MCY 124 Exam 1 study guide
MCY 124 Exam 1 study guide MCY 124
Popular in The Evolution of Jazz
Popular in Musicology
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bailey Souaid on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MCY 124 at University of Miami taught by Charles Bergeron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see The Evolution of Jazz in Musicology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 14 Jan Jazz Essence of Jazz is improvisation Birthplace: New Orleans Cultures of Africa and western Europe (France) Only indigenous art form in America *Art imitates life* History of Jazz 1718: founding of New Orleans by La Salle Marquis Iberville/ Marquis de Beinville (French architects) built Nola Finished construction in 1723 named after Duke of Orleans who found it (French) 1763: France becomes Spain, Nola under the influence of Spain cultures combine//1765 fire burns Nola, rebuilt with French/Spanish architecture Napolean Bonapart rebuilds France and French take back Nola in 1801 50% of population European/ 50% of population slaves from Africa 1803: Louisiana Purchase ($0.04 per acre) by Pres. Jefferson 3 Elements that make up Music 1. Melody 2. Harmony 3. Rhythm Melody Genre: The Blues Indigenous to America “Blue notes”: sad or somber emotional quality Evolution of Jazz Tues. 19 Jan *3 Elements of Music= melody harmony rhythm PLUS LYRICS* Lyrics tell story, history, and “Love” is most popular idea and topic for lyrics “Name 3 types of music performed by slaves” 1. Work songs 2. Field hollers 3. Ring shouts “What is the technique used to perform this music?” Call and Response Nonsecular/religious music Slave owners force slaves to participate in religious (protestant/catholic) services Secular music American Blue’s men “Tremadors” craft of songwriting applied by “Tremadors” for entertainment, about everyday life (not religious!) instruments had to be travelfriendly (acoustic guitar, etc.) Syncopation playing with rhythm to be more “dance friendly” syncopating the rhythm=unpredictable (idea that is very French) Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 21 Jan Townsquare in Nola=Congo Square Marketing technique: blues notes/putting on a show to sell products Ragtime: Scott Joplin: debuted Ragtime at World’s Fair Maple Leap Rag Storyville (18971917) Red Light District in Nola= where jazz thrived/ where everything (vices) was legal Jelly Roll Morton Composer of Maple Leaf Rag (different from Joplin’s version) Innovator of jazz (swing feel) *Syncopation* Evolution of Jazz Tues. 26 Jan “Ragtime” piano Marching band instruments that all together can make the sound of Ragtime piano: tuba (brass) trumpet (brass) trombone (brass) (lower in pitch) clarinet (woodwind) (higher in pitch) drums (percussion) banjo (similar to guitar) (African) Downsizing of band: lighter, more economical Test Question: What was the most popular form of entertainment in America in the first half of the 20 century? Ans.: Dancing Venue: when and where the music is being played size of band changes *social and economic issues changes that* ~Art imitates Life~ Riverboats: source of travel, entertainment, economic travel, activities Dixieland Music (not quite jazz) Instruments trying to sound like ragtime piano trumpet very important Uptown Musicians played by ear improvisation couldn’t read Downtown Musicians trained professionals could read Buddy Bolden: uptown trumpet player; made melody by ear Joe Oliver “King Oliver”: Innovator, led band of great influence King Oliver’s Creole Jass Band Innovator’s of Dixieland style of music No recording because color of skin (black) Original Dixie Jazz Band (ODJB) All white Led by Trumpet player who was racist Made very first historic recording 1917 made first jazz recording of song “Dixie Jazz Band One Step” Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 28 Jan “Dippermouth Blues” Collective improvisation: each member of band improv. (audios on Black Board) Sound system: Victrola mechanical, not electronic Drums and Vocals were hard to record Bessie Smith Black vocalist Sang song St. Louis Blues; composed by W.C Handy *The most important/influential musician in the development of America’s indigenous art form* Louis Armstrong Louis Armstrong Father of Jazz Music Significant role in American history Plays trumpet Born in August of 1901 during Nola’s 3 war 1 of 2 children, mom was a maid, dad left the family, little supervision got in trouble, went away to school, forced to join band (trumpet) “King” Oliver got Louis first job with Kid Ory, a trombone player, on a riverboat Song: Mack the Knife One of three versions of the song From the 3 Penny Opera (story about Jack the Ripper) Roaring 20s Gov’t took over Storyville, New Orleans Prohibition People traveled north “King” Oliver and his Creole Jass Band moved to Chicago and had Louis Armstrong move up too, and join the band. Evolution of Jazz Tues. 2 Feb Video: James Reese Europe “The Hellfighters” Lit. Reese takes “ragtime” to Europe for the first time ever “Negro music, but American music” First black to play in Carnegie Hall Trumpet vs. Cornet Cornet: fast and rough (“King” Oliver) Trumpet: complicated and mellow Manuel Perez: classically trained//Creole of color “King” Oliver played in Perez’s ensemble Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 4 Feb 1920’s venues change from brothels to “speakeasies” (drinking and gambling during prohibition) ensemble changes from 1 person playing ragtime piano in 1912 to numerous people playing together in the 1920’s prominent entertainment: dancing James P. Johnson Black Piano Player/Composer First black to write