Study Guide: exam 1
Study Guide: exam 1 CRCJ 3385
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Camacho on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRCJ 3385 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Jaya B. Davis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in Criminal Justice at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
CRCJ 3385 Review Questions/Answers 1. What movement increased understanding of women and their relationship with crime through the inclusion of gender in research? Feminist criminology Civil rights and women’s movement (1960’s and 1970’s) 2. Who are the majority of victims of intimate partner violence and sexual assault? women 3. Women are more likely to be victimized by who (relationship) and less likely to be victimized by who (relationship)? More likely from a family/friend. Known person than a stranger 4. What is the difference between sex and gender? Sex: refers to the biological or physiological characteristics of what makes someone male or female. Gender: refers to the identification of masculine or feminine traits, which are socially constructed terms. 5. What is the gender gap? Refers to the differences in male and female offending different types of offenses Women: status offenses (prostitution, shoplifting) Men: serious/violent crimes 6. Which of the following is said to be the one of the greatest contributions of feminist criminology? Feminist research methods: o Researcher does not have to be female Is the acknowledgement of the relationship between victimization and offending o True because they can be abuse, which leads them to offense o Most of them have been victims before they were known as offenders 7. Which movement or movements served to advance the study of women and crime? Civil rights movement Women liberal movement (women are equal to men) Vietnam war movement Victim rights movement o Women are victims. Ex: domestic violence in certain offenses 8. What is one of the purposes and greatest achievement of the national crime victimization survey? Attempt to fill the gap between reported and unreported crime (dark figure of crime) Gathers additional data about crimes committed and gives criminologist a greater understanding of the types of crimes committed and characteristics of the victims 9. What is feminist mythology? Who can conduct feminist research? What type of research (quantitative vs. qualitative) is the basis of feminist mythology? The process by which data are gathered and the relationship between the researcher and the subject scholars They largely employ qualitative, but they do not exclude quantitative. 10. Why might victims choose not to report their victimization to the police? Embarrassment of the abuse Believing that the abuse is a private matter Fear for their own safety Concerns about social reactions Family Believe that the system will do nothing 11. Who do victims of sexual assault and intimate partner violence most often and least often seek help from? Seek help from personal resources outside of law enforcement, such as family and friends and many seek assistance through formal mental health services following a victimization experience (informal) least likely to seek help from law enforcement (formal) 12. What is victim blaming? What are some examples? What are the negative consequences? Shifting the blame of rape from the offender to the victim; by doing so, the confrontation of the realities of victimization is avoided. “she asked for it” “she was on drugs” for example, if a victim engages in behaviors that place her at increased risk, she might be blamed for contributing her own victimization for example, if she prostitutes and she is robbed, people will blame her problems: only “innocent” victims are true victims, assumes people are able to change their environment, creates false sense of security. 13. What is the rape myth? What are some examples? Attitudes and beliefs that are generally false but are widely held that serve to deny and justify male sexual aggression against women. o Victim was “asking for it” o Some of the victims believe them and causes them to self blame Consent 14. What is the just world hypothesis? What are some negative outcomes of the just world hypothesis? Society has a need to believe that people deserve whatever comes to them: this paradigm is linked to patterns of victim blaming. This can impact future reporting trends as victims may be less likely to report their own victimizations The victim begins to believe It was their fault because of “victim blaming” Bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people problems: only “innocent” victims are true victims, assumes people are able to change their environment, creates false sense of security. 15. What is secondary victimization? The idea that victims become more traumatized after the primary victimization. It can stem from victim blaming or from the process of collecting evidence (physical or testimonial) Rape myth acceptance is an example of secondary victimization. 16. Mendelsohn’s early work in victimology concentrated on victim precipitation of crime. Be able to identify the categories he set out and level of responsibility of the victim. Developed a typology of victimization that distinguished different types of victims based on the relative responsibility of the victims in their own victimization. 6 categories of victims o innocent victim: no responsibility for the crime attributed to victim: the mentally ill, children, attacked while unconscious o victim with no guilt: victim precipitates crime with careless/ignorance: victim lost in the “wrong part of town” o voluntary victim: victim and the offender equally responsible for crime: victim pays prostitute for sex, then prostitute robs victim o victim who is more guilty than the offender: victim who provokes or induces another to commit crime: burning bed syndrome, victim is killed by domestic partner he abused for years o victim who alone is guilty: victim who is solely responsible for his or her own victimization: o imaginary victim 17. What are the three elements needed for a crime to occur according to Routine Activities Theory? Motivated offender: someone who is interested in pursuing a criminal action Suitable target: a potential victim “available” to victimize Lack of guardian: absence of someone or something 18. Being fearful of crime can lead to what negative outcomes? Women who