Study Guide for midterm
Study Guide for midterm PSY2012
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
1. Lenny begins processing in his association cortex and primary visual Cortex. He reads the caption saying that a painting is of an elephant and uses this information to try and distinguish an elephant in the painting. What type of process? top down processing because he used background knowledge (he read the title) 2. Example of Bottom up processing? When you hear a song for the ﬁrst time, you haven't heard it before so you don't know what to expect- now it's stimuli 3. A Psychologist is conducting an experiment. She brieﬂy ﬂashes the words DRINK, WATER, or THIRST on the screen too quickly for participants to realize and then presented them with the choice between a burger or a water bottle. All of them chose the water bottle. What are they subject to? Subliminal perception because they were subjected to these words, kind of like a subliminal message 4.Ernie wants to test selective attention. He instructs his students to use (a) _________ listening and only listen to messages heard in his right ear, because his student could not recall messages played in his left ear, Ernie found proof of what theory? (B) A. Dichotic (2 words) B. Filter theory of attention - attention is a bottleneck through which information passes, we ignore information that isn't important some info is processed but we forget cause it is not important. (Our listening is a ﬁlter) 5. When the volume of the TV is very low, Mary notices it has changed when it increases by one decibel. However when watching a Football game with the volume very high, Mary does not notice a change in volume until she has increased it by 5 decibels. What is this an example of? Webers law - constant proportional relationship. (Compares two things) Just noticeable difference is a part of webers law (if it doesn't say however... And stops at one decibel, this is the answer) 6. Students are taking a test to determine what they perceive a certain symbol to be when their expectations inﬂuence their observations. Students who see the image on the left perceive be it to be a "13" while students who see the image on the right perceive it to be a "b" What are these students using? Perceptual sets - sets are formed when expectations are included in perceptions (if someone says what's the number you see a number but if they say letter we think the letter) (set- just means set expectations) It's not top down processing because perceptual sets is a part of top down processing, but we are seeing two things. 7. Susan is dissecting an eye and labeling the function if it's structures. Which of the following did she match correctly? A. Optic nerve, incoming light is transformed into nerve impulses (sends information to the brain, communication to the brain, very important) B. Sclera, white of the eye C. Iris, focuses light rays for near or distant vision (controls the pupil) D. Cornea, where light rays are more sharply focused (bends incoming light) Match the right explanation A. Incoming light is transformed into nerve impulses Retina C. focuses light rays for near or distant vision Lens (like glasses) D. Where light rays are more sharply focused fovea 8. Jessica is walking through the DNA bridge by Shands. She notices that though the lights on the bridge appear white from far away, they are actually combinations of red, green and blue bulbs. What theory does this follow? Pg. 132!!! Additive color mixing since it has to do with red, green and blue (add color - makes them all white, makes a light and not color) Not subtractive because it's yellow, cyan and magenta 9. Edna is an aging senior. Her lends in her eye have become less ﬂexible and cannot overcome the eﬀects of her slightly misshapen eyeball, due to this she wanted glasses for farsightedness, a condition also known as? Hyperopia (another name for farsightedness) can't see from near Lens focuses on near or distant vision (Nearsightedness is also called myopia) 10. Label each of the following examples correctly from one of the following choices: Prosopagnosia- has to do with people's faces, unable to recognize facial features but you know it's a face 11. Benjamin learns that a certain type of cells are not present in the fovea. For this reason when stargazing in the night, he turns his head so that he is not directly looking at the star to see it better. What cell is he thinking about? Rod cells - not in the fovea, they are cells in the retina that allow us to see in low levels of light 12. Ryan wants to change his ringtone so his elderly teacher won't hear his phone go off in class. Should he change it to a higher or lower frequency sound? Higher because it's a higher pitch, hearing does go down and deteriorates with age. 13. Jason is trying to buy a new violin. The salesman tells him that the new model has a great timbre because it plays at 50 decibels. Should Jason be suspicious? Yes because timbre is the quality or complexity of sound not loudness. Loudness is amplitude 14. Nate has to have surgery in his middle ear. Which of the following is a plausible target of surgery? A. ossicles (also known as hammer, anvil, and stirrup) B. Organ of corti (inner ear) C. Pinna (outer ear) D. Basilar membrane (inner ear) 15. Naomi doesn't believe that the location of a particular hair cell in the basilar membrane corresponds with a particular pitch. Instead, she believes that the rate at which the neurons ﬁre determine the pitch to reach very high rates the neurons ﬁre slightly out of synch with each other. What theory does she believe in? Volley theory (variation of frequency theory) - (pg. 141) - neurons ﬁre out of sync to equal the pitch we need, (like 50) Place theory 16. Brad is having trouble hearing his family talk to him. He remembers his doctor told him that due to a previous injury he has some damage to his auditory nerve, his sister exclaims "ah, you have conductive deafness!" Is she correct? No because he has nerve deafness (damage to auditory nerve), conductive deafness is due to a failure of the eardrum. 