History 315 Midterm 1 Study Guide
History 315 Midterm 1 Study Guide HY 315
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History 315 Midterm 1 Study Guide 2/29/16 9:39 AM Background to the War: 1619-1861 The 5 Distinctive Traits of American Slavery • Property • Permanent • Hereditary • Racial • Regional Why didn’t anyone question slavery? • Ancient institution that had been around for thousands of years • Was around for 150 years before first anti-slavery group emerged • The Bible didn’t condemn it • They lived in a very hierarchical world Founding Fathers and Slavery • Northwest Ordinance (1787) o “slavery shall be forever prohibited in these territories” • Gradual abolition in the North o Why didn’t the South do this? ▯ The South was much more dependent upon slave labor for the wellbeing of their economy • End of the foreign slave trade o January 1, 1808 o Impacts: ▯ Price of slaves become much more expensive ▯ A larger portion of the South potentially would’ve owned slaves ▯ Slaves were treated better (not necessarily well) ▯ Slave owner had every incentive to nurture slave families • Why didn’t the founding fathers do more? o Profits, prejudice, & priorities The Constitution and Slavery • At this point, the Constitution only indirectly mentioned slavery three times • 3/5 Clause (article 1, section 2) o regarding taxes and representation o a slave would be considered 3/5 of a person for both regards • Fugitive slave clause (article 4, section 2) o This made it a Federal responsibility to capture and return slaves to their owners Slavery in the Early Republic (1787-1831) • “Necessary, Temporary Evil” (thought slavery would eventually fade out because…) o originally there were 4 main staple crops associated with slavery ▯ tobacco, indigo, rice, long-staple cotton o each of these crops either ceased to be produced or were contained in small sections of the country until… • Eli Whitney and the cotton gin o Took the seeds out of the cotton ▯ Now states could grow short-staple cotton ▯ Without the cotton gin, the short-staple cotton isn’t economical (lesser quality than long-staple cotton so it would need to be sold in large quantities) • Manumission and colonization o Two pushes to find a way to end slavery: manumission and colonization ▯ Manumission: free slaves upon their own death so that slavery would gradually end ▯ Colonization: slaves should be freed and colonized somewhere else outside of the U.S. ▯ Liberia was the result • Problem: slaves didn’t want to go ▯ Expresses white people’s desire to get rid of black people The Turning Point • 2 most important: o Garrison & the Liberator ▯ Newspaper calling for immediate abolition ▯ “You don’t compromise or continue an evil” ▯ Began a Northern reform movement o Nat Turner slave rebellion ▯ Turner was a slave in the Virginia South Hampton area ▯ Most “successful” slave rebellion in history ▯ Killed about 60 white people – men, women, & children ▯ Amplifies the fear of every slaveholder in the South ▯ In South Carolina, slaves outnumbered whites 20- to-1 ▯ Happens only 6 months after Garrison floods the South with anti-slavery propaganda • Virginia’s Defense o What would happen if we actually ended slavery? o Brought in an economist, said “we can’t do it” o Not economically feasible – would cost too much money • The South turns inward o Slave codes were tightened, began to stop sending their kids North for education (UA was founded in 1831) o Slavery’s Defense ▯ Began to change “necessary evil” into a “positive good” o Civil liberties ▯ No freedom of speech – became dangerous to speak out against slavery Abolitionist Position • The abolitionist position was only the view of 2-3% of the white population • Wrong done to slaves, no compromise to sin, believed in racial equality, called for an immediate end Anti-Slavery Position • Abe Lincoln & the Republican party will adopt this view • Believed it was a wrong done to whites o Kills the poor white’s work ethic because they don’t want to be seen as doing the same work as slaves o Gives some whites (powerful plantation owners) too much power • No belief in equality (pushed for colonization), focused on how the white society developed, containment & gradualism Pro-Slavery Position • White freedom, equality, & opportunity require its presence, too many problems to elimination, slavery must expand or it will die Road to War • At this point, South has slavery, North does not (geographical line) • Constitution protected slavery in the states • Western expansion provides loophole for anti-slavery & pro-slavery to clash • Anti-Slavery grows larger, grows into a majority of North in last 15 years before the War Problem of Western Expansion • Missouri Crisis 1819-1820 o Missouri submitted a