Soc 1010 Final Study Guide
Soc 1010 Final Study Guide SOC1010
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by daje brinson on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC1010 at University of Virginia taught by paul kingston in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
0 What it means to say that the quotfamilyquot represents a quotsocial overlayquot on biological relations For example What does an quotunclequot do People have certain obligations and connections to each other in their family social overlay on biology the social order imposed on procreative and blood relations you don39t really expect your father39s brother and your mother39s brother to differ if this person does something for you you feel happy not many obligations to being an uncle Social overlay creates the concept of the family and the obligations that family members have to one another For example there is no such thing as an illegitimate child in nature but society creates this concept Another example is the different roles that an uncle plays in different societies In America there aren39t many obligations for the uncle to their nephew or niece In certain tribes in Africa however the mother39s oldest brother is responsible for raising his nephews to become a man filling a role that most fathers fill in US The same thing is accomplished by different family members The biology in both of these cases is the same but the social overlay differs O The main conclusions about the consequences of single motherhood Do the quotconsequencesquot simply re ect the fact that single parent families are poorer McLanahan McLanahan describes that there are many consequences resulting from single parent families The first of which is income this causes a reduction in income of between 32 and 40 Next is a reduction in social capital Those who live in single homes are more likely to move and their single parent is less involved in the child39s after school activities Third is the reduction in education level They are more likely to dropout and are more likely to have a lower grade point average than students from two parent families Finally these children are more likely to be teen parents McLanahan concludes that there are multiple consequences of being a single parent The consequences are more than just being poor 0 What it means to call modern marriage quota ritual love system of erotic propertyquot Collins p 125 How Collins explains the Victorian revolution Page 145 Part 1 Both love and sex are part of the same complex from a sociological viewpoint Modern marriage has shifted into a form where love is a crucial element in establishing a sexual tie Additionally marriage has become more possessive with people 39owning39 each other as a testament to affection and sex Basically a lover possesses another39s body and affections simultaneously Part 2 If the only power women have is their bodies then women are going to use their bodies to the full extent possible Although the Victorian Revolution saw to the new puritanical viewpoint regarding sex it simultaneously made sex more central in the marriage tie than ever before Women had the newfound ability to withhold their bodies from men as sexual objects which gave them a newfound source of power This made men have to accept marriage on women39s terms Also the Victorian was officially the first major phase of women39s liberation 0 How women39s labor force participation is related to divorce The consequences of divorce for children According to McLanahan many woman are growing more economically independent Because of this these women can afford to leave bad marriage and raise their children by themselves Each generation of women has entered the labor force at a greater proportion than the previous generation Over half of all women in America were working or looking for work by 1970 and about 3 in 1990 Also the decline in men39s earning power relative to women gender gap for wages started decreasing and the economic gain from marriage is not as high The last reason for women39s labor force participation relating to divorce is a difference in social norms that allowed women to put personal fulfillment above their family responsibilities The consequences of divorce for children include the youth being less trusting in marriage and relationship Also these people might find it easier to leave a bad relationship However children also lose time with their parents because their mothers will be working outside of the home Depending on family income this could make a child better or worse off income same time same 0 The relation between education and the probability of divorce Wilcox The quotgreedyquot nature of marriage Gerstel and Darkisian moderately educated Americans have become less likely to form stable high quality marriages while highly college educated Americans who make up 30 percent of the adult population have become more likely to do so Divorce rates are up for moderately educated Americans relative to those who are highly educated From the 1970s to the 1990s divorce or separation within the rst 10 years of marriage became less likely for the highly educated 15 percent down to 11 percent somewhat more likely for the moderately educated 36 up to 37 percent and less likely for the least educated 46 down to 36 percent PART 1 Three cultural reasons for erosion of marriage a The attitudes of the moderately educated have traditionally been more conservative on a cluster of marriage related matters but they now appear to be turning more socially permissive as highly educated Americans have become more likely to embrace a marriage minded mindset Percentage of 25 60 year olds Believing Divorce Should be More Difficult to Obtain by Education and Decade fell more than 10 b Middle Americans are more likely to be caught up in behaviors