Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Exam 1 Review
Biology 2- BIOL 1362 Exam 1 Review BIOL 1362
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This 50 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Clowtis on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1362 at University of Houston taught by CHEEK in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Biology 2 in Biology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Exam Preparation Guide 1- Chapters 24-27, 19, and 11 Biodiversity Chapters 24-27 Archaea • Growth at greater than 100 degrees Celsius • Some branched hc tail membrane lipids • Some introns • 0/1 histones • Extremophiles- extreme environments (salty, hot) • Methanogens- producers, use CO2 to oxidize H2 to Ch4; hydrothermal vents, cow and termite guts Bacteria • Introns are rare • No histones • Gram-positive bacteriaeria, Chlamydias, Spirochetes, Cyanobacteria, • All have cell wall • Phylogenetic tree • Kingdom for each species of bacteria in lecture • Gram-positive/gram-negative and their kingdoms • Lipopolysaccharide membrane surrounding cell wall in gram-negative (first 4) • Naked cell wall in gram positive Cyanobacteria • Unicellular • Photosynthetic • Oldest fossil photoautotroph • Ancestor of chloroplast • Forms soil crust • Symbiotic relationship of cyanobacteria +fungus=lichen Proteobacteria • Cell wall with additional membrane (gram negative) • Some autotrophs, chemo- and photo • Some heterotrophs • Pathogenic • Nonpathogenic Chlamydias and Spirochetes • Chlamydias • Parasites of animal cells • Spirochetes • Some free-living • Pathogenic parasites Gram-positive Bacteria • No additional membrane covering cell wall • Nonpathogenic: Streptomyces • Pathogenic: Eukarya • Nuclear envelope • Membrane-bound organelles • No circular chromosome • Most eukaryotes are single-celled • 4 supergroups- Excavata, SAR Clade, Archaeplastida, Unikonta • Phylogenetic tree • Supergroup single-celled eukaryote listed in lecture Excavata • Feeding groove along one side of cell • Mitochondria that don’t use oxygen • Many are heterotrophs • Parasites • Giardia intestinalis • Trypanosoma SAR Clade • Straenopiles, Alveolates, and Rhizaria • Contain similar photosynthetic plastid • Many live in marine and freshwater plankton • Stramenopiles: Examples- unicellular diatoms, important photosynthetic plastid • Alveolates: Dinoflagellates- important photosynthetic producers, some are symbiotic with corals, overgrowth of some free-living populations can cause red tide, some free-living marine species are bioluminescent • Producers are responsible for 30% of global photosynthesis (alveolates) • Malaria • Plasmodium (apicomplexan)- Alveolates Archaea and Bacteria • No nuclear envelope • No membrane-bound organelles • Circular chromosome Archaea and Eukarya • No peptidoglycan cell wall • More than 1 RNA polymerase • Initiator amino acid: Met • No ribosome assembly sensitivity to antibiotics • Both have introns (archaea has some, eukarya has many) • Possibly histones (0/1 archaea, 1 eukarya) Bacteria and Eukarya • No growth at greater than 100 degrees Celsius • Membrane lipids have unbranched hc tail Phylogenetic tree • What the branching indicates about evolutionary relationships • Compare and see if they represent same/different relationships between groups • Use to ID which groups descend from more recent/ancient common ancestor Archaeplastida • Ancestral characteristics unite this • Land plants • Share chlorophyll a and b as ancestral characteristic with green algae • Shared derived traits with Charophyte algae- process for making cell wall, sperm with flagellae Plantae • Shared derived traits 7 phyla in this kingdom • 4 shared traits of plants: • Alteration of generations- 2 multicellular life stages • Sporangia- multicellular organs that produce desiccation-resistant spores • Gametangia- archegonium with egg, antheridium with sperm • Apical meristem- cell division occurring at tip of roots and stems • Match name of plants to correct phylum that were in lecture Alteration of generations • Draw cycle, name each generation, indicate ploidy, type of cell division that produces single cells that develop into next generation Nonvascular Plants- short and small, live in moist environments, flagellated sperm, gametophyte is dominant stage of life cycle • Liverworts • Mosses • Hornworts- most are aquatic • Ceratophyllum demersum Seedless Vascular Plants • Sporophyte is dominant generation • 3 separate tissues: roots, stems leaves • Flagellated sperm • Lycophytes: club mosses • Pterophytes: ferns Vascular Seed Plants • Sporophyte is dominant generation • Spores develop into microscopic gametophyte within the parent sporophyte • Gymnosperms: pineywoods ecoregion (pic) • Angiosperms: coastal prairie ecoregion • Seed develops in ovary, produce flowers, fruits Unikonta: Fungi • Heterotrophs • Saprotrophic • Cell walls= chitin • Cells secrete enzymes that digest surrounding material • Body made of hyphae • Symbionts • Mycorrhizae • Fungus secretes enzymes that digest organic matter in soil improving mineral absorption by plant • Plant supplies fungi with carbs Unikonta: Animalia • Phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Chordata, Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda, Athropoda – phylogenetic tree • Phylogenetic tree- Bilateria, Deuterostomia, protostomes • 4 protosome phyla in lecture Phylogenetic tree- Bilateria, Deuterostomia, protostomes 1. Genes encoding rRNA, chapteron proteins, tubulin 2. Collagen 3. Gastrulation and formation of tissues 1a. Bilateral symmetry 2a. Protostomes 3a. Deuterostomes 1b. exoskeleton and jointed legs 2b. 6 legs Phylum 3 Main Lineages-”Group” Class Lophotrochozoa • Shared derived characteristics • Development: Spiral cleavage pattern of embryonic cells • Genes: Hox genes (regulate development of body shape, genes for enzymes important in cellular respiration • List 2 phyla in this group • Ectoprocta • Mollusca • Annelida Ecdysozoa • Shared derived characteristics: ecdysis • 2 phyla in this group • Nematoda • Arthropoda Arthropods • 4 classes • Chelicerata • Myriapoda • Crustacea • Insecta (Hexapoda) • Match name of arthropod in lecture and life video to correct class Darwin and Natural Selection Chapter 19 Lyell • English geologist (late 1700s-early 1800s) • Takes Hutton’s further- geological processes operate today at the same rate as in the past Earth is really, really old, which contradicts other scientists of their time that said it’s only 6,000 years old Lamarck vs. Darwin Lamarck (1744-1829) Darwin • Fossils are ancestors of species we see • Individuals whose inherited traits give them a today higher probability of surviving leave more • Species can change into new species offspring- “survival of the fittest” • lead to an accumulation of favorable traits in • species could change: during lifetime the population over many generations (good of organism, may acquire some traits stick out through generations, those changes with bad traits don’t reproduce as much) • Use and disuse • to fit its environment- it is born with a trait • Inheritance of acquired characteristics favorable to its current environment, • Acquired characteristics being passed therefore it survives longer than those with onto offspring as shown in parent less fit traits do organism Darwin • Descent with modification: coined by Darwin; =evolution • Examples of ^ in living organisms and fossils • 2 conditions necessary for natural selection and examples to satisfy each • Individuals that inherit certain traits survive better and reproduce more in their current, local environment • Conditions under which natural selection would occur • Food type available, predators, female preferences for male characteristics Natural Selection vs. Artificial Selection • Compare/contrast • Conditions necessary, selection pressure, result Natural Selection vs. Artificial Selection Natural Selection Artificial Selection • Individuals that inherit certain traits survive better and reproduce more in their current, local • Humans picking traits in animals environment and breeding them to create a • Can act only on heritable characteristics that vary in a population new subspecies • particular functionenough, NOT best structure f• Selection pressure: human • Selection pressure: food availability, predators, reproduction, etc. desire • Results in subspecies with higher likelihood of survival due to their trait that is well suited to their in subspecies fitting to find an environment better suited for theirther human need or desire particular trait or they will eventually die off local environmenttition is more adapted to their Heredity Chapter 11 Mendel (1822-1884) • Australian monk • Experimented with peas • Darwin didn’t know about Mendel’s work • Published in 1866 • Nobody knew about chromosomes- nobody knew what was being passed to offspring Law of Segregation • Mendel’s model of inheritance •Ex. Flower can be purple or whitesions • Law: 2 characters separate from each other (segregate) when gametes form • Characters end up in different gametes • predicting offspring phenotype and genotype • 1 letter to represent character (gene) • Uppercase/lowercase to represent version of character (allele) • If P genotype is known then you can find out the possible gamete genotypes • Law of Independent Assortment • Mendel’s experiments with inheritance of 2 characters • Seed color of pea: yellow or green Y-yellow, y-green • Seed shape: round or wrinkled R-round, r-wrinkled • crossed round yellow by green wrinkled so he knows they are all heterozygous for both traits • Dihybrid cross • Hypothesis of independent assortment: traits are sorted into gametes independently of each other • Results prove this hypothesis accurate over the hypothesis of dependent assortment because he got 4 types of peas instead of 2 • Definition: traits for 1 character are sorted into gametes independent of other character Monohybrid Cross • Punnet square Dihybrid cross • Cross between 2 dihybrids Notation • Dominant • Recessive • Co-dominant • Wild-type • Mutant • Sex-linked Pedigree • Autosomal Recessive Pedigree • Autosomal Dominant Pedigree • **Dominant DOES NOT mean more common** • Be able to find out if it is autosomal dominant or recessive from pedigree Punnet Square Genotype and Phenotype • When given the genotype and/or phenotype of parents, us Punnet Square to figure out genotypes of offspring. • Dominant traits are expressed if one dominant allele is present • Recessive trait is only expressed if organism has 2 recessive alleles for that trait (two little letters) Definitions • Gene, locus, allele • 2 alleles for diploid individual for each locus • Can either have 2 copies of same allele at that locus (homozygous) or 1 copy each of 2 different alleles (heterozygous) • Diploid organism produced by sexual reproduction gets half its alleles from each parent (half from mom and half from dad) so they have 2 copies of every gene • Matching genes from each parent occur at the same location (locus) on homologous chromosomes • Number of alleles can be different per gene in the population because some genes have more variation (genetic variation) than others • Ex. There are more than 2 different colors of skin but then when it comes to hair, you can the gene for skin color because there are multiple different alleles, but there are only 2 in alleles for hair texture (assuming curly is HH, wavy is Hh and straight is hh) Practice • Chapter 11 Concept check questions: 11.1: 1-3, 11.2: 1-3 • Test your understanding: Q1-4, 6-12, 16-18, 20 1. Phenotypic ratio in F2 generation considering only pea shape 12 round peas, 4 wrinkled peas 3:1 Phenotypic Ratio 2. 1/16 offspring would have terminal flower position and be dwarf 1/16=x/400 x= 25 dwarf offspring with terminal flowers 3. Gametes that could be made from YyRrIi= YRI, YRi, Yri, YrI, yRI, yrI, yRi, yri You would need an 8X8 Punnet square 1. 2. Genotype of all possible offspring of P: BbDD X BBDd BBDD, BbDD, BBDd, BbDd Each genotype has ¼ chance of occurring
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