constitution for slavery to be admitted, James Tallmadge submitted an amendment for slavery to be gradually abolished ▯ The votes were almost completely geographically sectionalized – people’s views have changed • Missouri Compromise o Henry Clay o Missouri would come in as a slave state, Maine would be a free state o Southern boundary was drawn that slavery could not be allowed above Texas Annexation – 1845 • Comes directly in as a state • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo gives us California o Opens up the question of slavery again ▯ Wilmot Proviso – any land that comes from Mexico should be closed to slavery ▯ Never passes, but it shows Northern desire to keep slavery out of the West Compromise of 1850 • Admits California as a free state, Texas as a slave state • 3 stages of admitting a new state o open land, territorial, statehood • now there are 4 views surrounding the expansion of slavery o Wilmot Proviso – prohibit slavery o Southern (John Calhoun) – cannot prohibit o MO Compromise – just draw a line o Popular Sovereignty – the people shall decided Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 • Originally the concern was over the transcontinental railroad • This shatters the Northern Democratic party o Falls completely under Southern sway • The Whig party is destroyed o Republican party rises up • South wants to divide the territory into two (Kansas and Nebraska) and repeal the MO Compromise to allow popular sovereignty After Kansas-Nebraska • Rise of the Republicans in 1854 • Dred Scott Decision 1857 o Declares the MO Compromise unconstitutional o Declares Scott is still a slave even though he had been living in free territory • Lecompton Constitution 1857-1858 o Kansas applies to be a slave state even though there’s virtually no slaves in Kansas ▯ The South brought in phony electoral votes o Slave state government is legitimate even though a separate free state government is set up ▯ Basically Stephen Douglas’s fault ▯ Republican party rallies behind him because he stands against the Lecompton Constitution o Kansas doesn’t become a slave state o Throws of the 1860 presidential election ▯ Lincoln wants to run against him as a Republican in 1858, but the Republican party backs the Democratic Stephen Douglas Lincoln-Douglas Debates • The greatest debates of the 19 thcentury o Most penetrating about slavery in antebellum times • At this time, most people didn’t campaign for senators, because people didn’t directly elect senators o Lincoln had to persuade his own party to vote for him • Douglas’s stance: popular sovereignty o Never said slavery was wrong • Lincoln’s stance: slavery is morally, socially, and politically wrong o How did he distinguish himself? ▯ He blatantly stated slavery was wrong • Douglas ends up getting re-elected John Brown in 1859 • An abolitionist that believed in using coercion and violence • Raid on Harper’s Ferry o Federal arsenal- he was wanting to put guns in the hands of slaves o Captures it with an army of 22 guys (including his sons) o October 16, 1859 – it is captured ▯ U.S. army led by RE Lee and Jeb Stuart is called in • Brown lives through the re-capture and is eventually hanged o Made himself a martyr for the sake of abolition The Election of 1860 • Democratic Convention I: (April) o Southern wing of democrats haven’t forgotten the Lecompton Constitution ordeal and Stephen Douglas o When Douglas is put on the ticket, the southern democrats walked out ▯ Needs 2/3 of the originally present delegate’s votes – has to meet again • Democratic Convention II: Baltimore (June) o When it comes time for the second convention, the old delegates want back in (instead of the newly elected ones that took their place) o They accept the new democrats, which precipitates a new walkout of delegates who believed the old ones should be let back in ▯ They go & have their own separate convention ▯ They put up John C. Breckenridge from KY o Northern democrats put up Douglas • Republican Party Convention: Chicago (May) o Seward was the front-runner o Lincoln’s supporters outsmart Seward’s ▯ They packed the voting room with Lincoln’s supporter before any of Seward’s can get there ▯ It’s in his home state, and because there are so many people campaigning for Lincoln, the Republican party feels pressured to nominate Lincoln o Lincoln wins • Constitutional Union Convention: Baltimore (May) o A new party emerges, mainly composed of Whigs who were scared the Union will fall apart ▯ They were scared because there was no national candidate – each candidate was sectionalized o John Bell is nominated • Every party had full agendas, but all anyone really cared about was the expansion of slavery to the West • Lincoln wins a majority of the electoral