such as multiple seX partners and marital infidelity that endanger prospects for marital success both undercut the stability of marriage and the former is related to an increased risk of nonmarital childbearing Percentage of 25 44 year old Women Who Have Had Three or More Lifetime SeX Partners by Education and Year c Moderately educated Americans are markedly less likely than are highly educated Americans to embrace the conventional values and virtues such as delayed gratification a focus on education and temperance that are the ingredients of personal and marital success in the contemporary United States Percentage of Adolescents Wanting to Attend College Very Much by Mother s Education many Americans have moved away from identifying with an institutional model of marriage which seeks to integrate seX parenthood economic cooperation and emotional intimacy in a permanent union This model has been overwritten by the soul mate model which sees marriage as primarily a couple centered vehicle for personal growth emotional intimacy and shared consumption The 39soul mate39 model has overtaken the 39institutional39 model of marriage which has been a challenge for Middle Americans due to setting a high financial and emotional bar for marriage One problem with this newer model which sets a high nancial and emotional bar for marriage is that many poor and Middle American couples now believe that they do not have the requisite emotional and economic resources to get or stay married Also the links between seX parenthood and marriage have become disconnected PART 2 Married people women as well as men are less involved with their parents and siblings Married people are less likely to visit call or write to relatives than single people Effects of marriage are greater for men than for women For example many men rely on the woman to call relatives The previously married are less involved with parents and siblings than those never married Married couples are more disengaged from both neighbors and friends Also they are less likely to provide emotional support or practical help Marriage is greedy because of material emotional and cultural reasons lMarriage take time and energy and this distracts investment in other relationships They need less so they give less in return 2 Marriage also demands a kind of intense emotional involvement that detracts from collective life 3Marriage today carries the cultural eXpectation of self sufficiency In most traditional marriages the marriage would increase social interactions but contemporary marriages are undermining it Stratification O The difference between equality of opportunity and equality of condition The main trends for each First note that inequality is not due to natural forces we know this because it is not the same in all countries Equality of condition refers to how the pie is divided while equality of opportunity refers to the distribution of the chances of getting ahead In America we mostly worry about ensuring equality of opportunity but the two work together In class we looked at the mobility charts to see how your condition affects the opportunity of your children and we saw that it did have an effect One is more likely to attain the same status as their parents meaning that there is a greater opportunity for those who are raised in better conditions 0 How to interpret an intergenerational mobility table Don t memorize it It is going to be in the final 0 The main findings of the status attainment research on the determinants of economic success class notes Status Attainment Model Parental z t 39 a quot quot The status ended up as consequence of a serial of processes parent education parent39s occupation The fatter the arrow the stronger the effect More educated parents have better jobs Next stage parent39s education and job affect your education and the correlation between your education between occupational status is the strongest education and cognitive ability are related Parent39s occupation does not make any difference unless take advantage of it to have education Top people can pass on to their children mostly because they let them attain education The odd of getting into college and graduate is unrelated to background Being smart itself makes some difference but not much as being highly educated Degree and moderately smart or really smart and drop out The former because the education matters more What is a better predictor Academic performance Parent39s education in uences their occupation and vice versa Parent39s occupation and education in uence their children39s occupation and education Parent39s education has the most effect on their children39s education Parent39s occupational achievement has a moderate effect on their children39s occupational achievement 0 The main findings of longitudinal analysis on the incidence of poverty the implication of these analyses for the culture of poverty thesis Inter generational studies need longitudinal data information about the same people over time Most people are poor for only a short time Poverty is a reality that a majority of Americans will experience during their lifetimes 24 poor at some time in the decade People change in and out such as having a child changes things so poverty is not a constant state Contradicts the culture of poverty argument Culture of Povertv awed character Fatalistic little impulse control instant gratification Perpetuated across generations bad values 5 poverty Structural Failure awed system Insufficient good jobs to support individuals and families Institutional practices skew the distribution of jobs 0 How operational definitions affect the size of the quotpoverty problemquot the difference between an absolute and relative definition 1 Different operational definitions will result in different size of the quotpoverty problemquot 