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Religion 1350

by: Brianna Carmony

Religion 1350 Rel 1350-15

Brianna Carmony
Baylor University

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This covers everything in the reading that will be on the test.
Christian Heritage
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brianna Carmony on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Rel 1350-15 at Baylor University taught by Bennesh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Christian Heritage in Religious Studies at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
Sunday, February 21, 2016 Religion Test 2 Notes for Week 6 - Benedict of Nursia -founder of Monte Cassino; regarded as the father of Western Christian monasticism; His rule was the standard for monasticism in the West; the rules included obedience and humility, daily hours of prayer, living modestly and without possessions, hard work, and complete obedience to the abbot; monks are allowed to have nothing (no pens, tables, or books) —Pope Urban 2 -initiated the first Crusade at the council of Clermont to rescue the Holy land and Eastern Church from Muslim control; —Bernard of Clairvaux -He is best known for his devotional and spiritual writings; He wrote a new rule for the Knights Templar at the request of the Council of Troyes —Anselm of Canterbury -known as the father of scholasticism; argued that faith precedes and assists reason: motto is “faith seeking understanding”; proposed the satisfaction theory of the atonement (argued that Jesus Christ’s obedience in suffering and crucifixion paid the debt that had been created when humanity disobeyed God’s commands, thus dishonoring God. —Thomas Aquinas -Dominican monk, known as the most influential Christian theologian of the medieval period (his writing are “Summa Theologica”); believed that God was revealed through reason and faith. —Pope Boniface VIII -issued the papal bull, Unam Sanctam, he stipulated that every human authority, including that of the state, was obligated to submit to the papacy and the Church —Francis of Assisi -founded the Franciscian order and helped found the Order of St. Clare (a female Franciscan order); introduced the Christmas nativity scene; spoke and preached to animals so he is known as the patron saint of animals and creation —Clare of Assisi -founder of the Poor Clares; her rule was apostolic poverty which was based on Francis of Assisi teachings 1 Sunday, February 21, 2016 —Doctrinal definitions -formulated in response to challenges, were internal, attempts to clarify which views held among Christians were most correct —Architecture - almost as equal to worship because there had to be a place to worship at; medieval designers used used visual stimuli to teach scripture; Romanesque or “Roman-like” buildings had rounded arches and heavy walls; Gothic was the opposite which implied barbarians; stained glass was used to represent Christ as the Good Shepherd, the suffering servant or, Marys baby; Jesus became someone to love, not just fear —Monks -earliest monks took their cues from John the Baptist and Jesus and went to the desert tp pray and and to “pommel the body”(fasting, sleep deprivation, etc.); monastic rule was developed by Benedict of Nursia (intended to reduce abuse and make life endurable); days are centered on prayer and work, 7 times a day; the abbot(“father”) governed them and was chosen by the monks; sometimes known as prayer warriors; —Friars -kept monastic vows but traveled; there are Franciscand and Dominicans —Parish Discipline - war was a sin, adultery called for 7 years of penance; the ultimate goal of acts of penance was to restore the sinner to full fellowship with other Christians through repentance, confession, and restitution —Heresy -worse than infectious disease because it contaminates the spiritual soul —Mysticism -focused on the aspect of God and Christian life which were beyond reason; some people experienced visions and revelations —Economic Changes -capitalism is the idea that one should invest profits to make more profits —Universities -Medieval christians invented the modern system of higher education; invented mainly to help the church; the bachelors of arts was basic to almost all programs; 2 Sunday, February 21, 2016 —Desiderius Erasmus -He printed an edition of the Greek New Testament; Erasmus and Luther engaged in a harsh debate over the role of human free will, with Erasmus affirming human cooperation with God in the process of salvation.; “Dulce vellum inexpertis” says “War is sweet to them that know it not” —Martin Luther -German monk; sparked the Protestant reformation with the publication of the “95 Theses”; translated the Bible to German; believed that the Bible taught justification by faith alone; people should outwardly proved penitence —>Transformation and Renaissance —The Black Death -bubonic plague that killed a third of the population; “Little Ice Age” caused periodic famine and temporary shortages; “Ring around the Rosie” was meant for children that died from the plague; —The Babylonian Captivity -Clement moved his headquarters to papal territory inside France at Avignon, this seventy years at Avignon was referred to as the Babylonian Captivity, reminding pious church people of the seventy years Israel spent in Babylon —The Great Schism -half of Europes church leaders accepted Clement VII, while the other half remained loyal to the pope at Rome —Lay piety and mysticism -christians relied less on the clergy and the institutional Church than on direct access to God; Meister Eckhart taught that the true goal of life was complete separation from the world of the senses by being absorbed into the “Divine Unknown”; Union with god however turned the mystic into god on earth. since god is the lawgiver,mystical union freed the mystic from both human and moral law —Devotio moderna -Geert Groote started preaching in Dutch —Anticlericalism —William Langlands “Piers the Plowman” combined great affection for the Roman Church as the body of Christ with severe condemnation of the clergy; Wyclif alienated the Church by backing the governments right to confiscate the lands of corrupt clergy- he translated the Latin Vulgate Bible to english 3 Sunday, February 21, 2016 —Lollards -followed Wylclif and meant overtly pious person; unholy priest couldnt deliver sacraments but any christian who received grace could —Bohemians -influenced by Wyclif; hus attacked wealth and abuses in the Church, extending his attacks to the institution of the papacy, which he believed to be no older than the time of Constantine —The Renaissance -“rebirth” marks the transition between the Middle Ages and the modern world; encompasses music, art, literature, philosophy and theology; started in Italy; books were cheaper and easier to produce; capitalism clearly advanced the overall standard of living; nationalism was the cluster of feelings that modern people associate with patriotism —Renaissance Papacy -Reinaissance popes made their mark primarily as patrons of the arts, rather than as a pastors of the church —Savonarola -he began to preach against the vices of the Florentines and the de Medici government then in power in the city; readings focused the prophetic books; convinced Charles VIII of france to save the city of florence —Erasmus -encouraged piety; “the christian soldiers manual”; believed the emphasis on the active life, believing that the Christians life had to be filled with charity and good deeds —The Reformation -martin luther began the protestant reformation in germany —Martin Luther -turned to the sacraments of confession and penance; he found the concept of passive righteousness, human beings were helplessly evil until gods grace changed their essential nature; nailed a list of 95 objections to indulgences in 1517, indulgences were based on the idea that some Christians had done more good than they needed, however the church had come to depend on the sale of indulgences to raise money for such projects as building St. Peters Cathedral in rome; “sola fides” (faith alone), by which luther meant that salvation did not depend on good works at all; “sola gratia” (grace alone), in which luther ascribed salvation entirely to grace without any human cooperation at all; “sola scriptura” (scripture alone), claimed that the bible was his only source of authority and rejected the traditions of the church as authoritative interpretations of the bible; diet of worms was an assemby at the city of Worms and he 4 Sunday, February 21, 2016 refused to retract his opinion and marked the beginning of the “Protestant” church; luther rejected confirmation, penance, ordination, marriage, and extreme unction. (he accepted baptism and the Lords supper; the “peasants revolt” took the egalitarian implications of Luthers idea of the preisthood of all believers to their logical conclusions, these peasants turned to lutheran doctrine and biblical teachings to justify their desire to choose their own pastors and put an end to serfdom 5


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