college (not popular vote) with 180 votes o First time an American president has come out and said he disagrees with slavery – also he didn’t get any electoral votes from slave states ▯ Second place: John Breckenridge (Southern Democrats) ▯ Third place: John Bell (Union party) ▯ Fourth place: Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrats) ▯ The only candidate to get votes from both free & slave states Three questions: • Why did the South Secede? o There was now a president that nobody in the South elected & was determined to end slavery o Compromise measures fail o Apostles of Disunion ▯ Letter from Stephen Hale (Greensboro, AL) to Kentucky legislation ▯ “self preservation” ▯ supposed to talk them into joining the confederacy o “Technically the Civil War wasn’t fought over slavery because most people in the South didn’t own slaves.” argument ▯ Well yeah but non-slave holders had just as much interest as slave holders in keeping slavery (in their opinion) o Southerners believed their whole way of life was at stake • Why did compromise fail? o Though Northerners really just wanted to contain slavery and not let it spread West, the South believed that containing it would bring an end to it ultimately o See February 4th • Why did the North fight? o Lincoln did not believe the South could secede – would rather go to war than appease o See March 4 Key Dates • December 20, 1860 o South Carolina Secession Convention takes place o South Carolina is the first state to secede from the Union o A number of states follow • February 1, 1861 o Texas becomes the 7 thstate to secede • February 4, 1861 o Virginia votes to NOT secede at that time o Breaks the secession strength ▯ 15 slave states – 8 have not seceded at this time o CSA meets in Montgomery, AL to create a government ▯ Elects Jefferson Davis as president ▯ Is inaugurated the 18 th ▯ Elects Alexander Stephens as VP ▯ Used to be Lincoln’s best friend ▯ Lincoln is only the president-elect for four months, James Buchannan is still the current president- What is he doing? ▯ Says the South has no right to secede ▯ On the other hand, he believes he has no right to stop the South from seceding ▯ Secession goes forward ▯ Lincoln can’t do anything yet ▯ Power vacuum o Peace Conference meets in DC ▯ Try to work out a compromise ▯ Trouble: by this time, there is no compromise position that will work ▯ Nothing but an ironclad guarantee slavery won’t end will work for the South ▯ The North just elected Lincoln, and believes they should just hold out until Lincoln is inaugurated and won’t stop until slavery is ended ▯ Anything that satisfies the North won’t satisfy the South, and vise versa ▯ Ultimately it fails o At the same time, the Critiden Compromise is also meeting in DC ▯ It fails as well ▯ There’s now only two options: peaceable secession or war • March 4, 1861 – Lincoln’s inauguration o Believes the South has no right to secession o “nobody has ever created a nation as a temporary thing – they are forever” o “perpetual union” – Constitution o Argues there were never states outside of the Union o Only way you can break a contract is by agreement of both sides o What’s Lincoln to do? ▯ Doesn’t want to declare war ▯ He still considers these states in the Union ▯ How? By continuing to govern ▯ How small is the federal government at this point? ▯ At this time the only presence of the federal government were forts, post offices, mints, and custom houses ▯ There were only 16,000 men in the U.S. army – spread out in forts ▯ So the federal government wasn’t big, but by the time Lincoln took office – almost everything was gone ▯ Only 4 forts left – only 2 of the 4 were big ones • Ft. Pickens in Pensacola, Florida • Ft. Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina • April 12, 1861 – Battle at Fort Sumter Charleston Harbor • The fact Ft. Moultrie still existed was quite incredible o Not meant to be able to protect itself from the land side o Buchannan put Major Robert Anderson in charge ▯ If Anderson thought he would be attacked, he was allowed to move his garrison to Ft. Sumter ▯ Anderson waited until December 26 thand in the dead of night he rowed out to Ft. Sumter ▯ Pre-emptive: this way Ft. Sumter was saved for the Union (or else it would’ve been long gone) • January 9 - Star of the West was fired upon by the South Carolina army for trying to restock Ft. Sumter o This army fired on a U.S. ship trying to restock a U.S. fort ▯ Essentially the first shots of the war • Anderson says not to send any more ships – he doesn’t want to be the cause of the war • Lincoln talks to Winfield Scott & learns Ft. Sumter only has enough supplies for 4-6 weeks o Scott says it would need 20,000 troops to protect it • Seward says to abandon Sumter & move