2 Absolute poverty refers to a set standard which is consistent over time Relative poverty views poverty as socially defined and dependent on social context hence relative poverty is a measure of income inequality 0 Why poverty persists according to Gans Poverty makes possible the existence or eXpansion of respectable professions and occupations eg penology criminology social work public health Poverty provides jobs for social scientists social workers journalists and other 39poverty warriors Two microsocial functions 1risk reduction labelers protect themselves from the responsibility of having to associate with the labeled which reduces the risk of being hurt and angered by them 2scapegoating and displacement poor people treated as undeserving can be viewed as having caused the social problems Three economic functions 1 Poverty ensures that society39s 39dirty work39 will get done Poverty provides a low wage labor pool that is willing or rather unable to be unwilling to perform dirty work at low cost Because the poor are required to work at low wage they subsidize a variety of economic activities that benefit the affluent The poor pay a larger share of their income in property and sales taxes 2economic banishment and reserve army of labor make room for labors like immigrant workers 3job creation Poverty creates jobs for many occupations that serve the poor police gambling peacetime army etc 4supplying illegal goods The poor buy goods others do not want and thereby prolong their economic usefulness Three normative functions 1 Moral legitimation Poverty helps to guarantee the status of those who are not poor In every hierarchical society there has to be someone at the bottom to hold up the rest of the population The poor aid the upward mobility of groups just above them in the class hierarchy Many persons have entered the middle class by providing goods and services to the poor 2Norm reinforcement The poor can be identified and punished as alleged or real deviants to uphold the legitimacy of conventional norms To justify the desirability of hard work and thrift for example the defender of these norms must be able to find persons they can accuse of being lazy and spendthrifts if poor is said to be lazy then a work ethic is promoted if poor single parent families are condemned the conventional two parents families are more legitimated as ideal 3Supply popular culture villains The poor serve as cultural artifacts to reaffirm the norms Also other does not reinforce the mainstream norms Three political functions lInstitutional scapegoating poverty unemployment and slum 2conservative power shifting The undeserving poor lose the political legitimacy The poor facilitate and stabilize the American political process because they vote and participate less than other groups 3 spatial purification The poor being powerless can be made to absorb the costs of change and growth in American society eg 39urban renewal39 vs 39poor removal39 Two macrosocial functions lreproduction of stigma and the stigmatized dominant groups are unwilling to give up an easily accessible scapegoat The poor help to keep the aristocracy busy as providers of charity 2 extermination of surplus some of the surplus labor are no longer needed by the economy 13 Not only does the alleged moral deviancy of the poor reduce the moral pressure on the political economy to reduce poverty but socialist alternatives can be made to look unattractive if those who will benefit most from them can be described as lazy spendthrift dishonest and promiscuous 0 My sociological interpretation of the role of prejudice in explaining racial disparities recall discussion of Japanese Americans Japanese Americans lead to decline of prejudice they being held back by prejudice because of the past history of World War 2 Americans were feared and racial prejudice against Japanese that migrated to America they feel threatened and insecure to deal with Japanese so for those Japanese that continue to remain in America they can39t open businesses or own land and properties However after a certain period of time Americans are more lenient towards Japanese eventually Americans have no racial prejudice against Japanese They were able to open businesses and own properties so now its a big change they are doing so well in businesses oppression causes prejudice instead of the other way The 3 things necessary for racism to emerge 1 amp 2 people have to seem different look different or different cultural patterns that are visible to people Rwanda 800000 killed Ethnic groups look very similar couldn t say Tutsi hutu but have different practices subtle to us 2 Underlying racialethnic group often political or economic issues Who gets the material goodies of life 3 Activate cultural togetherness more compete more negatively view each other and racial attitudes derogatory towards minority when minority oppressed ght back Think about place of prejudice when see racial oppression a Prejudice gt oppression b Some say actually prejudice lt oppression If white people stop being prejudice have end to oppression MLK Jr a Prejudice misunderstanding of what people are like Is that the way it works 605 and 705 tried to integrate schools to reduce prejudice in many schools it exacerbated negative feelings on both sides White cops considered racist if partner in car was black made white of cers more tolerant and supportive cops came together Q equals had same status White amp black students unegual different academic preparation economic status Slavery ultimate prejudice Traders didn t have idea that blacks were inferior Rather after money was made through slave trade attitude that blacks were inferior developed afterwards as a result prejudice lt oppression Asian aliens denied right to become citizens Asians denied right to own land What happened By 