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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Week 4 of notes - Class Notes

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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Week 4 of notes - Class Notes

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background image 5 th  century/ 400s BC Greece    Ionia 540BC    Ionian Revolt 499-494  Marathon 490    Xerxes 486-465  Hellenic league 480  Thermopylae  Leonidas  Salamis   Platea 479  Golden/Classical 479-399    Persia attacked Greece in an attempt to conquer them and make Greece part of their empire  A.  Ionia  a.  Cyrus conquers Ionia in 540 BC 
b.  Ionia was populated by Greeks 
i.  This means that Greeks became subjects of Persians  ii.  Greeks didn’t like Persians and wanted their independence back  c.  Ionian Revolt   i.  Lasted from 499-494 BC  ii.  When the Ionians revolted from Persia they were aware of the Persian  power and knew that they would need help. Specifically Military Aid  iii.  They sent messengers across the sea to Greece and they begged their  fellow Greeks for help.  iv.  The problem was that everyone in Greece knew how powerful the  Persians were and almost no one wanted to mess with Persia  1.  Almost every Polis said no  v.  There was exception though, the polis of Athens, who agreed to send  military aid.  1.  They sent hoplites and ships to help the Ionian revolt 
2.  The revolt fails  
3.  The Ionians are defeated and the ring leaders of the revolt are 
executed.  4.  Ionia is again forced to be a subject of Persia  vi.  Darius  1.  Darius decides to punish the Ionians, but he also decided that he  will punish Athens.  2.  In 490 BC Darius gathers 20,000 soldiers and sends them across  the sea and arrive at Athenian territory at a place called Marathon, 
it was 26.2 miles away from Athens. 
3.  The Persians send a message that says resistance is futile so they  should surrender and become subjects of Persia.  4.  The Athenians had to decide if they should surrender or fight.  a.  Athenian citizens decided 
b.  They decided to fight 
5.  In a Polis the people who decide to go to war are the same people  who go fight.  6.  The Athenians ask for help, but everyone says no 
background image 7.  The Athenians march out to marathon with about 10,000 soldiers  vii.  The battle of marathon takes place and in a huge the Athenians defeat the  Persians. Athenians lost 192 men and the Persians lost 7,000 men.  B.  Athenians beating the Persians  a.  They were fighting to protect their homes and families 
b.  They had home field advantage  
c.  They used hoplite armor (Iron armor) 
d.  The Persians did not use armor in battle 
C.  Darius was very upset so he decides he will take his time for a proper invasion of Greece,  not just Athens anymore.  a.  The Persians did not return for 10 years 
b.  The Greeks were fortunate it took the Persians this long because 
i.  Darius dies and is replaced by his son Xerxes, who wasn’t a great military  leader like his father.  ii.  Xerxes makes a number of mistakes that helps Greeks  c.  In 480 BC Xerxes is ready and gathers an army of 200,000 men largest ever seen  at the time.  i.  Also a navy of 600 triremes, 200 per trireme   ii.  By September of 480 the Persians are in Greece  iii.  The Greeks know the Persians are coming  iv.  The Greeks join together and form a band/union known as the Hellenic  League  1.  Included in this were League were Athens, greatest navy army and  Spartans, who had the best army.   2.  Total of 31 polis were united 
3.  Altogether there were 40,000 hoplites and 400 triremes 
v.  The Greeks decide to try and stop the Persians at a place named  Thermopylae  1.  They tried to stop them there because it is a very narrow pass  between the mountains and the sea and the hoplites could have an 
advantage there. 
2.  Leonidas led the Spartans 
3.  The Persians arrive and for two days they are unable to break 
through.  4.  A Greek traitor appears and tells Xerxes that there is a secret trail  through the mountains  5.  The Greeks realize what is happening and are able to get away 
6.  Leonidas and his soldiers stay and fight to the death. 
7.  There was a prophecy that the Greeks could only win of Sparta lost 
a king.  8.  The Greeks lose the battle at Thermopylae 
9.  The Athens flee and Persians capture Athens without a fight 
a.  Xerxes burns Athens to the ground as revenge 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Name: Week 4 of notes
Description: The 4th week of notes for history 110 A
Uploaded: 02/22/2016
3 Pages 21 Views 16 Unlocks
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