Chapters 4--9 Fitness Study Guide
Chapters 4--9 Fitness Study Guide PE 101-009
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amie Fortman on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PE 101-009 at Indiana State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Fitness for Life in Physical Education at Indiana State University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Chapters Four and Five Anorexia nervosa—eating disorder characterized by severe weight loss through the act of intentional starvation Bulimia—eating disorder characterized by weight fluctuation and remaining within 15% of one’s normal body weight, accompanied by acts of binging and purging --10—30% end up dying. --Can affect both males and females --Ratio male to female: 3:1 --91% of female college students have attempted to control weight through dieting. --Can suffer from anorexia and bulimia simultaneously *Adult need 8 hours of undisturbed sleep on most nights. **A person may experience 20—50% deficit in learning due to sleep deprivation. Benefits of sleep: --Parts of the neural cortex repair themselves --Memories are consolidated and categorized during REM Nicotine: --Affects the brain and nervous system, increases heartrate and blood pressure --In small amounts creates a pleasant feeling --Discontinued use causes withdrawal symptoms --In large amounts, is lethal --A person who quits smoking halves their risk of lung cancer after 10 years --Many types of cancer, heart disease, emphysema, bronchitis (COPD), stroke Suicide—having a large impact on college campuses, tied to mental health *Mental health is also tied to academic success. **Every 15 minutes someone kills themselves in the US **There are 4 more male suicides than female suicides 5 seconds—minimal amount of time taken off the road while texting, at 55mph equivalent to one football field Time management—learning to juggle your time, leads to stress/anxiety Calories—measurement of energy produced when food is digested, body’s fuel source, without food you have no fuel for the body Food delivers—macronutrients and micronutrients Essential Nutrients: --Macronutrients are used for fuel --Carbohydrates, fats, proteins *Carbs are the major energy source for CNS --Micronutrients --Vitamins (13), Minerals (22) --Vitamins—fat soluble (A, D, E, K), and water soluble (B,C) --Minerals—inorganic elements found in nature --Water—hydrates body, enables chemical reactions Factors related to weight: --Medical --Genetic --Environment—diet and exercise *It doesn’t matter what you eat, it matters how much you eat. *In order to lose weight—decrease caloric intake, increase caloric input *Eating well is about balance. Choose Foods from all five food groups. **Some things we intake don’t fit into an above category; you can include some of those. Percentage of Intake: --50—60%--Carbs --10—20%--Protein --20—30%--Fat Benefits of a well-balanced diet: --More energy --Protects from illness --Might even make you look better **Natural/Organic may sound healthy, it doesn’t have much to do with the nutrients in the food. *Diet is related to many of the chronic diseases affecting adults. **Look at the serving size/container size on a food label first. *Calories convert to energy and used as a fuel source to keep your body running, digest your food, and allow you to conduct daily activities **More intake in calories than expenditure—weight gain Chapter Six Metabolism: Chemical process carried out by body --All things your body does to turn food into energy to keep you going --Affected by age, sex, genes *Exercise increases metabolic rate **3-5 days for 30 min. recommended **All individuals benefit from regular physical activity **Moderate amount of activity on most days improves health and quality of life **Greater amounts of activity=greater benefits Physical fitness—the ability of the body to adapt to the demands and stresses of physical effort Benefits: --Long-term: makes everyday activities easier --Short-term: protection against chronic disease Exercise—planned, repetitive physical activity --Improves physical fitness, provides greater benefits Health-related Fitness Components: --Cardiovascular—heart and lungs --Endurance—cardio and muscular --Flexibility --Strength --Body Fat Percentage Things to Consider: --Frequency—how often --Duration—how long --Intensity (the most important) Progressive overload—asking the body to do a little more than normal *Determines, in part, the benefit Overload Principle: You must perform physical activity in greater than normal amounts to get an improvement in strength, endurance, or muscle size Principle of Progression: Need to gradually increase the overload over time to achieve benefits Repetitions and Sets: standard way of referring to exercises prescribed in a weight --Burn fat and tone muscle—light weights/high reps=8—15 --Build muscle and strength—us heavier weights/lower reps=8—12 for size moderate weight, 1—15 for strength with heavy weight **Always