1940 Japanese males have more schooling but still notion that Jap is a Jap so during WWII imprisonment of large number ofJapaneseAmericans Most decorated regiment in US army was Japanese americans After war large 5 Americans said would never hire JA or shop in JA store Once they did well prejudice declined Stable families low crime successful careers Outmarriage ultimate sign of acceptance Apply this to blacks in our society How do we interpret responses Many things that MLK and others hoped for actually happened If believe polls have been change in hearts and minds of whites Has white prejudice declined PWK as the skeptic easy to say in survey said bc PC This is possible may not get at depth of people s souls Maybe arti ciality to survey response Also think about this big change that white people in con dential survey are no longer willing to admit to racist attitudes What is actually happening if look at how blacks and whites live Ratio of whiteback income has barely changed Who marries whom Intermarriage growing among all groups but blacks still have low rate of outmarriage Unlikely for blacks and whites to live together in some parts integrating some less integrated Overall not much change We do have black president how many black senators Increasing proportions but largely bc congressional districts changed so it is more likely they will be elected Change in hearts and minds has not corresponded to how people actually live if prejudice explanation and this has declined should be changes in how people live However disparities between blacks and whites has been resistant to change Need to get beyond hearts and minds and look at institutions People39s attitudes are changing but outcomes are the same 0 The meaning of institutional discrimination know examples unintentional When normal social arrangements and accepted ways of doing things systematically disadvantage minority groups without necessarily involving discriminatory intent or conscious bigotry Examples the fact that it is a policy of the central office of a nationwide bank that single women are a bad risk for loans regardless of income or investments this bank is discriminating against women in state after state Consecutive years are important women have to enter and leave labor force because of kids so it is hard for them to get promotion 0 What it means to say that racial disparities increasingly re ect a quotclass problemquot not a quotrace problemquot Be able to relate this argument to matters like educational attainment and social attitudes Racial disparities re ect a class problem and not a race problem because those in lower income people regardless of race are less likely to obtain higher education degrees than those from higher income families Much of the racial disparity is due to resources and home environment not talent Whites are not inherently more intelligent than minorities However those who of higher income interact with their children at a younger and use a larger vocabulary than those of low income Those of low income have less time to spend with their kids Social attitudes wealthy trust more marriage more traditional values 0 How J encks and Phillips primarily account for racial disparities in income Blacks typically make less than whites and J encks and Phillips wanted to find out why There is no genetic evidence that indicates that blacks have less intellectual capacity than whites reducing the test score gap is both necessary and sufficient for substantially reducing the racial inequality in education attainment and earning Phillips and J encks attribute the test score gap to be because of parental interactions with children They look at the test scores because reducing the gap of test scores between blacks and whites would quotsubstantially reduce racial inequalities in educational attainment and earningsquot Failed approaches to reduce the gap I raise black children39s family income wealthy black children still lag behind in their test scores 2 desegregate their schools a school39s racial miX has little effect on reading and math scores 3 equalize spending on schools that remain racially segregated they now spend the same per pupil but it does not make the difference Cultural explanation black children enter pre school with less of a vocabulary because of the way they are talked too Their best guess 1differences in the way black and white schools spend the resources available to them 2the way black and white students respond to the same classroom experience 3family members and friends interact with one another and with the outside world 0 What so called summer learning research tells us about the relative impact of familiescommunity and schools on academic skills and the achievement gaps between the social privileged and unprivileged Downey and Gibbs It turned out that differences between schools in terms of quality played only a small role in understanding the variation in students academic skills while home life parents SES showed the strongest relationship mattered much more What researchers need is a way to untangle the role of school and non school in uences Observing student learning during the school year tells us little about how schools matter because students are exposed to both school and non school environments By testing students both in the fall and spring the research showed a pattern high and low SES students gained academic skills at about the same rate during the nine month academic year Gaps in skills developed during the summers With nationally representative data we found that low and high SES children learned math and reading at similar rates during the 9 month kindergarten and first grade periods but that gaps in skills grew quickly during the summer in between when school was out Conclusion schools are not the source of inequality When it comes