Man's Food Module 2 Study Guide
Man's Food Module 2 Study Guide FOS 2001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by ariele on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Staff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Man’s Food Module 2 REVIEW Lesson 5: The Calorie What is a Calorie? The calorie is a unit to measure energy; energy is heat. Kilocalorie: one unit of energy; The amount of heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1kg of water to 1 °C Energy and Organisms Autotrophic organisms: Organisms that produce their own energy. Require Light, Water and Carbon Dioxide (ex. Plants) Heterotrophic Organisms: Organisms that cannot produce energy. Require energy from preformed organic molecules taken from the environment(food). (ex. Animals) Chemosynthetic Organisms: Produce energy from chemical reactions, not from food or light. (Ex. Microscopic bacteria at the bottom of the ocean) Energy Requirements- BMR 5 basic factors that define an individual’s energy requirement: 1. Basal Metabolism 2. Digestion 3. Excretion 4. Growth 5. Activity Basal Metabolic Rate is genetically determined Measuring the Basal Metabolic Rate 2 ways BMR is measured 1. 14 hours after your last meal 2. 8 hours after going to sleep Measuring Energy bomb calorimeter: measures food combustion and the breaking of bonds in food. 1. Consists of two chambers: one that holds water, and inner airtight chamber that holds food 2. Food placed in innerchamber filled with electrodes to ignite it 3. Combustible gas added to inner chamber for ignition 4. Food burns as bonds are broken down, heat generated in inner chamber transfers to the water chamber and a thermometer registers the temp. change Kcal/g conversions for Carbs, Fat and protein 1. 1 gram of carbs = 4 kcal of energy 2. 1 gram of protein = 4kcal of energy 3. 1 gram of fat = 9 kcal of energy Indirect Calorimetry Indirect: relies on common statistical charts, tables handbooks and population profiles (relative data) Direct: measures actual precise energy requirements tailored to each individual. Gender References 1. Male: 22 yr old weighs 70kg (154lbs) 2. Female: 22 yr old weighs 58kg (127lbs) Weight Control The National Weight Control Registry: organization that monitors long-term weight loss in individuals Energy Balance Energy Balance: the state at which energy(calorie) intake and energy(calorie) output in the body are equal EER based on a person’s gender, age, height, body weight, level of physical activity Activity Expenditure Factors that affect energy expenditure 1. Body Mass 2. Age 3. Activity 4. Temperature 5. Pregnancy 6. Lactation Nutrition and Fitness Carbohydrates: primary source expended during high- intensity exercise Glycogen= storage form of glucose Blood Glucose: energy source for the brain When glucose is broken down at a very high rate, Lactic acid is produced as a by-product Lesson 6: Nutrient 1: Water Water Terminology Solvent: Liquid that acts as a medium in which substances dissolve. Insensible water loss: water lost from the body daily through routine respiration and evaporation off the skin ADH: directs the kidneys to concentrate and reduce the volume of urine produced in order to reduce water loss from the body. Osmosis: Movement of a solvent (ex.water), from an area of lower concentration of solutes across a membrane to an area of higher concentration of solutes. Compartmentalization Potassium and sodium located in extracellular water 3 subcomponents of extracellular water and their specifics o Intravascular: water within the vascular system; subcompartment: water in blood vessels o Extravascular: water outside vascular system system; subcompartment: water that surrounds blood vessels o Interstitial: water surrounding and between cells; 80% of extracellular water Intracellular and Extracellular Link 50-70% of our body mass is made of water Plasma: Helps red blood cells move within out blood vessels 3 functions of water in the body o dissolving o mixing o breaking apart substances Exchanges Exchanges that occur when water moves through the body o Alveolar Air- Blood plasma. Oxygen exchanged for carbon dioxide out o Blood plasma- erythrocyte fluid; oxygen, water, small molecules and carbon dioxide move in or out o Blood Plasma- interstitial fluid; water moves in and out along with inorganic ions and small molecules o Interstitial- intracellular. Gases, small organic molecules and water are exchanged Functions of Water Bone integrity- The hardness of bone is due to water, which is a vital contributor to the rigidity of the skeletal system Universal solvent- water is a universal solvent and allows itself to efficiently transport nutrients throughout the body (EXCEPT fat nutrients which are NOT water soluble) Bio-chemical Reactions- Water is a required reactant for many bio-chemical reactions, without it, these reactions cannot occur. In digestion, water breaks bonds and is important when providing the building blocks of nutrients in the body Lubricant- It helps moisturize the skin, prevents heat damage to joints by dissipating the energy, or friction, results