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CSU / Life Science / LIFE 102 / What is the definition of exergonic reaction?

What is the definition of exergonic reaction?

What is the definition of exergonic reaction?

Description

School: Colorado State University
Department: Life Science
Course: Attributes of Living Systems
Professor: Louis bjostad
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biology
Cost: 25
Name: Life 102, Week 5 notes
Description: These notes cover lecture notes from 02/17 to 02/22, or chapters 8 and the beginning of 9, as well as reading notes from chapter 8 of the book.
Uploaded: 02/22/2016
13 Pages 179 Views 3 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-3}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-2 0}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-8 0}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-3 0}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0 0}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-5 0}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7 0}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-4 0}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0 0}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5 0}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-6}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-2}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2 0}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5 0}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8 0}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0 0}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7 0}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-0}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-1 0}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6 0}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-4}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1 0}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0 0}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6}.lst-kix_uiouwi3oiezf-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-4 0}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-7 0}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-4 0}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3 0}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-6 0}ul.lst-kix_ltyzkpwi6lpz-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4 0}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-5}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-5}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-8 0}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-1}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5 0}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_e5suplosakrr-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cmxtj5w33y0s-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1 0}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-2}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-7}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fwzfdtue5mm0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6 0}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-3 0}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8 0}.lst-kix_mu1lf2h4xlx9-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0 0}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-6 0}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-2 0}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-1 0}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_76bic7y6ro5h-3 0}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mtr0aqona6bq-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_3uar1yraaovu-6}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-4 0}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-6}.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-7 0}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-0}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_nzyq5oj78jg4-5}ul.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-8 0}ul.lst-kix_k7645bpu51k-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-1 0}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-6}.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6 0}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-7 0}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-8}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_aohyynwdfc5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rwrmwswsdbpc-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_49mpcdvnyhpj-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-2 0}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-7}.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7wiltiqbooo1-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1009isloomnz-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ka4cn62unl4s-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nwytzr2vnqgz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fry9ixp6nqs1-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_g3ipspauv00a-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_lrap0bb1q09i-5}.lst-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dfjr4z98fkhs-4,lower-latin) ". 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Exergonic reaction: releases free energy into its surroundings - spontaneousDon't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 categories for searching out problem?

Endergonic reaction: absorbs free energy from its surroundings - non spontaneous

Structure and hydrolysis of ATP

  • Does work in all by energy coupling, use of an exergonic process to drive endergonic one
  1. The first law of thermodynamics - energy is constant
  • Can be transferred and transformed, not created or destroyed
  1. The second law of thermodynamics - energy transfer / transformation increase entropy
  • Entropy: randomness
  • Spontaneous process: leads to increase entropy without energy input
  • Non spontaneous: needs energy
  1. Biological order and disorder
  • Organisms entropy can decrease as being as total energy of universe increase

If you want to learn more check out What causes truancy?

8.2. The free - energy charge of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously

  1. Free energy change, F
  • Free energy portion of systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout system

G = H - TS

  • Processes with - 6 are spontaneous

-H is negative, TS is positive, or negative

  1. Free energy, stability and equilibrium

G = Gfinal state- Ginitial state

  • Free energy = tendency to change to more stable state - or equilibrium
  • Process is spontaneous and can perform work only when moving toward equilibrium
  1. Free energy and metabolism
  1. Exergonic and endergonic reactions in metabolism
  • Exergonic reaction: net release of free energy
  • G is negative
  • Spontaneous - energetically favorable, net rapid
  • Magnitude of G = maximum amount of work reaction can perform
  • Breaking bonds TAKES energy
  • PE can be released when new bonds form after old one break
  • Endergonic reaction - breaks free energy from surroundings
  • G positive, stores free energy in molecules
  • G energy required to drive reaction
  1. Equilibrium and metabolism
  • No work can be done at equilibrium
  • Cells at metabolic equilibrium are dead
  • Product of reaction become constant for next step

Don't forget about the age old question of Give examples of strain theories.

8.8 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactionsDon't forget about the age old question of which hlc group is basically the unmarried members of the generation yers?
If you want to learn more check out What do you mean by genetic make up?
Don't forget about the age old question of What transmit signals across a chemical synapse?

        Cells does 3 types of work

  1. Chemical work: endergonic reaction is not spontaneous, synthesis of polymer
  2. Transport work: pumping of substance across membrane against what ration gradient
  3. Mechanical work: breaking of alea, contraction of muscle, movement of chromosomes

Energy coupling: use of exogenic process to drive endergonic one

  1. Structure of hydrolysis of ATP
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) release (sugar) with aclenine (nitrogenous base) and three phosphate groups
  • Energy coupling
  • Used to make RNA
  • ATP + H2O → ADP + HOPO32- (P)
  • G = -7.3 kcal / mol
  • High energy phosphate bonds reactants base high energy
  1. How the hydrolysis of ATP perform work
  • Phosphorylation intermediate: transfer of phosphate from atp to reactant and recipient molecule / reactant
  • Energy from ATP more than energy needed in reaction overall exergonic
  1. The regeneration of ATP
  • Adding phosphate to ADP to make ATP
  • ADP + P → ATP + H2O G = +7.3

8.4 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers

  • Enzyme: macromolecule that acts as catalyst, speeds up reaction without being consumed
  1. The activation energy barriers
  • Activation energy: energy needed to initiate a reaction molecules so bonds will break
  1. How enzymes speed up reactions
  • Lower Ea barrier
  1. Substrate specificity of enzymes
  • Substrate - reactant enzyme acts on enzyme - substrate complex needed enzyme and substrate
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