to inequality schools are more the solution than the problem 0 The meaning of the opt out revolution the evidence about whether there has been a widespread revolt reading and class notes Women have succeeded in business or highly educatedin our traditional terms however they don39t define success in the same way so choose to leave and start family This is not a large phenomenon their husbands afford to do it They saw having a kid is a good excuse to quit If they are the main economic source of their family they will not quite easily 0 The relative importance of direct discrimination vs gender segregation in the labor force as an explanation of gender disparities in earnings Occupational segregation refers to the fact that women are disproportionally concentrated in low wage occupations and establishments this is the primary source of overall wage differences Historically women were clustered in quotfemalequot jobs such as clerical and retail sales workers waitresses nurses and non college teachersit works both ways What explains the overall gender wage gap According to a report by the US Government Accountability Office just over half of the gap is due to quotlegitimatequot or quotvalidquot sources including differences in human capital such as education and training hours worked industrial and occupational positions and unionization levels The remaining 45 percent is unexplained which most analysts attribute to differences in tastes or preferences andor outright discrimination although some suggest that it is attributable to very fine grained occupational segregation Community and Globalization 0 The meaning of social capital Putnam39s explanation of the quotdisappearance of civic Americaquot including the role of quotlife cyclequot vs quotgenerationalquot cohort effects Elizabeth Stone Social capital means features of social life like norms networks and trust that allow people to effectively pursue their own interests and collective interests Everyone has different amounts of social capital and societies differ in their amount of collective social capital Putnam believes that social capital and civic engagement have significantly declined He gathered evidence from surveys showing that people are less involved in clubs and organizations and less prone to socializing and visiting Putnam blames this on time pressure economic struggles residential mobility women in the labor force higher divorce rates etc Putnam also believes that older people are much more trusting than younger people but the younger ones are not becoming more trusting and involved as they age To eXplain this Putnam describes the differences between quotlife cyclequot and quotgenerationalquot effects A life cycle effect is one that shows a change in a trait over the life of a person making the statement that people change as they age A generational or cohort effect affects all of the people born around the same time These can promote real social change but only happen at one point in time and they last for someone39s entire life Another thing that describes the quotdisappearance of civic Americaquot is the increasing emergence of technology especially television This takes a lot of time out of a person39s day because the average American watches 4 hours of television every day 0 What Barber means by quotMcWorldquot and quotJihadquot and the implications of these forces for democracy throughout the worldMcWorld cares about making money so it is indifferent to democracy they can deal with undemocratic countries unless they are predictable Jihad empathetic does not tolerate people working together promotes intense social interactions that is not promoting democracy 0 Forces of Jihad and forces of McWorld operate with equal strength in opposite directions Neither offers much hope to citizens looking for practical ways to govern themselves democratically McWorld McWorld cares about making money so it is indifferent to democracy they can deal with undemocratic countries as long as they are predictable Jihad Although 39Jihad39 strengthens the solidarity within the resisting group it obeys to hierarchy and cannot tolerate foreign in uence which discourages democracy Both are not helping democracy McWorld Integration and uniformity pressing nations into one commercially homogenous global network McWorld is a term referring to the spreading of McDonald39s restaurants throughout the world as the result of globalization and more generally to the effects of international 39McDonaldization39 of services and commercialization of goods as an element of globalization as a whole One quotMcWorldquot tied together by technology ecology communications and commerce Planet falling apart and coming together at the same time Market imperative resource imperative information technology imperative ecological imperative Jihad permanent rebellion against uniformity and integration religious and ethnic groups feel stronger about their identities may different from others share the same nationality the resistant movement against globalization which he refers to as 39McWorld39 as well as the modern institutionalization of nation states The forces of 39Jihad39 come from fundamentalist ethnic groups who want to protect their traditions heritage and identity from modernization and universalized market The resistance has led to fragmented small scale violent conflicts between cultures peoples and tribes Rebellious factions and dissenting minorities at war not just with globalism but with the traditional nation state Nationalism once integrated and unified people under assimilationist flags Now more divisionary Redraw boundaries Ethnic prejudice created Religion is a battlefield 0 Jihad struggle of soul to avert evil in Islamic culture 0 Applies to religious war in which the faith is under assault Battles against