from bones rubbing together Regulating Body Temp- The body perspires to cool down. When water exits the skin in evaporates, taking heat with it. Sources of Water 3 sources of water for the body o drinking water o food o metabolic water (water produce by the body through metabolism of sugars, fats, proteins) Electrolytes: charged ions that conduct an electrical current in a solvent such as water Water Balance Edema: Having too much water in the body o Causes the tissues to swell, excessive fluids move into the tissues from the blood vessels Water Balance Link Water formed by the body’s reactions, called metabolic water, provides 300 to 400 ml, an additional 1,000ml comes from beverages and food Kidneys monitor water balance by either excreting or retaining fluid you consume The amount of urine you produce is influenced by the amount you sweat Water is lost through the lungs when you breathe, as insensible water loss at a rate of approximately 1 liter per day 4 ways water is lost o urine o sweat o insensible water loss o feces Maintaining Water Balance Water is regulated by changes in osmotic pressure (force that keeps water in its compartments) Water is maintained by the force of osmotic pressure on one side of the barrier and hydrostatic pressure on the opposite side Osmotic pressure: the ratio of the concentration of solutes to the concentration of solution. The pituitary gland: responsible for determining whether water is stored or excreted When the body wants to eliminate water, ADH is not released by the pituitary gland and water is released via the kidneys Dehydration Water Loss Effect 1-2% Thirst 3% Dry Mouth 4% Flushed skin, impatience, emotional instability 8% Dizziness, labored breathing, confusion 10% Heat stroke, spastic muscles 11% Circulatory insufficiency 15% Death Lesson 7: Nutrient 2: Proteins Protein Terms Amino Acid: building blocks of protein containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Composed of an acid group, an amine group, and a unique side chain. Collagen: ropelike, fibrous protein that is the most abundant protein in the body Gene: DNA segment that codes for a specific protein Amino Acids Amino acids have an acid group and an amino group attached to them Variations of these side groups determine the many amino acids found in nature How the amino acids bond is what determines the body’s fundamental structures Proteins make up muscle in the body How Proteins Are Made DNA holds the template for making protein; the RNA comes in and copies the DNA template. messenger RNA signals the transport RNA to bring in individual amino acids. Three different codons represent each of the 20-plus amino acids; the purpose of these codons is to indicate the structural position of each amino acid in the protein chain. Amino acids are added to the chain at their appropriate structural positions Overview of Protein Synthesis 1. Transcription: RNA molecule is assembled along a DNA template 2. RNA Processing: ends of RNA transcript are altered, portions of RNA molecule are deleted and remaining are spliced together to make messenger RNA. mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome 3. Translation: ribosome reads RNA message and links amino acids together to form a polypeptide Structure of Proteins Many of the maintenance proteins take a globular shape because the shape is easier to transport in and out of the body through the circulatory system 4 types of protein structures o primary o secondary o tertiary o quaternary Protein Structure Link 2 types of secondary protein structures o Alpha helix: the chain twists o Pleated Sheet: chain folds back on itself or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to one another Quaternary structure: Fourth level of protein structure results from the combination of two or more polypeptide subunits. Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Structures Hydrogen bonds are involved in secondary structures The 3 Sub-Structures of the secondary structure o Helix o Sheeting o Random Coiling Example of a Quaternary Protein: Hemoglobin Complete or Incomplete? Complete Protein o Provides all essential amino acids o Ex. Meat, poultry, fish, eggs and cheese Incomplete Protein o Low in one or more essential amino acids o Ex. Rice Complementary Proteins o Two or more incomplete protein sources that together provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids Function of Proteins Protein is considered an essential nutrient because it helps the body maintain: o Muscle fibers o Bones and teeth o Elastin and collagen o Skin o Hair o Nails o Blood Vessels All enzymes are Protein Protein Sources Meat and Fish are the best protein food sources Measuring Proteins Protein quality can be measured using the protein efficiency ration technique (PER), which was developed by measuring the weight gain in animals fed a test protein Protein Deficiencies Protein Calorie Malnutrition: severe protein deficiency PCM Symptoms o Black blotches on the skin o Edema o Puffiness o Flag sign (bands of light and dark hair on the head) Incaparina fights malnutrition in diets lacking