might be made to pay for sidewalks or sewer connections Planning Enabling Act – set the basis for states to adopt, amend, and implement a master plan Metropolitan Planning Organization – federally assigned and funded transportation policy-making organization in the U.S. made up of representatives from local gov’t and governmental transportation authorities  Approve transportation improvement programs  Ensure that the plans are consistent with federal environmental legislation and affordable Process for master planning 1) The general public and governing body recognize the need for planning 2) The elected officials agree to commit people and money to draft or update the town plan 3) The elected officials appoint a planning commission (if one does not already exist) and give the planning commission the task of drafting or updating the town plan 4) The planning commission prepares an agenda and work schedule for completing the plan 5) The planning commission appoints a citizen’s advisory committee to help conduct public meetings, needs assessment surveys, and information- gathering and analysis 6) The planning commission drafts a vision statement for the community and a statement of goals and objectives for the town plan 7) The governing body approves the goals and objectives of the town plan and an Action Plan for implementing the plan 8) The planning commission completes the town plan and recommends it for approval by the governing body. The governing body should formally adopt the town plan or make changes and then adopt it. 9) The governing body commits money and personnel for drafting zoning and subdivision regulations and a capital improvements program to implement the town plan. The planning commission uses the town plan in reviewing development proposals. 10) The governing body commits money and personnel for updating the town plan, land-use regulations, and capital improvements program. The planning commission drafts changes and recommends them to the governing board for approval. Types of survey formats: a) fixed response: YES/NO Questions b) variable response: Questions that have various types of answers Ex. (Bad, Average, Excellent) c) scaled response: Questions based upon answers “on a scale” Ex. 1 (likely) and 10 (not likely) d) open-ended: Questions that the respondent is free to answer as they choose fit e) visual preference survey: Survey involving for respondents to answer picture- based questions Charrette – a workshop, often lasting several days, which involves a community in its urban planning process. Similar to a clinic or a search conference  To get people’s feedback to represent local opinion Planning vision vs. goal vs. strategy  Vision: statement/short summary of how the community should look and function in the future  Goal: a brief statement on what needs to be done  Strategy: the actions that will take place to complete those goals The Master Plan/comprehensive plan  Representation of what a community wants to be in the future  “impermanent constitution”  Helps ensure that development occurs in a manner desired by the community.  Protects what makes the community unique and what made people initially want to live there. The zoning ordinance – rules of zoning of a municipality The zoning map – physical layout of the zoning of a town/municipality Euclidean/Traditional/Conventional zoning – separate zones/districts by their uses, density, and rules Separation of uses – due to zoning ordinances Bulk – the amount of space taken up by a building in a lot/parcel Density- “compactedness” of people/population in an area Use – the specific purpose of the zoning land-use  Residential = housing/sleep  Commercial = sales/profit  Industrial = production of items/manufacturing  Agriculture = production of food Four characteristics of SPRAWL 1) A population widely dispersed in low-density residential development 2) Rigid separation of homes, shops, and workplaces 3) A lack of distinct, thriving activity venters, such as strong downtowns or suburban town centers 4) A network of roads marked by large block size and poor access from one place to another British Thermal Units (BTU’s) – a traditional unit of energy in the English system of units (ft-lb-sec) Rezoning – change the zoning ordinance of an area of land to a different use Zoning variance – proposal to the Zoning Board of appeals for permission to deviate from the current zoning requirements that a municipality has applied for land-use and land development Permitted use (see “as of right” use) Conditional use – further restrictions within a given zone Non-conforming use - “grandfathered” use allowed because it existed there before the zoning law Dwelling unit - Structure (or part of a structure) that is used as a home, residence, or sleeping place Three e’s of sustainable development – Equity, Environment, Economy Ten principles of Smart Growth – 1) Mixed Land-Uses 2) Take advantage of compact building design 3) Create a range of housing opportunities and choices 4) Create walkable neighborhoods 5) Foster distinctive, attractive communities with a strong sense of place 6) Preserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas 7) Strengthen and direct developmental towards existing communities 8) Provide a variety of transportation choices 9) Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective 10) Encourage community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions Planning for public health  Active transportation  Safe, affordable nutritious foods & safe water  Quality Homes and school facilities Active transportation – Human-powered/Non-motorized transportation (see below) Road diet –  the conversion of 4 lane undivided roads into 3 lanes (2 through lanes and a center turn lane)  the 4 lane may be converted to bicycle lanes, sidewalks, and/or on-street parking Non-motorized transportation – “active transportation” for example walking or biking Protected bike lane – lane on the side of a road that is meant for bike traffic Walkability – measure of how friendly an area is to walking Planned Unit Development – a negotiable land use that is not subject to standard zoning requirements for the area Planning commission –  the body with both the power and legal duty to prepare the comprehensive plan in most states  Runs the process, main advisor  Appoints subcommittees  Produces master plan Zoning board of appeals – deals with variances Zoning Administrator – to go-to person for laws and zoning ordinances Planning Consultant –  The “professional” planner and has training/expertise in the planning profession  Gives advice to planning commission Mayor/supervisor –  An ELECTED official that is part of the governing body Town Council (governing body)  Composed of ELECTED officials  They “kick off” the process  Approve/disapprove the master plan  Role of all of the above in local planning – Seen above GIS mapping – a powerful tool for analyzing the landscape electronically or to electronically  store data about a landscape (map) 701 program – as part of the Housing Act of 1954, Congress provided funding for thousands of  local governments to develop comprehensive/master plans 208 program – funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under section 208 of the  Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments, the program provided many regional agencies with the opportunity to develop an environmental database for planning and to develop regional  plans for wastewater treatment “elements” – a part of the plan that deals with the discrete subject, such as transportation or  parks and open spaces  Population, natural resources, cultural resources, community facilities, housing, land­use In week 4 (Platt Chapter 6) Precedent – establishment of legal principles/laws 5  Amendment – “no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against  himself nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without the due process of law” Due process – a fundamental, constitutional guarantee that all legal proceedings will be fair and  just and that an individual will be given notice of proceedings  Just compensation­ private property owners are required by law (5  amendment) to be paid  when private property is taken under public use Real property – the physical land, buildings, vegetation, subsurface minerals, and possibly  water rights Personal property – any physical items own by an individual  Assessed value – value given to land/property that influences tax rates (“market value”) Appraiser – a person who estimates the value/cost of something Ad valorem property tax – tax based upon the estimated value of the item/object Bundle of green and red sticks – the benefits and burdens of property ownership  Green sticks = personal use and economic gain  Red sticks = taxes and nuisances Land speculation – acquiring land purely as an investment to make more money than what was  paid for it Private nuisance – something offensive/annoying to individuals (smoke, odor, excessive noise,  accumulation of trash, etc) Public nuisance – something offensive//annoying to a community (discharge of air/water  pollution, immoral businesses (crack house), and endangering public health and safety) Defendant – an individual, company, or institution sued or accused in the court of law Plaintiff ­ a person that brings a case against another in a court of law “came to the nuisance” – you moved to a location where the alleged nuisance condition has  been ongoing for years Foreclose – the process of taking a mortgaged property because the mortgagers have failed to  keep up on their payments Blighted – a damaged or neglected property/area Zoning incentive (p. 166) – a tool used to grant provisions that developers want in exchange for  desired public improvements, needs, and goods Caveat emptor – “let the buyer beware”, buyer assumes the risk that a product may fail to meet  expectations or have defects Plat – plot of land Acres in a square mile = 640 Acres Square feet in an acre = 43,560 sq ft Livery of seisin– “transfer of possession”, convey land from one party to another


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