Psych 1004 Study guide Test #1
Psych 1004 Study guide Test #1 PSYCH 1004
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex Nieto on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1004 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Hoffman & Dr. Geller in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSYCHOLOGY Psychology: The scientific study of the causes of behavior Behavior: Overt action and reaction (objectively observable) What happens after death? Crosscultural psychology: different views of the same subject (ex: life after death) What drives people to commit violent crimes? Forensic psychology; risk factors, learning, child development, personality Why do we dream? Conciousness Rule of Thirds: 1) Clinicians 2) Academics 3) Administrators in organizations Basic psychology: Using the scientific method to gain knowledge about topics in psychology Applied psychology: Using knowledge to solve and prevent human problems IMPORTANT PRECURSORS ARISTOTLE (4 century BC) Unlike Plato, who thought we could understand merely through thought, Aristotle emphasized importance of observing and experiencing the world o Important for science, as it is based on observation o Important for psychology, especially learning research Descartes (17 century) Much human behavior, and all animal behavior is reflexive: automatic, and subject to natural, external causes Humans also possess a mind, not controlled by natural laws (mindbody dualism) THE BEGINNING Wilhelm Wundt (1832 – 1920) First psychology lab, in Germany Emphasized structuralism: study of the structure of immediate conscious experience Used introspection: selfexamination of mental processes William James (18421910) American Emphasized functionalism: study of how the mind works, and why we behave/think the way we do Increased emphasis on behavior, and on practical applications of psychology 5 DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: 1. PSYCHODYNAMIC (Freud); focus on the unconscious; clinical problems due to unconscious conflicts 2. BEHAVIORIST (Skinner); focus on observable behavior; behavior changes through learning 3. HUMANISTIC Focus on selfconcept, realizing our full potential, and the challenge in doing so 4. COGNITIVE Unlike behaviorism, focuses on what is happening in the mind: thoughts, information processing, memory, etc 5. NEUROSCIENCE Influence of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord) on behavior Example: “I’m afraid to commit to being in a relationship” Psychodynamic: Perhaps look for unresolved conflict with another relationship, like w/ parent or sibling Behaviorist: Help the person learn the rewards of being in one. Perhaps encourage smaller commitments, then bigger ones Humanistic: ?? Teach that giving/trust leads to selfactualization. Cognitive: Focus on the thoughts and fears; also when/why these thought patterns and emotion patterns occur Neuroscience: Maybe look at the brain physiology of fear or stress, or hormones and neurotransmitters relating to monogamy Scientific method: 1) Make an observation 2) Make a hypothesis (based on a theory) that you can test 3) Design a study 4) Collect / analyze data 5) Make a conclusion(s) The nervous system gathers info, decides on a course of action, and responds Ex: I feel that the door is hot reflex pulls me away 3 neural pathways I. Sensory neurons: afferent (ascending) pathways to the brain II. Motor neurons: efferent (descending) pathways from brain III. Interneurons: link between sensory and motor neurons, found in the brain and spinal cord Neuron (we have around 100 billion of them) Cell body: carries out basic processes of the cell Dendrites: receive message from nearby neurons Axon: Transmits electrical impulse (action potential) from cell body down length of neuron Myelin sheath: Made up of fats, insulates axon, making transmission faster & more efficient Synaptic terminals (terminal buttons): Store neurotransmitters, then release them to activate (or inhibit) other neurons When a neuron fires, it generates an electrical current called an action potential that travels from the start of the axon (axon hillock) and travels to the terminals The electrical current is caused by movement of charged ions in and out of the axon Action Potential follows the “allornone law” It either fires or it doesn’t A.P. is always the same strength An axon at rest inside of the axon is negatively charged with respect to the outside An axon firing inside of the axon is now positively charged No neuron exists in isolation – others are trying to excite or inhibit it Presynaptic neuron (synaptic gap) postsynaptic neuron Terminal button dendrite Neurotransmitters Chemicals released by one neuron and binding to another Can be excitatory (encouraging fire) or inhibitory (discouraging fire) on a neuron Any drug addiction will affect Dopamine pathways Acetycholine Memory and learning Muscle activity (Botox treatment) Alzheimer’s disease involves insufficient production of it Glutamate Very common excitatory NT in brain Sensations, learning GABA Very common inhibitory NT in brain Depressant, relaxant, effects enhanced by alcohol Somatic nervous system Soma means “body” Think of it as ‘voluntary’ N.S. Sensory and motor neurons Part of the Peripheral Autonomic nervous system Controls automatic processes, like breathing, body temp. Two subdivisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Sympathetic is somewhat active all the time- An arousing of internal responses Parasympathetic is a calming of internal responses Sympathetic Parasympathetic Increased heart rate Decreased heart rate Increased breathing rate Decreased breathing rate Increased blood glucose (energy) Glucose to fat Inhibit digestion, salivation Stimulate digestion, saliva Dilate pupils Contract pupils Relax bladder Contract bladder Central Nervous System Spinal cord Reflex responses Relay to/from brain Brain ‘Lower’ structures (toward spinal cord) carry out basic life processes…hindbrain, midbrain ‘Higher’ structures carry out complex cognitive function…mostly forebrain Hindbrain and Midbrain Cerebellum: balance and coordinated movement Medulla: Heart rate and breathing; reflexes Pons: sleep and arousal; balance and some hearing Midbrain (above pons): helps vision and audition, (e.g. fixing