to Ft. Pickens in Pensacola, Florida o Then Seward says to send mean notes to France or Spain to start an international war to prevent a domestic war (hoping it would rally the country together) • Pickens only had 50 men – Confederate troops were heading that way already (though they never took it) so they knew they had to hold on to Ft. Sumter • Lincoln makes the decision to resupply Sumter and Pickens (& then proceeds to tell the Confederacy) o If there was an aggressor, it would be the Confederacy, not the U.S. • Jefferson Davis decides it cannot be restocked • PGT Beauregard o CSA commander at Charleston, SC th o Commanded to tell Anderson to give up on April 11 or there would be shots fired April 12 th ▯ Anderson says no • April 12th– shots are fired from the harbor o Edmund Ruffin – supposedly the first shooter of the war ▯ Fanatical states’ rights supporter ▯ During the war he said he would “never live under yankee rule” ▯ Killed himself when the South lost the war • Lasts for 33 hours – relief ship comes for Sumter, sees the battle happening, and then turns around • April 13, 1861 – Anderson surrenders o 4,000 shots were fired – at least 600 making a direct hit ▯ not a single person was killed o irony: Anderson asked to fire a ceremonial cannon while taking his flag down, and was allowed to do so ▯ the cannon overheated and ended up killing two of his men • Beauregard was named commander of West Point, but after this his home state of Louisiana seceded & he was removed from his position Another look at the questions (see above) • Question 1 answer: see Apostles of Disunion • Question 2 answer: both sides couldn’t be happy • Question 3 answer: the North believed the US was something worth fighting for o Much more idealistic than we are The day after • Lincoln declares there’s a “rebellion” (since he doesn’t believe the South is its own entity) and calls for 75,000 militia o Militia: citizen soldiers (kin to national guard) ▯ Time to time can be called in for national emergencies ▯ Every state had one ▯ This is the only force Lincoln could call upon o Precipitates a second round of secession • 4 more states secede (VA, TN, NC, & AR) o 4 border states do NOT secede (MO, KY, WV, MD) o there was a direct correlation with how many slaves are in your state to if you seceded or not 3 month period that follows the battle at Ft. Sumter • the capital of the confederacy is moved from Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia o Richmond was the greatest manufacturing city in the South nd o 2 greatest rail hub & financial city in the South o oldest slave state – terribly important it seceded from the Union ▯ example: Robert E Lee and Stonewall Jackson both from Virginia o There were 100 miles between DC and Richmond ▯ Fredericksburg (where half the war was fought) was directly in the middle of the two cities ▯ This is called the Eastern theater • Most of the war was fought in this theater o Western theater: everything else to the Mississippi River o Trans Mississippi Theater: everything west of the Mississippi o Eastern Theater: usually a stalemate, though most of the battles were fought here, there was usually a tie between the South and North o Western Theater: where the war was decided ▯ Constant string of Union victories Who would win the war? • Depended on the character, sculp, & duration of the war • Most people believed the Confederacy would win o Having to conqueror millions of people, cover hundreds of square mileage, bring them back to the Union & make them loyal seemed like an impossible feat ▯ Almost never had been done • All previous wars fought in the U.S. was with small armies and low cost o The largest: Scott’s 14,000 troops during Mexican War • Was going to be bloodier and larger than every other war o Maybe if the North had known they wouldn’t have fought o What finally happened: 750,000 Americans would die • if it would’ve been only the first seven states that had seceded, they would’ve been crushed Pre-War Army & Navy • US Army o 16,000 men, 1,105 of these were officers o of 286 southerners: 192 CSA (Lee), 80 US, 14 no part o of 819 northerners: 26 CSA, the rest US o all numbers related to the officers, the troops primarily stayed loyal to the Union • US Navy o 76,000 men, 1,554 officers (373 of these CSA) o 42 commissioned ships • Weapons o Had been changing rapidly (rifle ammunition) o Hadn’t been a war in 20 years • Medical care o Gruesome Could the South win? • American Revolution was the predecessor o Southerners saw this as another revolution to separate themselves from an oppressor • Would there be foreign intervention? o France & Spain entered during the American Revolution o Everyone thought Britain & France would enter the war ▯ Southern cotton