for Broadway stage wrote “The Charleston”; the song of the 1920’s Louis Armstrong King Oliver does 3 things for Armstrong 1. Helps him get his first job on riverboat playing for Kid Ory 2. Summoned Armstrong to move to Chicago in 1919 and adds him to band 3. Ultimately encourages Armstrong to go solo (Louis Armstrong and Hot 5) Louis Armstrong and Hot 5 (mid 1920’s) 1. Kid Ory (Past Boss): Trombone 2. Johnny St. Cry: Banjo 3. Johnny Dodds: Clarinet 4. Louis Armstrong: Trumpet 5. Lil Hardin (female): Piano “Gut Bucket Blues” song where Louis Armstrong introduces the Hot 5 Armstrong then adds two more members to band becoming Hot 7 1. Bill Johnson: Bass 2. Johnny Dodds’ little brother “Baby Dodds”: Drums San Francisco newspaper first publishes the name “Jazz” Unlike Jack Johnson (heavy weight champion), Armstrong was humble Armstrong connected with audience and was recognized around the world after performing in Europe Louis Armstrong’s contributions to the Art form (most important musician) Jazz music’s first virtuoso He separates improvisation from melody, prioritizes improvisation. His creativity makes improv a higher priority, no longer the melody Jazz is only form of music where improve is priority He creates vocabulary of Jazz music Creates “scat sing” and records scat singing in 1928 for a record Socially, aside from musically, he was America’s first cultural Ambassador Invited to perform in Europe; same stages as classical artists, operas, symphonies Jazz becomes respected Armstrong takes a 2minute part as playing “Gabriel” in a musical movie first black on screen Armstrong’s solo on trumpet: “West End Blues” (scat song) Evolution of Jazz Tues. 9 Feb Mardi Gras: Green fate, Purple justice, Gold power Louis Armstrong (cont.) Career lasts many decades Jazz evolves but Armstrong’s style remains constant and eventually becomes passé Accused of “tomming” the audience (sucking up to whites for special treatment) Miles Davis said “No him no me.” Song “Ain’t Misbehavin’” in 1960s (when television was median) Song “Hello Dolly” 1964 in Major Key (also Broadway musical) Song “What a Wonderful World” Cotton Club Elite and exclusive speakeasy New York//Harlem 1929 (illegal) 1933 (appealed and legal) Duke Ellington Most influential and important composer Classically trained Same era as Louis Armstrong Ragtime piano evolves to stride (large movement by left hand) Applied improvisation, syncopated rhythm Composes with classical format= level of sophistication Duke Ellington’s Contributions to the Art form 1. Stride piano player / ThroughComposed 2. Musical director at the Cotton Club 3. Incredibly prolific composer wrote over 2000 pieces (opera, etc.) 4. Same era as Louis Armstrong; born 1899, died 1974 5. Wrote specifically for each band member 6. Incredibly experimental 7. Considered 2 greatest ambassador of the American cultural art form Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 11 Feb Duke Ellington Big band ensembles: 4 sections 4 Trumpets 4 Trombones 5 or 6 Saxophones (different sizes) Rhythm section Piano Bass Drums Guitar Dance Halls 1933=no more prohibition Large dance halls for large band ensembles Duke Ellington Song: “Things ain’t what they used to be” Song: “Prelude to a Kiss” feat. Johnny Hodges Johnny Hodges: alto sax **Song: “Cotton Tail” Ellington transcribes the “Major Scale” Major role in evolution of Jazz Cootie Williams Trumpet Song: “Concerto for Cootie” Count Basie Kansas City Big band ensembles in the MidWest “BoogieWoogie” was his piano playing style (rather than stride) “Rifforiented”: short melodic fragments put together in orchestration Song: “1 o’clock Jump” **Song: “Splanky” Duke Ellington and Count Basie are equally important to composure and evolution of Jazz. Duke Ellington Count Basie New York Kansas City Stride Piano BoogieWoogie Through Composer Rifforiented Harmonic Development Rhythmic Development Evolution of Jazz Tues. 16 Feb Adolph Sax Saxophone soprano, alto, tenor, bass Coleman Hawkins Modern Jazz Saxophone player Vertical style (notes up and down), rather than linear Wide, fast bravado Help of Duke Ellington Bright sound (metal mouthpiece) Lester Young Equally as influential as Coleman Hawkins Song: “Body and Soul” (1939 Coleman Hawkins recorded) Sounds opposite of Coleman Hawkins Dark sound (brass mouthpiece) Straight tone (modern technique) Flow melody, not short notes: linear style Help of Count Basie Song: “Lester Leaps In” Ella Fitzgerald 1917 Harlem Best Jazz singer (scat singing) Song: “How High the Moon” Chick Webb Drummer Own band Recruits Fitzgerald Song: “ATisket, ATasket” Norman Granz Concert promoter “Jazz at the Philharmonic” Recruits musicians to Philharmonic Halls Song book series: records many covers of songs Song: “Mack the Knife” 1958 Song: “Lets Call the Whole Thing Off” feat. Louis Armstrong Evolution of Jazz Thurs. 18 Feb Billie Holiday Hard upbringing Tragic life Legacy of music Song: “God Bless the Child” Lester Young: friend (platonic relationship), taught her singing with straight tone Song: “Strange Fruit” Song: “Good Morning Heartache” 5 of the most successful big band leaders up to 1947 Glenn Miller Trombone Left band joined army Song: “In the Mood”, Dance: “jitter bug” Artie Shaw Clarinet Evolved art form Song: “Begin the Beguine” Tommy Dorsey Trombone Made the most money, most successful Singer: Frank Sinatra Drummer: Buddy Rich Harry James Trumpet Song: “You Made Me Love You” Discovered Frank Sinatra Benny Goodman Frank Sinatra Harry James (discovered him) called him “Frankie Satin” Colombia Records called him “The Voice” Launched in 1947
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