protein Consequences of Protein-less Diet Symptoms that may occur if the body’s not getting enough quality proteins o Brittle nails or hair o Fatigue o Flaky skin o Cuts that will not heal Lesson 8: Nutrient 3: Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and the American Diet Ideally based on dietary recommendations, 60% of our calories should come from carbs, 40% from fat, and 12% from protein Carbohydrate means “hydrates of carbon” Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen C6H12O6 is the simplest of carbohydrates Plants are our main source of carbohydrates If glucose is found in the roots, seeds, or tubers of plants, it combines with itself to form long polymers of carbs called starch Carbohydrates Link Cellulose is a polysaccharide that’s a major component of plant cell walls Plant cells store sugars in the form of a polysaccharide called starch Monosaccharides range from three to seven carbons long The general molecular formula for all carbohydrates is CH O2 Functions of the five monosaccharides o Glyceraldehyde: energy storing molecule produced by photosynthesis, 2 of these combine to make glucose o Ribose: important component of RNA and ATP, modified form used in building DNA o Glucose: Major nutrient, central to cellular metabolism. Broken down for energy in the process of cellular respiration. o Galactose: combines with glucose to form lactose, the disaccharide in milk o Fructose: sometimes called fruit sugar, used to make the disaccharide sucrose (table sugar) Molecules that make up these disaccharides o Sucrose = glucose + fructose, circulates in plants sap o Lactose= galactose + glucose, the disaccharide that gives milk its sweet taste o Maltose= glucose + glucose, digestion of starch produces this disaccharide 3 main polysaccharides o Starch o Glycogen o Cellulose Types of Carbohydrates Glucose is also known as dextrose or blood sugar Fructose is also known as levulose or fruit sugar. Galactose: sugar found primarily in animal tissues as part of the mammary gland The position of the hydroxyl groups on the ring is what makes monosaccharides different from the other Function of Carbohydrates Major functions of carbohydrates: to provide energy The secondary function of carbohydrates is to preserve proteins for important bodily functions Carbohydrates also assist in metabolizing fat Fiber component of carbohydrates performs the function of helping the body resist certain diseases (colon cancer) Dietary Guidelines Regarding Sugars Since the table only lists “total sugars” in a product it is difficult for consumers to tell the difference between added sugars and naturally occurring sugars Refined Carbohydrates In terms of cereal, refined carbs remove the outer bran or coating of the grain, exposing the endosperm or starchy material, removing all the vitamins they contain Fiber Fiber helps improve the transit time and the movement of nutrients through the colon of the digestion process Fiber is classified as soluble or insoluble Soluble o Oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran Insoluble o Whole wheat bread, wheat cereals, wheat bran, rye, rice, barley Fiber intake should be 25 to 30 g per day The Glycemic Index The glycemic index: rate of absorption of carbohydrate foods. Factors that can change a GI o Cooking and cooling o Ripeness of the food o Disrupting a food’s dietary fiber o Mixing foods together Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Excess glucose is stored in your muscles and liver Signs of hypoglycemia: hunger, shakiness, dizziness, confusion When blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin to help regulate glucose levels You can determine your blood glucose level by taking a glucose tolerance test Diabetes Diabetes: the inability of the body to adequately regulate blood glucose levels Type 1: juvenile diabetes, not related to obesity but genetic in nature Type 2: adult onset diabetes, occurs in adults Diabetes Consequences Diabetes can cause excessive urination, dehydration, excessive thirst, adverse effects to the kidney, and damage to body proteins In a diabetic, the cells are not able to take in glucose, resulting in the cells breaking down fats and proteins for energy; the fat is not broken down completely and the body produces ketone bodies Diabetics are especially susceptible to disease, such as gangrene Lactose Intolerance Lactose Intolerance: disorder whereby the body cannot digest milk sugars, primarily lactose Soy milk, almond milk, rice milk, oat milk, and coconut milk are all replacement products for cow’s milk Carbs and Dental Health 3 requirements for tooth decay to occur o bacterial plaque o introduction of sugar or starch to the mouth o having a tooth that is susceptible to the sugars contained in carbhoydrates The frequency and type of sugar are important in terms of susceptibility for tooth decay Baby bottle tooth decay syndrome: babies given bottles filled with milk or juice at naptime let carbohydrates ferment and work with the mouth’s bacteria to develop conditions ripe for tooth decay
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