was crucial to their economy 3 months in between • two key issues o what’s going to become of the border states o organizing armies • border state allegiance was important o most economies tied to North, but social systems tied to South o total of 3.5 million people (10% of US population) • Southern resources o 3 slave crops: cotton, sugar, & rice o lower south: 60% of the slaves, most of the crops o upper south: 30% of the slaves o border states: 10% of the slaves, but no crops Delaware • Both governor & legislator were unionist • Didn’t even hold a secession convention • Only 587 people owned slaves • 90% of blacks were free o Irony: Delaware always refuses to voluntarily emancipate o Don’t give up slavery until 13 thamendment • Easily in the Union Maryland • Critical because strategic location • If had seceded, DC would be in the Confederacy • Basically Unionist sympathies o Very strong secessionists in Baltimore though • For troops to get to DC, they had to get through Baltimore • 6 thMassachusetts o each railroad was separate and the railroads did not meet up o when the 6 thMassachusetts got to Baltimore, they had to march through town – a hotbed for secession o people were shooting at the troops, and troops were firing back at the civilians ▯ after this, Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus o the secessionists in MD were arrested, paving the way for Maryland to become a Union state Kentucky • Critical state – extends for hundreds of miles against the Ohio River (border between slave states and free states) • Lincoln once said “I would like to have God on my side, but I have to have Kentucky on my side” o If it sided with the confederacy, the Ohio River would be the confederacy border, making it very defendable o If it sided with the Union, the only thing separating the Union from the Confederacy is an imaginary line • Legislature is unionist, the governor is confederate • Lincoln & Jefferson Davis were both born in Kentucky • Henry Clay – the great compromiser – was also born in Kentucky o Had 3 sons fight for the Union, 4 fought for the CSA o This is how divided KY was • Consequently, KY declared itself neutral o Confederacy eventually violated this neutrality o KY consequently tilted over to the Union • Pro-southern convention declared KY a confederate state and wrote a new confederate legislature (was then run out of the state) • This is why some people consider KY and MO part of the confederacy, even though they really weren’t Missouri • The most westerly and turbulent- it was the gateway to the West • St. Louis (big city) was for the confederates • Union forces eventually force the confederate governor and government out of the state • Remains divided as a result – lots of guerilla warfare occurs & gunfire between citizens • nobody ever really controls the state o gunfighters like Frank & Jesse James come out of Missouri after the Civil War and move West West Virginia • The was no West Virginia at the beginning of the war – it was all Virginia o Always had an animosity to the East • When Virginia seceded, they seceded from Virginia o The only way to legitimize this is if the Virginian government grants permission – so they find a loophole • WV creates its own government and states that it is the true government of Virginia, since Virginia seceded and is no longer in the Union and grants itself permission o Moves government to Alexandria (right outside of DC) and becomes West Virginia Border States • Mostly all for the Union, if not all they are divided • 240,000 for Union, 101,000 fight for CSA • these states are important because of the higher population of white males • irony of the final balance • the final demarcation is not the line between slave states and free states – most of the border states were slave states • at first, the war was about preserving the Union & the border states supported the Union o if it had been at first about ending slavery, the border states maybe would have gone the other way Northern Advantagees • Manpower (4 to 1) • White males of military age • Industrial superiority (11 to 1) • Manufacturing output in dollar amount • Firearm production (31 to 1) • Clothing production – textiles (18 to 1) • Railroad mileage (2.4 to 1) • Shipping (16 to 1) o Confederacy owned virtually no commercial shipping • Eventually put about 2 million men out of the 4.6 million available o Virtually every man of military age had to fight in the CSA (roughly 900,000 out of 1,000,000) • Yet, most people thought the North had no chance Southern Advantage • Limited objectives o Simply wanted to be left alone (to protect its borders) • North had to invade, occupy, and hold on to the South • Defending your land is easier than invading someone else’s