A&P1 ch6 bones/skeletal
A&P1 ch6 bones/skeletal BSC 2085C
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jisun Ban on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 2085C at University of North Florida taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of North Florida.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
1. The structure of bone tissue suits the function. 9. Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to include ________. support weight and withstand tension stress? A) decreasing weight-bearing exercise A) irregular bone B) drinking fluoridated water B) spongy bone C) increasing dietary vitamin C C) compact bone D) decreasing exposure to the sun D) trabecular bone 10. Ossification of the ends of long bones ________. 2. Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of A) involves medullary cavity formation ________. B) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone A) blood-forming cells formation B) fat C) is produced by secondary ossification centers C) elastic tissue D) takes twice as long as diaphysis D) Sharpey's fibers 3. The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone 11. Cartilage is found in strategic places in the human is the ________. skeleton. What is responsible for the resilience of A) osteoblast B) osteocyte cartilage? C) osteoclast A) hydroxyapatite deposits D) chondrocyte B) high water content C) calcium influx D) phosphate ions 4. What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo? A) dense fibrous connective tissue 12. The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is B) elastic connective tissue ________. C) fibrocartilage A) elastic D) hyaline cartilage B) hyaline C) fibrocartilage 5. In bone formation, a deficiency of growth hormone D) epiphyseal will cause ________. A) decreased osteoclast activity 13. Which of the following is (are) not the function(s) B) inadequate calcificationof bone of the skeletal system? C) decreased proliferationof the epiphyseal plate A) storage of minerals cartilage B) support D) increased osteoclast activity C) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis) D) communication 6. A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________. 14. The structural unit of compact bone is ________. A) metaphysis A) spongy bone B) epiphysis B) osseous matrix C) diaphysis C) lamellar bone D) articular cartilage D) the osteon 7. The term diploë refers to ________. 15. Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called A) the fact that most bones are formed of two types periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists of bone tissue primarily of ________. B) the double-layered nature of the connective A) marrow and osteons tissue covering the bone B) cartilage and compact bone C) the internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts D) the two types of marrow found within most D) chondrocytes and osteocytes bones 16. The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________. 8. Select the correct statement concerning the location A) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage of blood-forming tissue. B) Volkmann's canals A) The sternum (breastbone) is a good source of blood-forming tissue. C) Perforating (Sharpey's ) fibers D) the struts of bone known as spicules 17. The canal that runs through the core of each osteon 25. A bone fracture perpendicular to the bone's axis is (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________. called a(n) ________ fracture. A) osteoclasts and osteoblasts A) linear B) cartilage and interstitial lamellae B) nondisplaced C) yellow marrow and spicules C) transverse D) blood vessels and nerve fibers D) incomplete 18. The small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in 26. Wolff's law is concerned with ________. which osteocytes live are called ________. A) the thickness and shape of a bone being A) Volkmann's canals dependent on stresses placed upon it B) lacunae B) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age C) Haversian canals C) the function of bone being dependent on shape D) trabeculae D) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts 19. For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary? 27. Cranial bones develop ________. A) An ossification center forms in the fibrous A) within fibrous membranes connective tissue. B) from cartilage models B) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model. C) from a tendon C) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate. D) within osseous membranes D) A medullary cavity forms. 28. Which of the following glands or organs produces 20. The process of bones increasing in width is known hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium as ________. levels? A) long bones reaching adult length and width A) thyroid B) closing of the epiphyseal plate B) pineal gland C) appositional growth C) parathyroid D) concentric growth D) spleen 21. Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for 29. Osteomyelitis is ________. various reasons. Which of the following cells A) literally known as "soft bones" accomplishes this process? B) partially due to insufficient dietary calcium A) osteocyte C) due to pus-forming bacteria B) osteoclast D) caused by altered vitamin D metabolism C) osteoblast D) stem cell 30. Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and 22. Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to interstitial. Appositional growth is ________. release more calcium ions into the bloodstream? A) the secretion of new matrix against the external A) thyroxine face of existing cartilage B) calcitonin B) growth at the epiphyseal plate C) parathyroid hormone C) along the edges only D) estrogen D) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage 31. Which of the following statements best describes 23. Vertebrae are considered ________ bones. A) flat interstitial growth? B) long A) Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and C) short B) Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones. D) irregular C) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage. D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete 24. The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40 ________. matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within. A) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton B) is slower in females than in males 32. In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________. C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and A) by pushing the epiphysis away from the mineralization diaphysis D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans 33. Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________. 39. Normal bone formation and growth are dependent A) lamellar bone on the adequate intake of ________. B) osteons A) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D C) trabeculae B) calcium, phosphate, andvitamin D D) osseous lamellae C) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E D) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride 34. Osteogenesis is the process of ________. A) bone destruction to liberate calcium 40. Which fracture would be least likely in a 92-year- B) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone old? C) bone formation A) greenstick D) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage B) compression C) comminuted 35. Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and D) spiral youth is exclusively through ________. 41. _____________ are not one of the four cell types that A) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary populate bone tissue in adults. cavity A) Mesenchymal cells B) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates B) Osteoblasts C) differentiation of osteoclasts C) Osteocytes D) calcification of the matrix D) Osteoprogenitor cells 36. Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. 42. Ostealgia is ________________. Which hormone is important forbone growth during infancy and childhood? A) a disease of the bone A) somatomedins B) a defect called clubfoot C) pain in a bone B) thyroid hormone D) fractured bone C) growth hormone D) prolactin 43. What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause? 37. In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones A) decreased osteoclast activity of children closes too early. What might be the cause? B) inadequate calcificationof bone C) decreased proliferationof the epiphyseal plate A) elevated levels of sex hormones cartilage D) increased osteoclast activity 38. It is thought that remodeling or bone growth is in response to the forces placed on it. Which of 44. Which of the following is a bone marking name that the following hypotheses may explain how indicates a projection that helps to form joints? mechanical forces communicate with cells A) ramus responsible for bone remodeling? A) Vitamin D enhances the remodeling process. 45. Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to B) Increase in the synthesis of growth hormone directs increase in length until early childhood, as well as the remodeling process. shaping the articular surfaces? C) Bone deposition by osteoclasts is responsible for A) Haversian system remodeling . B) lacunae C) epiphyseal plate D) Electrical signals direct the remodeling process. D) epiphyseal line 46. Blood cell formation is called ________. hematopoiesis 47. A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ________ bone. sesamoid 48. A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ________ fibers. nerve 49. A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification. endochondral 50. ________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones. Appositional 51. ________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone. Osteoclasts 52. ________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones. Osteoporosis 53. A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ________. Foramen 54. Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones. True 55. The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk. True 56. The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones. True 57. Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite. True 58. An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only. True 59. The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress. True 60. Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions. True 61. Cartilage has a flexible matrix which can accomodate mitosis of chrondrocytes. True 62. Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone. False 63. Bones are classified by whether they are weight-bearing or protective in function. False 64. The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels. False 65. Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light. False 66. In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow. False 67. All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones. False 68. Bone tissue in the skeleton of a human fetus is completely formed at six months' gestation. False
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