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Midterm Study Guide

by: Jay Notetaker

Midterm Study Guide History 264

Jay Notetaker

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About this Document

This covers what we talked about from the Spanish-American War to World War Two. It is meant to help prepare for the Midterm Exam.
U.S. History since 1920
Eric Walz
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jay Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 264 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by Eric Walz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see U.S. History since 1920 in History at Brigham Young University - Idaho.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Ch. 19 Because of the economic depression from 1893 to 1897, many Americans became determined to build commercial markets overseas. Emilio Aguinaldo: Filipino leader, declared independence from Spain Rudyard Kipling, “white man’s burden”: civilize “inferior races” Commodore George Dewey: Manila Harbor Zinn, major force America’s imperialism: need for expanding markets Asian imperialist power: Japan “Picture brides”: Japanese women, arranged marriages in the U.S. U.S. citizenship was open only to “white persons” and Africa Social Darwinism on U.S. imperialism: promote superiority of our culture for world stability 1890 book, “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History”: caused the U.S. to invest in naval power Filipino rebels attract African-American soldiers: only a few joined the Filipinos against the U.S. Zinn on Filipino revolt: race Takao Ozawa v. United States, Supreme Court, skin color was used to determine racial identity Teller Amendment: called for Cuban self-government To uproot Filipino guerillas, persuasive and coercive tactics were used Zinn’s negative points, imperialistic monster was not a necessary evil Spanish-American War, yellow press used sensationalism to stir up war fever Newspaper coverage Clemencia Arango and Evangelina Cisneros portrayed as victimized Cuban people Open Door Policy: international agreement to keep China open to trade Spheres of Influence: exclusive political, trading rights Boxer Rebellion: nationalist uprising against foreigners in China Gentleman’s Agreement: Japan to deny passports to workers to the U.S. Rationales for imperialism EXCEPT: U.S. buffer zone against Asian encroachment Panama Canal: U.S. forces supported the Panamanian revolt against Colombia Johnson, major motivation in American imperialism: efforts of Christian missionaries Platt Amendment: restricted Cuba’s autonomy at home and abroad Yellow Journalism did not exploit American desire for isolationism Johnson, first area of expansion Alaska American imperialism Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines different from econ empire in Caribbean: The three countries became actual colonies of the United States in Spanish-American War Ch.20 German Americans were transformed from highly respected to bitterly despised by WWI propaganda Primary Focus of Committee on Public Information: serving as pro-war propaganda machine Leader of American Expeditionary Forces: John J. Pershing War Industries Board: allocate scarce materials to American Industries Eugene Debs arrested for criticizing the war as being fought for the master class Accurate statement regarding technology in WWI: Poison gas added to the threat of artillery fire Kaiser Wilhelm II did not do his best to dissuade Austria-Hungary from invading Serbia. After the war, fears of Socialism Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Took Russia out of World War One Article X of League Covenant controversial because it stated that member nations would protect other members President Wilson promoted all EXCEPT territorial expansion Main effect of the Espionage Act was to discourage free speech Johnson, evidence U.S. not seen as a world power at beginning of WWI b/c no one in Europe took notice of Wilson’s offer to mediate Sedition Act differed from Espionage Act b/c it targeted anyone who spoke against the government Russia gave up Ukraine, Poland, Finland, Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk The government funded the WWI primarily by selling war bonds Zinn called WWI “The war that killed millions” Wilson gave a rousing speech as the U.S. entered WWI with “war to end all wars” and “make the world safe for democracy”. The result was Americans did not rush to enlist, start of an enlistment draft Nation excluded from the Paris Peace Conference: Germany Contribution of American troops in WWI, more accurate to say they helped achieve key victories for the Allies. Zimmerman Telegram, supported a border war between Mexico and the U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge did not take a strict isolationist stance against the League of Nations. Zinn, war was good for the state b/c patriotism bloomed and class struggle was stilled. Effect of German U-boat attacks on British ships a modest, yet controversial, expansion of armed forces Why did Germany resort to submarine warfare? To combat the British blockade Soon after entrance to the war, American forces stop German drive toward Paris American trade with and loans to Allied nations linked the U.S. to the Allies before direct involvement Whether or not to fight, Alvin C. York faced conflict reconciling patriotism with pacifist religious beliefs Throughout WWI, the Food Administration avoided rationing by raising prices and appealing to patriotism What effect did the Bolshevik revolution have on WWI? Russia made peace with the Central Powers What declaration did Germany make to all countries including the neutral U.S.? They would have their submarines sink any ship bringing supplies to their enemies. The Germans contended that they had warned Americans about the war zone before the Lusitania. Ch. 21 False During the 1920s, audience members at the Cotton Club and Savoy enjoyed chamber music and other forms of classical music. False Clarence Darrow and H.L. Mencken argued strenuously against the theory of evolution during the Scopes trial. True In the 1920s, advertisers sought to sell products by making women feel insecure about their weight and appearance. True The ownership and control of property separates socialism from capitalism. Nineteenth Amendment: gave women the right to vote. When was Prohibition repealed? During the Great Depression. Teapot Dome Scandal involved accepting bribes by member of Harding’s cabinet. True The United Order is more closely linked to capitalism than socialism. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of capitalism? The destruction of religion. True According to the text, Immigration Act of 1924 mostly about managing cultural, ethnic, and political make-up in America. Which best describes culture in Great Gatsby? Wealthy, east coast, lost generation. True By 1934, all defaulted on WWI loans except Finland. False The leading powers reached agreement on disarmament in Kellogg-Briand Pact. 1920s “Decade of Turbulence”. Harding first president, Which NOT evidence of turbulence during his administration? His desire to increase the size of American navy to defend U.S. interests in world. Karl Marx argued all EXCEPT: capitalism could be modified to provide economic benefits to people Which was a popular trumpet player during the Jazz Age? Louis Armstrong Suburbanization in the 1920s made possible with automobile True Five Power Treaty set a ten-year moratorium on battleship construction and guns on ships African-American leader rejected integration for independent African nation: Marcus Garvey Charles Lindbergh became celebrity when he completed the first nonstop, solo flight across the Atlantic True Lynchings created a climate of terror. During 1910s & 20s, Margaret Stanger advocated birth control Anarchism based on capitalist economy Calvin Coolidge’s political philosophy most related to Ronald Reagan FALSE City of Chicago hub of African-American politics and culture during the twenties. Proponents of welfare capitalism, all EXCEPT gender parity. FALSE Historically, Americans recognized benefits of Marxist theory and used it to moderate capitalism Ch. 22 TRUE Huey Long proposed pensions for the elderly funded by taxing the rich Civilian Conservation Corps all EXCEPT ending segregation Before president, Herbert Hoover was great humanitarian FDR immediately declared a Bank Holiday Franklin Roosevelt refused to be photographed b/c he feared being viewed as weak and unfit to rule Brain Trust was a select group of academics that advised FDR in his admin’s early years Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) Act of 1932: The Loans failed to put money in workers hands In managing the economy, Hoover and Roosevelt had very similar philosophies Result of Great Depression and New Deal, Democrats not for free-market and capitalist economy Hoover, rags-to-riches story. The woman in “Migrant Mother” photograph tried to suppress the image b/c it stigmatized her as being poor All Contributed to econ problems in 1920s EXCEPT the low prices of manufactured goods. Ten percent wage cut by U.S. Steel influenced Hoover to lend federal money to businesses and states John L. Lewis founded the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Sit-down strike, workers occupied a factory to paralyze production. Eleanor Roosevelt often had better approval ratings than her husband. The Dust Bowl wreaked havoc on the western plains to the degree that even the East coast felt effects Myth: Great Depression was caused by the hands off, Laizzes Faire, attitudes of Hoover’s administration Agricultural Marketing Act before the Great Depression, purpose was buying agricultural surpluses Franklin Roosevelt was not a “rags-to-riches” personal story John Maynard Keynes advocated vigorous government spending followed by increased taxes afterwards FDR was not Vice-President Most of the urban population had electricity , in 1930 one in ten rural families enjoyed its advantages Debate over the causes and ways to avoid another one have not been settled Not a good way to determine between a recession and a depression: Rising cost of housing Austrian School: FALSE All true EXCEPT Inflation is what occurred in the economy during the Great Depression Huey Long was one of Roosevelt’s enemies Nation had never seen similar levels of unemployment from before the Great Depression Ch. 23 The Battle of Leyte Gulf was the largest naval battle in history. The Soviet Union lost more soldiers than all other nations combined. There was no proof ever found that Japanese Americans plowed arrows into their fields. Relocation of Japanese Americans began as a result of a presidential executive order. Although Italy surrendered in 1943, fighting continued on the peninsula until May 1945. The policy that allowed nations to purchase non-war-related goods was known as Cash and Carry The Soviet Union did not declare war on the U.S. in 1941. The high number of casualties in the Pacific played a role in the decision to use the atomic bomb. Military intelligence investigations were not used to create internment camps for Japanese Americans After the Battle of Midway, the Japanese were on the defensive for the rest of the war. The Internment of Japanese Americans can be linked to ethnic prejudice and nativism. American public opinion polls in 1939 showed that more than 80 percent supported Britain. Nazi aggression finally stalled in 1940 and 1941 when the British resisted the Germans, Battle of Britain Japanese Americans treated leniently in Hawaii. 5,000 to 11,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war died in the Bataan Death March. In the months leading up to Pearl Harbor FDR moved the U.S. Pacific Fleet to Hawaii. Japan, Germany and Italy signed the Tripartite Pact. Stalin already knew about the atomic bomb before Truman mentioned it in Potsdam Conference. Roosevelt’s plan to integrate the military did not result in the suspension of A. Philip Randolph’s march. Hitler invaded the USSR in 1941. “Zoot Suit” found among disaffected American youth. In Korematsu v. United States, Black and Murphy agreed that some Japanese were disloyal. Code name for atomic bomb program was the Manhattan Project. Roosevelt did not refuse to allow Soviets a role in post-war Eastern Europe Japanese fought to the last man, many casualties among both soldiers and civilians.


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