17. Olfaction and Gustafson are known as the chemical sneers be ayes we service experiences from chemicals in substances True because they are our senses, sense chemicals (smell and taste) 18. Lacey is at a restaurant opening. The chef recommends that people taste the desert with the left of their tongues and the appetizers with the right side of their tongues because those are the locations of the speciﬁc sweet and salty taste receptors. Is the chef correct? No because the taste tongue map is a myth, taste buds are slightly sensitive to all tastes 19. What is a relatively new and controversial taste reﬂector that tastes MSG? Umami taste receptor, savory taste 20. What odorless chemicals serve as social signals and may be responsible for altering an individual's sexual behavior? Pheromones 21. The vomeronasal organ develops in many mammals, including humans, to help them detect pheromones. False because humans do not have the vomeronasal organ. (Between the nose and the mouth) 22. What is the term in psychology for the sense of body position? Proprioception (Suzy got out of bed in the morning, she accidentally fell out. What sense of hers is wrong? Proprioception) 23. Jared injures his hand while ﬁshing. Though the injury is severe, he does not feel excruciating pain. What model may account for this phenomenon? Gate control model. Our body minimizes the pain, and we have just enough info to know we are in pain and we need to go get help. (Like a gate control - spinal cord stops most pain) 24. Which of the following is not related to vestibular sense? 25. Daniel is involved in building new types of chairs and desks for Marston library, the goal is to build ergonomic seating to maximize productivity. What ﬁeld of psych is Daniel involved in? Human factors (pg. 150) about our perceptual capabilities (study of ergonomics) 26. Janie accidentally hurts herself while touching a hot stove. Which info will reach her spinal cord ﬁrst: the fact that she touched the stove or the pain from the heat of the stove? The touch info will reach her spinal cord ﬁrst, you know it's gonna hurt soon but ﬁrst you realize you touch something. 27. How does psychology span multiple levels of analysis? Multiple determinism - comparison to the levels of psych Lower rungs of the ladder are more tied to biological functions and the top is more social. 28.how are metaphysical claims not part of science? Not testable by the scientiﬁc method, not able to be duplicated 29. What is the diﬀerence between a scientiﬁc theory and a hypothesis? Theory are general explanations Hypothesis are speciﬁc testable predictions debriefed from these explanations. Bing bang theory - general explanation, hypothesis is what we test like how old the earth is 30. What is the problem with following all advice in a self help book? Most claims made are pseudoscience claims, use logical fallacies (like over reliance on anecdotes, talk of proof instead of talking about evidence, lack of connectivity to other research, exaggerated claims, lack of peer review, overuse of "ad-hoc" immunizing hypothesis) 31. Negative correlation smoking and dui (higher number is stronger correlation) 32. How does scientiﬁc skepticism help us? Allows us to evaluate all claims with an open mind but insisting on compelling evidence before accepting them. 33. Riley looks at ceiling tiles that have random speckles on them and ﬁnds a face in the specks. What psych phenomenon has she participated in? Patternicty- it's an evolutionary tactic we have - ability to see patterns in useless data 34. Cognitive scientists believe that we need to understand how organisms understand what? Rewards and punishment 35. Bob is studying spinal cartilage in the lab.susie is studying how diﬀerent levels of a drug can inhibit spinal cartilage degradation. What type of research are they doing? Bob- basic research - more about the data - examines how mind works Susie- applied research - why the data does something - examines how to apply the info 36. Is analytical thinking fast and intrusive or slow and decisive? 37. What are the advantages of using a case study over naturalistic observation? Will each of them help prove a causal relationship? Case studies are about one person or a small group over a long period of time. Control all aspects so higher in internal validity . Used as an existence proof and ﬁnd unique phenomena for insight into later testing. Naturalistic observation - not involving yourself and changing the behavior of the organism. Higher in external validity Casual relationship is like why is coming to school involved with how many people drive Neither can prove a causal relationship, only an experiment can 38. Janet measures her blood pressure at home, she consistently ﬁnds that it's around 120/80. When she goes to the doctor, however, she learns that her blood pressure cuﬀ is underestimating her true blood pressure, are the reliability and validity of her personal blood pressure cup high or low? High in reliability but low in validity (Reliable is it's always the same number but valid it's not true) 39. Larry is collecting data in bee wing sizes, he ﬁnds a lot of low outliers. Median 40. Describe the ﬂow of an action potential through nerve cells 1. Give the message to the dendrites (receiver) located in the 2. Action potential runs along the Soma (route) 3. (Destination) axon - sends info to other cells - releases synaptic vesicles to the synaptic cleft 4. Synaptic cleft - releases neurotransmitters 41. What type of cell removes debris and maintains the blood barrier? Glial cell 42. Jennifer wants to repeatedly ﬁre action potentials through a neuron subsequently with no pause in between, what might prevent this? Absolute refractory period 43. Harry watches molecules of the neurotransmitter serotonin released from synaptic vesicle travel towards receptor. However some of the serotonin is reabsorbed by the vesicle. What is the name of this recycling? Reputake 44.lucy is trying to guess what neurotransmitter she is viewing, she knows it is one of the two most common neurotransmitters in the CNS. She watches it relay sensory info ... 45. Which monoamine is released during reward experiences such as sex, a good dinner, or winning the lottery? Dopamine 46. Synthetic opioids such as morphine bind to what type of receptor in the cell? By acting as agonists what do they do at the receptor sites? Endorphin receptors Increase receptor site activity (agonists) Antagonist decreases the activity 47. 48. Which of the following is not a way that the brain neuron network changes? A. Synaptogenis - remaking/ synapses 49. How is pruning helpful to neural plasticity? A way to take away bad information we don't need, enhances communication. 50. Stem cells 51. 52.
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