land • Agrarian way of life o Could absorb punishment easily – self-sufficient • Morale o The South was defending its homeland • The South was a very important market for the North o Cotton (they thought) • They supplied 4/5 of cotton for the textile industry of Britain and France • Believed they’d help the South escape defeat because of this • Northern Divisions (they thought) o Believes that the Democrats in the North will undermine the war effort Organizing the Armies 2/29/16 9:39 AM Types of troops • Regular army o Spread out in 79 different forts o Was not expanded considerably, kept separate • Militia o Citizen troops under state control o Could be called up for 90 days for federal service o Lincoln called for 75,000 militia o Knew this would not suffice and that the war wouldn’t just be 3 months long so… • Volunteer army rd o Lincoln asked on May 3 o For 40,000 for a 3-year term o By July, 200,000 men had volunteered • Lincoln called congress into a special session July 4,1861 th o In the 19 century, the legislature was not due to serve until December of 1861 o They ratify 500,000 men – staggering accomplishment • The war was mainly fought with these Raising the armies • Prominent local citizens raise companies & regiments • Communities would go to war together • People knew each other – gave the war a different kind of flavor • Allowed men to elect their own officers Election of officers • Most people who are elected are community leaders • To some degree this created a real unity and made it hard to act badly because everyone knew you – but still had a negative effect on discipline Medical inspection • Pretty cursory • One woman masqueraded as a man & fought through the Civil War - & nobody knew Making larger • Everything up to a regiment was raised in the state • 1000 men in one regiment – 10 companies of 100 men • 1 Pennsylvania volunteer regiment (title example) • governors had control over regiments o were then sent to federal camps to become larger units Army branches • Infantry • Basic ground troops • Most men in are in these • 80% U.S. army, 75% CSA Cavalry • Mountain troops & ride horses • 15-20% of the army Artillery • Fire cannons • 5-6% of the army • heavy artillery o very large cannons in fixed positions (along the coasts & in forts) • light artillery o cannons taken into battle ▯ most concerned with these Infantry organization • Company (100 men) o Use letters as identifiers o Regiment (1000 men, 10 companies) o Most important o If you asked a soldier where they fought, they’d tell you their regimental identity o Largest unit that comes out of the state • Brigade (3-5 regiments, ~3000 men) o Basic fighting forces • Division (3-4 brigades, ~10,000 men) • Corps (3-4 divisions, ~10,000-20,000 men) • Army (2 or more corps) o 16 Union armies, 23 CSA armies o CSA named departments after states (political) o Union named after rivers (geographical) ▯ i.e. Army of the Potomac – most talked about Union army ▯ i.e. Army of Northern Virginia – Lee’s army (most famous CSA army) ▯ both sides have a Tennessee army • CSA: Tennessee Army • Union: The Tennessee Army o CSA would name battles after surrounding towns, Union would name them after rivers or landmarks ▯ Battle of Manassas vs Battle of Bull Run o Could have as many as 140,000 men • Armies & corps are important o Armies fight the battles o Corps are the huge building blocks of armies ▯ Commanders just below Lee & Grant ▯ i.e. Stonewall Jackson commanded a corps Cavalry organization • Regiment: 5 battalions o Colonel (leader) • Battalions (squadrons): 2 cos. o Major • Company (troop): 100 men o Captain Heavy Artillery • Regiment: 12 companies o Headed by a colonel • Battalion: 4 companies o Headed by a major • Company: 150 men o Headed by a captain o Late in the war, they turn them into infantry reg. General officers • Appointed by congress and the president • Highest level • Union o Lieutenant general (highest rank) ▯ Only had 1 – U. Grant ~ 1864 ▯ First one the army had since George Washington o Major general o Brigadier general • CSA o General ▯ commanded the whole army – most famous was Lee o lieutenant general ▯ corps (Stonewall Jackson) o major general ▯ lead divisions o brigadier general ▯ commands brigade o there were honorary ranks ▯ brevet ranks ▯ don’t get the salary or command more than your actual rank ▯ Winfield Scott had the brevet rank of lt. general, but Grant was the only true lt. general o Commissioned officers ▯ Appointed by the state ▯ You can resign nd ▯ Nobody below a 2 lieutenant ▯ Regimental officers ▯ Colonel ▯ Lieutenant colonel ▯ Major ▯ Company officers ▯ Captain ▯ 1 lieutenant • 2ndlieutenant o non-commissioned officers (cannot resign) ▯ sergeants ▯ corporal ▯ privates ▯ by far the most common