Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide COMM 3300
Popular in Nonverbal Communication
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jordan Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 3300 at Clemson University taught by Joe Mazer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
COMM 3300: Exam 1 Study Guide What is human communication? - Process of one person stimulating meaning in the mind of another person by means of verbal/nonverbal messages What is nonverbal communication? - Process of one person stimulating meaning in the mind of another person or persons by means of nonverbal messages Myths about Nonverbal Communication 1. Nonverbal communication is nonsense. All communication involves language. Therefore, all communication is verbal. 2. Nonverbal behavior accounts for most of the communication in human interaction. 3. You can read a person like a book. 4. If a person does not look you in the eye while talking to you, he/she is lying. 5. Nonverbal behaviors are natural to all people. 6. Nonverbal behavior stimulates the same meanings in different situations. Nonverbal versus Verbal Messages (distinctions) - Linguistic Distinction: verbal comm. ▯ language - Continuity Distinction: package of messages - Processing Distinction: we know what they are when we see them - Outcome Distinction: (truth doesn’t always have to hurt) Verbal messages ▯ content/cognitive Nonverbal ▯ emotional - Absolute Distinction: Verbal ▯ clear Nonverbal ▯ questionable Intentionality and Nonverbal Communication – Chart in Notes - Nonverbal Behavior: any of a wide variety of human behaviors that also have the potential for forming communicative messages Six Functions of Nonverbal Messages 1. Complementing – I love you; physical actions 2. Contradicting – I wont make this mistake again….young child 3. Repeating – emblems, 2 fingers, reinforce 4. Regulating – eye contact, watch, pack up books, gaining control of your conversation 5. Substituting – nonverbal instead of verbal, middle finger 6. Accenting – pausing, speaking louder Types of Attraction - Physical: attractive ▯ physical attributes - Task: work ethic - Social: hanging out Image fixation – long-term view of your body/image - Highly preoccupied with how you look Attractiveness is a two-edged sword Effects of attractiveness 1. Education – unattractive student labeled as problem/attractive labeled as good 2. Persuasion – don’t put ugly people for ad’s; more easily persuaded by attractive person 3. Interviews – more likely to get a job 4. Dating/Marriage – men more focused on attractiveness; women less likely to reject based on attractiveness 5. Matching Hypothesis – people of equal attractiveness will come together The matching hypothesis – people of equal attractiveness will come together Endomorphic – round, oval, heavy – personable, confident, social, slow, calm, relaxed, lazy Mesomorphic – muscular – stubborn, reckless, agitated, hot-tempered Ectomorphic – tall & thin – shy, awkward Clothing popularity, liking, and homophily – similarity – dress ▯ approachable Clothing: rank and status Clothing: power and success Clothing: group identification Artifacts – accessories we adorn ourselves with (personal); office decorations (professional) Kinesics – body movements/language A. Emblems – replacement of the verbal B. Illustrators – nonverbal accompanies the verbal C. Regulators – regulate interactions/conversation – turn-taking D. Affect Displays (emotions) – facial expressions ▯ smiling, eyebrows Types of Gestures and Movements Dramatic style Dominant style – confident, males, females Animated style Open style Contentious style - argumentative Relaxed style Friendly style Attentive style Impression-leaving style Primary Emotions Facial Management and Expression of Emotion - Facial Management Techniques: concepts used to describe these prescribed or display behaviors - Masking: repression of the expressions related to the emotion felt and their replacement with expressions that are acceptable under the circumstances - Intensification: of our expressions is accomplished by exaggerating what we feel - Neutralization: eliminate any expression of emotion - Deintensification: when we reduce the intensity of our facial expression of a particular emotion because circumstances require us to downplay how we truly feel Styles of Facial Expression 1. Withholder Style – seldom have any facial movements 2. Revealer Style – always show their true feelings 3. Unwitting Expressor – believes that he or she is doing a good job of masking true feelings when, in fact, he or she unknowingly leaks information about the actual emotion that is being experienced 4. Blanked Expressor – have ambiguous or neutral expressions even when they believe they are displaying their emotions 5. Substitute Expressor – substitutes one emotional expression for another 6. Frozen-Affect Expressors – manifests at least a part of a particular emotional expression 7. Ever-ready Expressors – display one particular emotion as the initial response to almost any situation 8. Flooded-Affect Expressors – flood their faces constantly with a particular emotion Functions of Eye Behavior 1. Scanning 2. Establishing/Defining a Relationship 3. Interact with Others 4. Express Emotions – least controllable 5. Control and Regulate Interactions 6. Decrease our Distance 7. Close others out 8. Sign that two people are communicating Types of Eye Behavior 1. Mutual Gaze – 2 people looking at each other 2. One-sided look – 1 person looks at another; not reciprocated (source/sender perspective) 3. Gaze Aversion – intentional you look away 4. Gaze Omission – 1 person does not look at the other person; not intentionally avoiding eye contact 5. Civil Inattention – “elevator look” – acknowledge the person, no expectation of conversation 6. Staring – uncomfortable look; long-hard Conjugate Lateral Eye Movements (CLEMS) • Explained ▯ involuntary shifts of the eye; usually right or left • Pupil Dilation – increase in size • Deception & Eye Behavior – “look me in the eye” - involuntary lateral shifts of the eyes to the right or left - thought to be closely associated with cognitive processing o we look way to the left or right while we are thinking but look forward again when we stop processing information Eye Behavior and Individual Differences - Nature of Relationships - Cultural Differences - Contextual Differences - Personality Differences - Gender Differences
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