governments that deny the practice of Islam Breakdown of civility in the name of identity 0 Neither McWorld nor Jihad needs or promotes democracy however they turn out to be kinds of quotantipoliticsquot that will help secure democracy McWorld antipolitics of globalism Guided by laissez faire market principles that privilege efficiency productivity and beneficence at the eXpense of civic liberty and self government Will eventually vanquish retribalization Jihad antipolitics of tribalization One party dictatorship Government by military junta T heocratic fundamentalism Could theoretically bring peace if everyone practiced the same religion Bring decentralized participatory democracy or representative government in its federal or confederal variation Serve the political needs of McWorld as well as oligarchic bureaucratism Democracy in any form will continue to be obstructed by the undemocratic and antidemocratic trends toward uniformitarian globalism and intolerant retribalization For it to survive we must commit acts of conscious political will It remains a form of coherence as binding as McWorld and a secular faith potentially as inspirational as Jihad 0 How globalization has diverse impacts on cultural diversity in the world Cowen and intersects with local conditions to exacerbate ethnic tensions Chua Cowen Globalization is homogenizing cultures World poised between Jihad a quotbloody politics of identityquot and McWorld quota bloodless economics of profitquot represented by the spread of McDonalds and American popular culture Globalization 2 dangerous delusion quotSingle worldwide civilization in which the varied traditions and cultures of the past were superseded by a new universal communityquot quotStandardization of world culture with local popular or traditional forms driven out or dumbed down to make way for American television American music food clothes and films has been seen by many as the very heart of globalizationquot however global exchange of cultural products is increasing diversity in ways that are seldom appreciated variety of choices within a particular society significant increase in freedom and diversity in human history choices not defined by local culture diversity over time is important cultural Change without markets that promote cross cultural contacts the practical value of diversity is limited the creation of a global marketplace in entertainment and culture poses another kind of threat rise of mass culture and entertainment quotdumbin g downquot of culture cultural homogenization and increasing heterogeneity are not mutually exclusive alternatives 0 however with more global markets people are more culturally aware at the micro level quotsharpened tastes and perceptionsquot o variety of cultural interests and passions however cultures survives on the absence of internal diversity the thing that globalization promotes 0 thus globalization promotes the loss of individual culture 0 most third world countries are quothybridsquot of cultures to begin with the ability to incorporate multiple influences is one of the keys to creativity exchange of cultural ideas promotes diversity and quality cultural exchange rarely takes place on equal terms quotIt is impossible to deny that globalization will bring the demise of some precious and irreplaceable small culturesquot 0 culture 2 process of creative destruction Chua Discusses the murder of his aunt Aunt chinese woman killed by her chauffer a Filipino Prejudice against Filipinos who are generally servants as there was a tendency for ethnic Filipinos to kidnap and0r murder Chinese Chinese targeted because they have more money 1 of population yet control 60 of private economy millions of Filipinos work for Chinese nearly no Chinese work for Filipinos all peasants are Filipinos Filipinos see the Chinese as exploiters foreign intruders with inexplicable wealth and intolerable superiority Numerous episodes of violence ex 911 attacks Relationship among three most powerful forces running the world markets democracy and ethnic hatred Phenomenon that turns free market democracy into an engine of ethnic con agration Market dominant minorities ethnic minorities who tend to dominate economically the quotindigenousquot majorities around them under market conditions quotAchilles heelquot of free market democracy Americans today are perceived everywhere as the world39s marketdominant minority wielding outrageously disproportionate economic power relative to our numbers AntiAmericanism caused by global spread of free markets and democracy reinforce American wealth and dominance Globalization fueled by unprecedented worldwide spread of markets and democracy Americans have been promoting free market democracy in developing and post communist worlds quotcurequot underdevelopment More markets and more democracy could cure ethic prejudice however because they tend to favor different ethnic groups more tension is created Competition and less open mindedness Backlash against markets that target the minority39s wealth backlash against democracy that favors the market dominant minority against government Violence to eliminate the minority o ethnic dimension of market disparities wealth and poverty 2 class con ict not ethnic con ict ethnic identity based on quotobjectivequot traits such as perceived morphological characteristics and language important to note there is still violence directed at the economically oppressed groups the numerous countries around the world that have pervasive poverty and market dominant minority democracy and markets can proceed only in deep tension with each other 0 solution some form of market generated growth isolate where possible and address where appropriate find ways to spread the benefits of global markets beyond a handful of market dominated minorities and their foreign