foot soldiers • By Gettysburg, most regiments had between 300-350 men o This is why the draft is formed o CSA army is formed in March 1861 – they start the draft early Confederate conscription • April 1862: white, male citizen ages 18-35 (3 years) • September 1862: raise the age to 45 • February 1864: raised/expanded the age 17-50 • This was a problem because the CSA was formed out of an issue of states’ rights • Exemptions o State militia officers o Any teachers with 20 or more students o One white man exempt for every 20 slaves owned o Key workers in industry, agriculture, & transport o Clergy o Pacifists o Substitution ▯ If you were drafted, you could hire an able-bodied person to take your place ▯ Abolished in December of 1863 o Medical unfitness o Fleeing the state • Ultimately – 25% made up of draftees o 50,000 to 75,000 send substitutions o by 1864 – everyone in the army has to stay the duration of the war For Union drafts • July 1863 • They tell adult white male citizens ages 20-45 to enroll yourself in a draft • Created draft districts o Distributed the need for soldiers between districts • There was a stigma to being drafted • Main effectiveness is getting people to volunteer o Only 8% were substitutes or draftees • 1864: March, July, & December • exemptions: far fewer than CSA o medical – physically or mentally unfit o compassionate grounds o commutation ▯ abolished July 1864 ▯ if you paid $300 you could get out of the draft • generalized statement: people in the army did NOT like draftees Results of Union Draft • 776,000 names are drawn in lottery o 161,000 failed to report o 93,000 sent home (quota filled) o 315,000 exempt for physical & mental disability (majority) compassionate grounds • 207,000 actually drafted o 87,000 pay commutation o 74,000 furnished substitutes o 46,000 actually entered the army ▯ only 120,000 soldiers are produced from the draft ▯ probably some of the worst soldiers • if it weren’t for the draft, it wouldn’t have stimulated volunteering & the government got a lot of $$$ from commutation Logistics 2/29/16 9:39 AM Departments for logistical support • Quarter master general o Clothing, equipment, forage, animals, transport, housing • Commissary general of substance o Rations • Chief of ordinance • Surgeon General Army of the Potomac 1862 • 128,000 men • 22,000 horses • 10,000 mules • 321 Artillery pieces o how do you handle food? Supplies? Means of transport The Army of the Potomac needed... • 192 tons of rations • 412 tons of forage • 64 tons of ammunition • that’s 668 tons total for this army every day o wagons o railroads o steamboats ▯ 500 tons on one steamboat – almost enough for a whole day ▯ best way to supply an army? By water ▯ second: railroads third: wagons • size of the armies o shoulder to shoulder: 48 miles long o no commander could see his whole army ▯ have to get messages to them somehow ▯ trying to figure out where the armies was hard • why didn’t things happen efficiently? o Communication was hard & armies were massive o Limited what you could do in battalion march Strategy, Tactics, Weapons 2/29/16 9:39 AM Civil War Soldier (Union) • Carried a 14 pound rifle o Ammunition – 6 pounds o water in canteen – 4 pounds o blanket & coat – 5 pounds o knapsack – 15-20 pounds of stuff (varied) o rations – 4-10 pounds o over 50 pounds of equipment • wool uniform • average weight/height – 143 pounds, 5’8 o not very comfortable o some units marched over 30 miles ▯ then to fight a 3 day battle? These guys were tough Going into battle • shoulder to should – ranks (2 feet apart) • depth – file (16 inches) • basic foot soldiers went into battle • a typical company o captain: front line on the right ▯ highest % killed by ranks were general o a file – Closers ▯ sergeants & lieutenants ▯ kept the ranks from going backwards • typical battle formation – 10 companies o 6 are on the battle lines o 2 in reserve o 2 are thrown out as skirmishers ▯ draw the enemy fire out ▯ remove any obstacles (fences, etc.) for main line ▯ fight as individuals, not as groups o if these lose the integrity of formation, they become a mob ▯ you’ve got to know if the guy ahead of you is on your side or not o 2 “colors” – national & state flags ▯ carried by the bravest men – color sergeants ▯ don’t carry weapons ▯ color guard – flank the color sergeants to protect them ▯ if they go down, the regiment loses its form ▯ very critical – protect your identity o company guarding the flank ▯ weak spot of the battle line ▯ fire power on the flanks are nothing like fire power on the side ▯ stands diagonally o 3 men on horseback ▯ behind the line ▯ major, lieutenant colonel, colonel ▯ make really big targets o rate of advance ▯ marched in very slowly ▯ “double quick” – 110 yards per