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Psych 1004 Study guide Test #1

by: Alex Nieto

Psych 1004 Study guide Test #1 PSYCH 1004

Alex Nieto


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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on our next exam.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Hoffman & Dr. Geller
Study Guide
Psychology, psych, Psych 1004
50 ?




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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Nieto on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1004 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Hoffman & Dr. Geller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSYCHOLOGY Psychology: The scientific study of the causes of behavior Behavior: Overt action and reaction (objectively observable) What happens after death?   Cross­cultural psychology: different views of the same subject (ex: life after death) What drives people to commit violent crimes?  Forensic psychology; risk factors, learning, child development, personality  Why do we dream?  Conciousness Rule of Thirds: 1) Clinicians    2) Academics    3) Administrators in organizations Basic psychology: Using the scientific method to gain knowledge about topics in psychology  Applied psychology: Using knowledge to solve and prevent human problems IMPORTANT PRECURSORS  ARISTOTLE (4  century BC)  Unlike Plato, who thought we could understand merely through thought, Aristotle emphasized importance of observing and experiencing the world o Important for science, as it is based on observation o Important for psychology, especially learning research  Descartes (17  century)  Much human behavior, and all animal behavior is reflexive: automatic, and  subject to natural, external causes  Humans also possess a mind, not controlled by natural laws (mind­body dualism) THE BEGINNING  Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920)  First psychology lab, in Germany   Emphasized  structuralism: study of the structure of immediate conscious  experience  Used introspection: self­examination of mental processes  William James (1842­1910)  American  Emphasized functionalism: study of how the mind works, and why we  behave/think the way we do  Increased emphasis on behavior, and on practical applications of psychology 5 DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES:  1. PSYCHODYNAMIC   (Freud); focus on the unconscious; clinical problems due to unconscious conflicts 2. BEHAVIORIST  (Skinner); focus on observable behavior; behavior changes through learning 3. HUMANISTIC  Focus on self­concept, realizing our full potential, and the challenge in doing so 4. COGNITIVE  Unlike behaviorism, focuses on what is happening in the mind: thoughts,  information processing, memory, etc 5. NEUROSCIENCE  Influence of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) on behavior Example: “I’m afraid to commit to being in a relationship”  Psychodynamic: Perhaps look for unresolved conflict with another relationship, like w/  parent or sibling  Behaviorist: Help the person learn the rewards of being in one. Perhaps encourage  smaller commitments, then bigger ones  Humanistic: ?? Teach that giving/trust leads to self­actualization.  Cognitive: Focus on the thoughts and fears; also when/why these thought patterns and  emotion patterns occur  Neuroscience: Maybe look at the brain physiology of fear or stress, or hormones and  neurotransmitters relating to monogamy Scientific method: 1) Make an observation 2) Make a hypothesis (based on a theory) that you can test 3) Design a study 4) Collect / analyze data 5) Make a conclusion(s) The nervous system gathers info, decides on a course of action, and responds Ex: I feel that the door is hot  reflex pulls me away  3 neural pathways I. Sensory neurons: afferent (ascending) pathways to the brain II. Motor neurons: efferent (descending) pathways from brain III. Interneurons: link between sensory and motor neurons, found in the brain and  spinal cord Neuron (we have around 100 billion of them)  Cell body: carries out basic processes of the cell  Dendrites: receive message from nearby neurons  Axon: Transmits electrical impulse (action potential) from cell body down length of  neuron  Myelin sheath: Made up of fats, insulates axon, making transmission faster & more  efficient  Synaptic terminals (terminal buttons): Store neurotransmitters, then release them to  activate (or inhibit) other neurons  When a neuron fires, it generates an electrical current called an action potential that  travels from the start of the axon (axon hillock) and travels to the terminals  The electrical current is caused by movement of charged ions in and out of the axon  Action Potential follows the “all­or­none law”  It either fires or it doesn’t  A.P. is always the same strength  An axon at rest inside of the axon is negatively charged with respect to the outside  An axon firing inside of the axon is now positively charged  No neuron exists in isolation – others are trying to excite or inhibit it Presynaptic neuron         (synaptic gap)       postsynaptic neuron                       Terminal ­­­­ button dendrite­­­­­­  Neurotransmitters  Chemicals released by one neuron and binding to another  Can be excitatory (encouraging fire) or inhibitory (discouraging fire) on a neuron Any drug addiction will affect Dopamine pathways Acetycholine  Memory and learning  Muscle activity (Botox treatment)  Alzheimer’s disease involves insufficient production of it Glutamate  Very common excitatory NT in brain  Sensations, learning GABA  Very common inhibitory NT in brain  Depressant, relaxant, effects enhanced by alcohol  Somatic nervous system  Soma means “body”  Think of it as ‘voluntary’ N.S.  Sensory and motor neurons  Part of the Peripheral Autonomic nervous system  Controls automatic processes, like breathing, body temp.  