investor partners direct government intervention in the market designed to quotcorrectquot ethnic wealth imbalances marketdominant minorities address local markets however causes of market dominance are too poorly understood to be able to definitely fix The Sociological Persloective O The difference between a sociological generalization and a stereotype Be able to apply this distinction to real examples class notes A generalization describes the category it is a statement that characterizes objects within a category and defines similarities and differences with other categories A stereotype is a highly oversimplified exaggerated view of reality think of stereotypes and accurate generalizations as extremes on a continuum An example discussed in class A stereotype would be to say that quotall black people are poorquot which is not true because 67 of black people in the poll we discussed are over the poverty line and 71 of those under the poverty line are not black A generalization would be to say that black people are more likely than white people to be poor because there is a percentage difference of 33 to 11 Stereotype cannot be tested unless it is translated into generalization Stereotype Accurate Generalization s Judgmental Descriptive No exceptions Exceptions Allmpowerful category One of many Rejects new evidence Changes with evidence Not carefully created Carefully created Not interested in cause Interested in cause 0 The ways in which a sociological perspective tells us that our freedom is less than we imagine or hope for Think about socialization institutions and structural opportunities the workings of the Nested Model Being free is understanding choosing directing what one does Sociologists claim that society shapes the individual but the individual shapes society as well Sociology shows how important social forces social interaction socialization social structure culture and social institutions shape our lives Sociologists are therefore skeptical of human freedom Social constraints from macro level to institution and then to micro level We are also affected by culture that is permeating across all three social levels EX What we have come to believe is embedded in a social context We think we are thinking freely but it is shaped by the people around us 0 One recurring theme in the course is that we are social creatures and that social connections have consequences in many realms of life Be sure that you can refer to specific findings considered in class or our readings that illustrate this general point Some suggestions Collins Ch 6 Loeb resource mobilization theory of social movements Putnam39s concern for social capital Wellman about on line communities Durkheim about suicide Two central premises of SOC l O l O 0 We are social creatures 0 Social life has patterns and regularities that can be discovered by systematic analysis Emile Durkheim Studied suicide 1 897 Discovered more likely to commit suicide gt than this group Urban gt rural Protestants gt Catholics gt Jews Single gt married gt married with kids More education gt little education gt Education may disconnect you from traditional thinking less swayed by the group Anomie a condition of normlessness social rules are not binding The higher the anomie the higher the rate of suicide Less constraints more chance of suicide Suicide rates would increase with economic booms decrease during war rally around the flag what you know to appeal to other people human capital personal skills that you have in your job social capital people that you know that can get you a job Collins39 thesis we can39t make the robot because there is something special about humans like do not eXist in robots there are human aspects that we eXperience everyday and he demonstrated those aspects into the making of SOCIO culture has to have emotional connection our social connections are important because we learn from them it gives use social and emotional energy we are human and that is part of what makes us human Cultural Capital allows you to keep up conversation lots of things to talk about right kind of topics capital benefit to you if you can use what you know to appeal to other people human capital personal skills that you have in your job social capital people that you know that can get you a job Emotional Energy is the motivation to have social interactions with others general emotional energy you have it can be low or high days when you in a bad mood it doesn39t last emotional forever it diminishes it39s contagious you can get tired and lose your energy overtime it naturally fades we have a neutral emotional energy in all of us we have a balancing point but they are not necessarily the same teachers can dictate emotional energy in a classroom they can make it high or low impacts whether we think we have a good or bad conversation Putnam Social Capital is 0T he networks norms and trust that allow people to effectively pursue their own interests and collective interests Individuals have varying endowments of social capital Societies and communities differ in their collective social capital Know the difference between life cycle change everyone as they age go through different life stages for example liberal to conservative relationship with parents grow distant in Kingston39s metaphor pig gets older as it moves through the python cohort change one group born in the same time period shares eXperiences that affect the group as a whole and these group eXperiences will determine the rest of their life changes pig through the python of society social change the society itself has changed affecting everyone for example economy change more service jobs more outsourcing of manual labor higher premium on education education more available the python changesit gets sick
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