minute ▯ fastest they could go ▯ can’t load your weapon on the fly ▯ you went slowly to maintain your order ▯ When marching to the battle field, they don’t march in lines, they march in columns ▯ Ranks are narrow, but the files are deep ▯ Moving from column to battle line – evolution Military concepts (definitions on paper) • Strategy o “the art of directing and moving armies to bring about battle under favorable conditions” o plans they make move armies in a place/time that is favoring to you • tactics o “the art of directing and deploying troops on the battlefield” o microstrategy ▯ while you’re engaged with the enemy • logistics o “the military science of dealing with the procurement, maintenance, and movement of material and personnel” Flint lock smooth bore • It has been 60 years since the Napoleonic War • Most generals in the Civil War went to West Point o Here they studied Napoleonic tactics ▯ Problem: weapons have changed since then • A typical foot soldier carried this gun in the Napoleonic War o Musket o Barrel inside is just a smooth tube o .69 caliber o lead ball (bullet) – 1 ounce o to cock the gun was extremely complicated and time- consuming (might want to learn how for the test) o “flash in a pan” – bullet doesn’t go anywhere o average shooter: 2 shots per minute ▯ accuracy: between 75-100 yards ▯ “don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes” ▯ tremendous advantage to being on the attack Springfield rifle musket • Standard gun of the Civil War • .58 caliber • rifling inside the barrel o causes the bullet to spin – cut through the air better, greater range (~350 yards) • basically shooting a bullet like a baseball pitcher pitches a fast ball • at 600 yards, the bullet will penetrate 6 1-inch boards o at 1,000 yards, it can still kill people • In the Napoleonic War, they knew about these rifles, but didn’t typically use them because the bullets have to fit tightly o Very hard to load o Then there’s an improvement – invention of the minie ball ▯ Instead of being round, it’s conical, with the center cut out ▯ Smaller than the barrel ▯ Comprised of soft lead – soft gas makes it expand and then causes it to engage in the rifling and spin • Another improvement o Hammer is now less complicated • Still takes almost as long- roughly 3 shots per minute Ammunition • Pre-measured black powder o You would tear to apart with your teeth o Percussion cap • Quite a process – another reason why they drilled all the time o Had to do it right while thousands of men were firing at you • Picked up 37,000 rifles off the ground at the Battle of Gettysburg o 24,000 were loaded o 18,000 were loaded more than once ▯ one had 13 charges in it ▯ probably forgetting a step, percussion cap, ramrod, etc. • different kinds of bullets o buck shot: used in the Irish brigade • bayonet can attach to the end of the gun to make a 6 foot spear o soldiers didn’t really know much about how to use a spear o good for digging, cooking, and candle holding ▯ used for all kinds of things except fighting Officer’s weapons • Sword (for waving around) • Pistol (.44 caliber) o Standard: Colt model 1860 army ▯ Has to be loaded just like a musket • Less than 5% of wounds came from edged weapons • Advantage of the rifles – switch from defense to offense o Aggressor usually loses in this war o Basically does away with Cavalry (these were popular in the Napoleonic war though) • Carbine o Shoulder weapon for cavalry ▯ Shorter to be maneuvered easily • Technology was much more advanced than what the soldiers actually had o Springfield rifle only cost $13 then o New technology was too expensive • A lot of controversy about the impact of the rifle Artillery • 12-pounder gun-howzer M1857 (Napoleon) o most common cannon used o shoots roughly a mile o big hollow tube – 12lb ball (4 ½ inches), 1200 lb tube made of bronze (they’re all green now) o 2-4 shots per minute o the soldiers always rammed with their left arm in case the cannon was too hot and it shot automatically, resulting in a lost arm • 3 inch ordinance rifle o rifle cannon, smaller projectile nd o 2 most common o couldn’t do as much but they were very accurate • 10 lb parrott o rifle cannon o tendency to blow up o came in different sizes (10, 20, 30 pounders) • Whitworth cannon o One of the most fun – rifle cannon – hexagonal bolt o Made in England o Could fire like 6 miles o Didn’t explode the iron bolt – not used much ▯ Couldn’t see what you’re shooting at ▯ A few on Oak Hill at Gettysburg • Ammunition o Solid shot – Napoleon o Solid bolt – rifle ▯ These two fired farthest o Shell – iron ball filled with black powder o Overwhelming were not percussion ▯ Hit the ground and that was it – didn’t explode
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