gaze even as your head moves); aids basic movements for sex and aggression Forebrain---Subcortical Thalamus: relay station Hypothalamus: autonomic info; homeostasis Limbic system: Hippocampus: vital for memory/learning Amygdala: emotion center (emotion & learning, emotion recognition) Outside layer of brain: the cerebral cortex 2-3 mm thick Wrinkled and convoluted---MUCH surface area Controls complex and abstract thought Frontal Lobes: Thoughts, plans, language (producing language) Temporal Lobes: hearing, language (comprehension) Parietal Lobes: touch Occipital Lobes: vision ¾ is association area which deciphers and integrates current info and decides what to do with it Our brains, especially our frontal lobes, help us inhibit behavior Helps us inhibit inappropriate responses Phineas Gage Accident in 1848 damaged pathways between his LIMBIC SYSTEM and FRONTAL CORTEX Survived, but personality was altered. Became very impulsive, couldn’t maintain focus, control emotions, or relate to others FRONTAL LOBES initiate activity and suppress inappropriate behaviors Cerebral Cortex has a left and right hemisphere; connected by the collosum Left side has “language centers” and is involved in the processing of positive emotions (CONTROLS RIGHT SIDE OF BODY) Right side is good with spatial information (CONTROLS LEFT SIDE OF BODY) Sensation is the detection of stimuli Involves transduction (process of converting energy from environment into neural impulses), occurs at receptor neurons in eyes, ears, skin, etc Perception organizes and interprets sensation Involves learning, occurring in brain Things that influence our perception: proximity, patterns, colors, continuity, closure Stimulus cues for depth perception Relative size: large=closer Horizon proximity: objects near horizon appear far away from us Interposition: closer objects block farther ones Linear perspective: parallel lines converge in the distance Reduced clarity: objects at greater distances become fuzzy Light and shadow: casting a shadow provides a 3D cue Assimilation is a visual system that incorporates nearby elements into an object’s boundaries when assessing its size Bottomup processing are perceptions formed as the result of combining inputs about basic features Topdown processing are brain interprets sensory information based on prior knowledge and expectations The Retina is the transducer (image projected onto this upside down and backwards) Crossover occurs at the optic chiasm Nature and nurture is a FALSE dichotomy. Behaviors, personalities, etc. are a product of BOTH Nature: biological endowment (now called genetic inheritance) Nurture: Environmental conditions in which individual develops Francis Galton tended to look for the importance of one force over the other (nature predominated over nurture) All behavioral characteristics are a product of a combination of multiple causal factors Depression: Extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in activities (also bad sleep, appetite, selfesteem) About 20% of women, 10% of men, at some point in life 2 types of depression Major Depressive Disorder: Clinical depression; acute sadness and loss of interest (shortlasting) Dysthymic Disorder: Not as severe as major depression (longerlasting) Causes of depression Biological Theories Genetic factors o About 50% of people w/ depression have some family history (%age is higher for bipolar disorder) o Genes may affect the production or use of neurotransmitters (like serotonin, dopamine) Cognitive Theories Depression results from negative thinking Aaron Beck’s approach— o Negative views of self, environment and the future o Magnifies errors and misfortunes Biopsychosocial Explanation Genetics, brain chemistry, and cognitions make some more vulnerable to depression than others o More vulnerability, the less stress it takes to produce depression o Diathesisstress model Both a predisposition and a precipitating event needed for the disorder to develop Death in family, divorce, moving away to college Schizophrenia 1% of population Several types Often includes delusions—thoughts inconsistent w/ reality, perhaps hallucinations Often includes disordered thinking Often includes inappropriate emotions, and small range of emotions Risk is about 50% if identical twin has symptoms 17% if fraternal twin has symptoms 9% is sibling has symptoms 6% if parent has symptoms Causes o Biological—brain anatomy and neurotransmitters: Dopamine involved Ventricles, hollow fluidfilled areas of the brain, larger in people with schizophrenia o Environmental risks Pregnancy and birth complications Childhood head injury Stress, perhaps especially during adolescence Jean Piaget: Development is discontinuous, occurs in distinct predictable stages Schema: mental structure or framework that organizes and interprets information Can be altered in a couple of ways: Assimilation: (incorporation)—interpreting new information in terms of existing knowledge Accommodation: (adjustment)—modifying existing knowledge in response to new input Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor (02 years): experiencing the world through senses and actions… looking, mouthing, touching; learning object permanence Preoperational (27 years): represent things with words and images, but literally and without logical reason; also not much ability to see another’s perspective Concrete operational (712 years): logical thinking about concrete events, making analogies; understanding abstract qualities such as CONSERVATION of mass and volume Formal operational (12adult): abstract and moral reasoning Social development 3 features 1) want to be near caregiver 2) experience ‘separation anxiety’ – distress when separated from caregiver 3) cling to caregiver when frightened (source of security) 4 categories of attachment Ainsworth (1970) measured a child’s response to mother after brief separation (“Strange Situation”) Secure (60%)—explore while she’s gone, but approach her upon return Insecureavoidant (20%)—not distressed while gone; resist proximity upon return Insecureambivalent or resistant (15%)—upset while gone; both clingy and angry upon return Disoriented (5%)—no clear patterns—confused o Often occurs in maltreated children
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