are fearful of crime, particularly violent or sexual crimes, are more likely to isolate themselves from society in general This fear reflects not only the concern of potential victimization but also a threat regarding the potential loss of control that a victim experiences as a result of being victimized. Fear of crime can also be damaging toward one’s feeling of self- worth and self-esteem. Fear of victimization also changes social actions. Ex: community puts more security 19. How is victimization and offending explained in the gendered pathways perspective? Provides some of the best understanding of how women find themselves stuck in a cycle that begins with victimization and leads to offending Cycle of victimization nd offending - Ex: abuse (victimization) to runaway (offending) to sex trafficking (victim) to survival sex (victim?) to drug abuse (offending) to victim 20. Historically, rape was viewed as what type of crime? Oldest and most feared crime Mostly viewed as “property crime” If the victim was an unmarried woman, the rapist would marry her 21. What is the marital rape exemption clause and when was it abolished? About how many women experience rape in the context of marriage? Development in contemporary rape laws…marital rape exemption Identify rape within the context of marriage as a criminal act. Abolished in England and wells in 1993 22. What is a “true” or “real” rape and what is required to be considered a “true” or “real” rape? Society perceives acquaintance rape (from someone you know) as less serious than stranger rape (real rape) In order to be considered a real rape, the victim must be innocent and unware of what is going to happen to her 23. What is drug-facilitated rape? An unwanted sexual act following the deliberate intoxication of a victim Incapacitated rape: victim voluntarily consumes drugs or alcohol (they are more likely to be blamed for being raped) 24. How does PTSD effect victims of sexual assault? 25. What is coercion and what part does it play in cases of statuary rape? 26. What circumstances increases the likelihood that a victim of rape will report to police? Injury, concern over contracting HIV, identification of incident as rape 27. What negative behaviors do women with a history of sexual assault engage in more frequently than those without such history? 28. The Minneapolis domestic violence experiment illustrated that when an arrest was made in a misdemeanor domestic violence incident, recidivism rates were higher/lower/same compared to if police simply “counseled” the aggressor. 29. Know the benefits and drawbacks comparing changes between wife battering, domestic violence, and intimate partner violence/abuse. 30. The power and control wheel helps to explain how abusers control their victims. Be able to identify elements of power and control. Emotional abuse: making her feel bad about herself. Making her feel guilty. Isolation: controlling what she does, talks to, where she goes. Limits her outside involvement. Uses jealousy as an excuse to why he’s doing that. Minimizing, denying and blaming: saying the abuse didn’t happen. Blaming it on her. If she wouldn’t have done “that” nothing would have happened. Using children: threatening to take children away. Using children to relay messages. Visitation to harass her. Economic abuse: preventing her from getting a job. Making her ask for money. Giving her an allowance. Make her think he’s the only reliable source for money. Male privilege: treating her like a slave. Making the big decisions. Coercion and threats: threatening to leave her, commit suicide. Making her do illegal things. Intimidation: making her afraid by smashing things. Destroying property. 31. Know the phases of the cycle of violence Tension building: when tension starts building up. Leading to abuse Abusive incident: this is when the accident happens. Honeymoon: when he buys her stuff. Apologizes and says that it will never happen again. 32. What is cyberstalking? Addresses the use of technology as a tool in stalking As harmful as other forms of stalking Youth and young adults are at a higher risk due to their use of technology 33. In most jurisdictions, most crimes of intimate partner abuse are considered what type of offense, felony, misdemeanor, etc? 34. How is same sex intimate partner abuse different than opposite sex partner abuse? Underreporting because they don’t want to be “out” to the public Gender-role stereotypes (girls don’t hit girls. Cat fight. Myth lesbian utopia) Importance of social support. Not many view homosexual relationships the same as heterosexual relationships. Heterosexism (belief that hetero relationships are better) or homophobia 35. Why might immigrant’s victims choose not to report their victimization? Cultural acceptance of violence (there are cultures that accept violence because it is not immoral for them) Shame, feel they do not have the right to disobey Keep it within the family Women in workplace (woman provides for the family) Fear of deportation Language barriers (they don’t speak the same language) More people need to be immigration lawyers 36. On average, how many attempts does it take a woman before being successful at leaving her abuser? 7-8 times they are threatened or manipulated 37. What are the negative consequences of stalking on the victim? 38. Most laws on stalking require that victims must indicate what? Victim must indicate they experienced fear as a result of the offender’s actions Not criminalized until 1990 in California Majority of state laws include stalking by electronic methods o “cyberstalking” 39. 1 in 4 women estimated to experience rape during their lifetime More information 40. 70% intimate violence occurs in presence of kids and 30% boys 41. Arrest policies: even if an agency has arrest policy, they have to have probable cause to arrest. Ex: visible marks 22 states have mandatory arrest laws 42. Dual arrest policies: implications for women Both are arrested (this can affect if she will report again) 43. Why was there relatively study of women and criminal justice prior to 1960’s and 1970’s? Male dominance on the field There was not much females in the field Women were known to work as “teacher…kitchen” 44. What is the different about “third wave feminism” regarding women and criminal justice? Increase of # of women in male workforce Addresses ethnicity, race, gender, etc.
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