Two subdivisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic  Sympathetic is somewhat active all the time- An arousing of internal responses  Parasympathetic is a calming of internal responses Sympathetic Parasympathetic Increased heart rate Decreased heart rate Increased breathing rate Decreased breathing rate Increased blood glucose (energy) Glucose to fat Inhibit digestion, salivation Stimulate digestion, saliva Dilate pupils Contract pupils Relax bladder Contract bladder Central Nervous System Spinal cord  Reflex responses  Relay to/from brain Brain  ‘Lower’ structures (toward spinal cord) carry out basic life processes…hindbrain, midbrain  ‘Higher’ structures carry out complex cognitive function…mostly forebrain Hindbrain and Midbrain Cerebellum: balance and coordinated movement Medulla: Heart rate and breathing; reflexes Pons: sleep and arousal; balance and some hearing Midbrain (above pons): helps vision and audition, (e.g. fixing gaze even as your head moves); aids basic movements for sex and aggression Forebrain---Subcortical Thalamus: relay station Hypothalamus: autonomic info; homeostasis Limbic system:  Hippocampus: vital for memory/learning  Amygdala: emotion center (emotion & learning, emotion recognition) Outside layer of brain: the cerebral cortex  2-3 mm thick  Wrinkled and convoluted---MUCH surface area  Controls complex and abstract thought Frontal Lobes: Thoughts, plans, language (producing language) Temporal Lobes: hearing, language (comprehension) Parietal Lobes: touch Occipital Lobes: vision                                                                                          ¾ is association area which deciphers and   integrates current info and decides what to  do with it Our brains, especially our frontal lobes,  help us inhibit behavior Helps us inhibit inappropriate responses  Phineas Gage  Accident in 1848 damaged pathways between his LIMBIC SYSTEM and FRONTAL CORTEX  Survived, but personality was altered. Became very impulsive, couldn’t maintain  focus, control emotions, or relate to others  FRONTAL LOBES initiate activity and suppress inappropriate behaviors  Cerebral Cortex has a left and right hemisphere; connected by the collosum  Left side has “language centers” and is involved in the processing of positive  emotions (CONTROLS RIGHT SIDE OF BODY)  Right side is good with spatial information (CONTROLS LEFT SIDE OF  BODY)  Sensation is the detection of stimuli   Involves transduction (process of converting energy from environment into neural impulses), occurs at receptor neurons in eyes, ears, skin, etc  Perception organizes and interprets sensation  Involves learning, occurring in brain  Things that influence our perception: proximity, patterns, colors, continuity,  closure  Stimulus cues for depth perception  Relative size: large=closer  Horizon proximity: objects near horizon appear far away from us  Interposition: closer objects block farther ones  Linear perspective: parallel lines converge in the distance  Reduced clarity: objects at greater distances become fuzzy  Light and shadow: casting a shadow provides a 3­D cue  Assimilation is a visual system that incorporates nearby elements into an object’s  boundaries when assessing its size  Bottom­up processing are perceptions formed as the result of combining inputs about  basic features  Top­down processing are brain interprets sensory information based on prior knowledge and expectations  The Retina is the transducer (image projected onto this upside down and backwards)   Crossover occurs at the optic chiasm  Nature and nurture is a FALSE dichotomy. Behaviors, personalities, etc. are a product of  BOTH  Nature: biological endowment (now called genetic inheritance)  Nurture: Environmental conditions in which individual develops  Francis Galton tended to look for the importance of one force over the other (nature  predominated over nurture)  All behavioral characteristics are a product of a combination of multiple causal factors  Depression: Extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in activities  (also bad sleep, appetite, self­esteem)  About 20% of women, 10% of men, at some point in life  2 types of depression  Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical depression; acute sadness and loss of  interest (short­lasting)  Dysthymic Disorder: Not as severe as major depression (longer­lasting)  Causes of depression  Biological Theories Genetic factors o About 50% of people w/ depression have some family history (%age is  higher for bipolar disorder) o Genes may affect the production or use of neurotransmitters (like  serotonin, dopamine)  Cognitive Theories Depression results from negative thinking  Aaron Beck’s approach— o Negative views of self, environment and the future o Magnifies errors and misfortunes  Biopsychosocial Explanation Genetics, brain chemistry, and cognitions make some more vulnerable to  depression than others o More vulnerability, the less stress it takes to produce depression o Diathesis­stress model  Both a predisposition and a precipitating event needed for the  disorder to develop  Death in family, divorce, moving away to college  Schizophrenia  1% of population  Several types  Often includes delusions—thoughts inconsistent w/ reality, perhaps hallucinations  Often includes disordered thinking  Often includes inappropriate emotions, and small range of emotions  Risk is about 50% if identical twin has symptoms 17% if fraternal twin has symptoms 9% is sibling has symptoms  6% if parent has symptoms  Causes o Biological—brain anatomy and neurotransmitters:  Dopamine involved  Ventricles, hollow fluid­filled areas of the brain, larger in people  with schizophrenia o Environmental risks  Pregnancy and birth complications  Childhood head injury  Stress, perhaps especially during adolescence   Jean Piaget: Development is discontinuous, occurs in distinct predictable stages  Schema: mental structure or framework that organizes and interprets information  Can be altered in a couple of ways:  Assimilation: (incorporation)—interpreting new information in terms of existing  knowledge  Accommodation: (adjustment)—modifying existing knowledge in response to  new input  Piaget’s stages of cognitive development  Sensorimotor (0­2 years): experiencing the world through senses and actions… looking, mouthing, touching; learning object permanence  Preoperational (2­7 years): represent things with words and images, but literally  and without logical reason; also not much ability to see another’s perspective  Concrete operational (7­12 years): logical thinking about concrete events,  making analogies; understanding abstract qualities such as CONSERVATION of  mass and volume  Formal operational (12­adult): abstract and moral reasoning  Social development  3 features 1) want to be near caregiver 2) experience ‘separation anxiety’ – distress when separated from caregiver 3) cling to caregiver when frightened (source of security)  4 categories of attachment Ainsworth (1970) measured a child’s response to mother after brief separation (“Strange  Situation”)  Secure (60%)—explore while she’s gone, but approach her upon return  Insecure­avoidant (20%)—not distressed while gone; resist proximity upon return  Insecure­ambivalent or resistant (15%)—upset while gone; both clingy and angry  upon return  Disoriented (5%)—no clear patterns—confused  o Often occurs in maltreated children       


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