warm up **Pick one exercise for each big muscle group **Do 3—5 sets for each exercise **Rest between sets **Stretch after your workout **Write everything down **Breathing is a necessity **Mix it up—alternate sets (Super Set) or do circuit, keep your workout under an hour Metabolic process—turns food into fuel Resting Metabolic Rate—(60—80%) total number of calories expended by the body to maintain various life-sustaining processes Digestion—(6—10%) total energy expended by your body to digest, absorb, metabolize, and store food consumed throughout the course of your day Physical activity—(10—40%) the one you have the most control over Food digestion—energy used to break down food --Starts when you take a bite, carbs burn first *Fat and protein meals take longer to digest—leading to a higher expenditure of energy; high protein (as in a high protein diet) promotes greater number of calories to be expended through digestion Physical activity—energy needs for daily activity Factors that influence caloric intake: --RMR (body weight and composition) --Age --Physical activity level --Other (Health, genetics, gender) *To maintain weight—calories in=calories out Best way to lose weight: --Slowly—1-2 lbs. a week --1 pound of fat=3500 cal. --Daily deficit of 50 calories, lose one pound/week (500 X 7 = 3500) *Vitamins?—Not necessary if diet is healthy **Multivitamins are safe; not all vitamins are “pure”; can be toxic at high doses Chapters Seven, Eight, and Nine: Sweat—by-product of metabolism of heat, carries excess heat out of the body *When it evaporates, it takes that excess heat with it, cooling you. Heat Cramps—intense muscle cramps often occurring in calves, arms, and back *Stop activity, rest, cool down, drink plenty of fluids. Heat Exhaustion—occurs when the body gets too hot *Clammy, moist skin; profuse sweating; feeling tired and weak Heatstroke—prolonged exposure to heat and temperature rises (104 degrees Fahrenheit) where the body cannot cool itself *Rapid or strong pulse, hot red dry skin, may lose consciousness Frostbite—caused by limited oxygen to the tissue *Exposed to cold conditions; affects toes, feet, fingers, hands, nose, and ears Hypothermia—when the body’s core temperature drops below required for metabolism and functions *Usually less than 95 degrees **Not all facts and research findings are required by law to be included, regardless of results. Athletic Shoes Specific to purpose—support activity; support legs, feet, and back Good fit—support, comfort, performance Rotate—not designed for lifetime Happy feet, happy workout! Choosing a Health Club Find a close location to work/home Check hours Other people/how they dress Fitness testing Free trial Certified facility Clean Sprain—stretching or tearing a ligament Strain—pulling, twisting, or stretching of a muscle RICE—rest, ice, compression, elevation Overtraining—happens when you don’t give your body enough time to rest between workouts Results in decrease of performance Leads to burnout Ends with lack of motivation to continue Rest between workouts to prevent this Arousal—a general physiological and psychological activation of the senses Anxiety—the negative emotional state that includes feelings of nervousness, worry, and discomfort Stress—a substantial imbalance between the demands placed upon you and your response capability *Can be hazardous to your health! Depression—a serious medical condition that negatively affects how you think, feel, and act o Extreme sadness o Lack of concentration or enjoyment o Lack of desire to sleep or eat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder—an anxiety disorder that may develop after a life- threatening event *May experience flashbacks/recurring dreams of the event Alcohol Vast amounts of ethanol Psychoactive drug o A depressant in low doses causes euphoria, reduces anxiety and sociability o In high doses causes intoxication to unconsciousness Linked to social role in the US Regulated by law High in calories Linked to health issues Linked to poor decision making Class C Misdemeanor—being caught with alcohol as a minor *Up to 60 days in jail, $500 fine Class B misdemeanor—providing alcohol to a minor or being intoxicated in public Indiana Lifeline Law—seek help for those who need it, provides immunity for the crimes of public intoxication, minor in possession or consumption to persons who identify themselves to law enforcement while providing medical attention to the affected person *Will not interfere with the proper lawful procedures Effects of Alcohol Assaults motor coordination skills, Decreases control over emotions, Increases chances of a blackout, Affects heart rate, body temperature, appetite, and consciousness **It’s not that you don’t know what you’re doing, it’s that you don’t care as much about the consequences Drink one drink per hour—keeps you in control, from being drunk, from getting in legal trouble, and from making dumb decisions
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