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Hist. 161 Quiz 2 StudyGuide

by: Liliana Calderon

Hist. 161 Quiz 2 StudyGuide HIST 161 001

Marketplace > University of New Mexico > History > HIST 161 001 > Hist 161 Quiz 2 StudyGuide
Liliana Calderon
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This study guide everything that occurs between the establishment of the Virginia colony and the American Revolution. Includes the beginnings of slavery, its progression in terms of treatment thro...
U.S. History to 1877
Margaret DePond
Study Guide
History 161
50 ?




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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 161 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Margaret DePond in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see U.S. History to 1877 in History at University of New Mexico.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
History 161 Quiz 2 Study Guide  Virginia: -pre-eminent southern colony -different attitude than other colonies -supposed to be a profitable colony that started out as a private venture; was not all about religion. Virginia establishment: -first thing they built was a fort, not a church, which started Native Americans, for they saw they were different from other settlers -within a year, 40 people survive [most die bc of drinking salted/defecated water; might have resorted to cannibalism] -were able to survive due to constant replenishing of deceased settlers  John Rolfe: -looking for profitable cash crop [tobacco] -grew mild tobacco crops as done in the Caribbean [where cash crop growing was successful], later learns how to cure and dry it with help from N.Americans.  by 1617 20,000lb to sell Sold in England; smoking had become a popular activity By 1618 40,000lb to sell as soon as cash crop was established, settlers began moving in more into Native land; racism grows as they expand onward.  Reorganization of Colonies: “Great Charter”: gave 50 acres of land for every person living there, and additional 50 acres for each person you took in or took care of. -big difference from England who was lacking land 4,000 settlers migrate due to land, with only 19 women on board looking for husbands. in England people were poor and hungry; Virginia Co. was advertised in England to get poor people to work in Virginia. -Virginia gave women the opportunity to escape their poverty through marriage, and men got to marry Christian women. [“Coverture:” legal term referring to a men owning all a women had.]  House of Burgesses (1620s): Representative assembly (similar to modern0day Congress). Composed of 22 delegates (white male land owners) -discussed Virginia Co. rules and lade laws; passed laws governing social behavior 1 democratic (European) body in the New World. Set the idea of self-governing, as colonists began to resent the British who wanted to limit their colonial power. Meanwhile: st -1 Black African slaves arrive in 1619. Captured by Spanish, were not immediately treated as slaves; could be free men. -by 1649, there are about 300 slaves who farmed alongside whites. -Virginia has high mortality rate due to too much tobacco growing and not enough food being grown, and lack of women. This leads to colonists beginning to demand corn from Indians, leading to frequent conflict and warfare. 1620s, Powatan Indians killed 300 men -6 months after the 1620s attack, Virginians turn ruthless and kill, destroy all aspect of Indian life. -fighting “stops” around 1632 -meanwhile this happens, Virginia Co. gives thousands of acres to plantation owners which are run by indentured servants, which will later be replaced by black slaves. -1650: Virginia becomes a stable colony.  Colonial Frontier -“Frontier:” European term used to describe empty untamed land that is dangerous/unsettled. -Natives lived in wilderness and Europeans feared it because to them it was representation of the devil and the unknown.  All colonial settlements were surrounded by N. American presence (nature) which spread fear of expansion. -1660s, Virginia and Massachusetts being to stabilize -relationships between settlers and natives begin to settle as well [40 years of no terrible violence]  1675: King Philip’s War -colonists and natives created a treaty of Reciprocity that would allow them to have inequality, but was short lived. -puritan ideals of natives being evil drove colonists to believe they were evil and thus, were inferior. immediate cause of this war was the murder of a Christian Native by the Wompanogs. Settlers then killed 3 Wompanog men -led by Metacom (King Phillip), natives kill 9 English settlers which spirals out into war attack of villages and even peaceful natives occurs [the Great Swamp Fight] Surviving [eacful natives join Metacom. 1676: colonists kill Metacom -1,000 English killed, 3,000 Natives killed. Because of this, Natives lost all power in colonies; survivors sold into slavery. -this war led to many kidnappings  captivity of Mary Rowlandson  Colonial Life: -Maryland (1632) Haven for Catholics -Connecticut (1636) Founded same way as Rhode Island -Pennsylvania (1664) religious freedom; pacifists. -Carolina turns into Georgia, North and South Carolina  Carolina: Modeled after Caribbean most successful colony: Barbados Has religious tolerance, good land and plantation owners (everyone wanted to live in Carolina) Populated with lots of indentured servants  Bacon’s Rebellion: Caused due to power structure of gap between the poor and rich. -those that were poor and lived on the outskirts of settlements thought it was unjust the way Natives were being treated (led by Nathan Bacon) -governor Berkeley disagreed and sent a group to fight against the rebellious colonists -small rebellious group would talk about independence from the elite  Women colonial Life: -similar to that in Britain -indentured servants could not marry until their sentence was over -high mortality rate that got higher as one went south.  Women roles: -an elite woman took care of the house -farmer’s wife helped to farm; merchant’s wife was also a merchant  women actively participated in violent acts to protect family  were an integral part of society Household chores: Were of intense labor; domestic servants simply helped.  Slavery: Southern colony slavery was a manifestation of a world-wide slave system [S. Americabrazil and other places] Being a slave was viewed as a normal social status  For millennia, -slavery was Not dependent on race -anyone could be a slave -was not for life  slavery was created from war/conflicts, or debts owed. 1400s, Europeans begin trading/ using slaves st -1 slave traders were Portuguese; land in West Africa -looking for allies against Muslims traders who had dominated the Mediterranean -these slaves were used for indentured servitude lower European class was used for labor, not slaves -slavery existed in Africa as well, but they were mainly P.O.W.  European slave traders -did not want to go deep into Africa; they used African slave traders to purchase slaves from the heart of Africa in costal “factories”  Middle passage 12 million slaves passed, 2 million died on journey -for slaves, the middle passage began with walking to the coast of Africa, being seasoned, then sold.  due to African slave trade, the demographic was affected, leaving an unstable ratio of men to women. -thoughts of inferiority through color spread in Africa -harsher wars and conflict began in Africa and continue to this day due to guns sold for slaves. -African empires plummet -creates a triangular trading system of selling sugar, turning it into manufactured goods to sell for more African slaves -95% of slaves were sent to Brazil Cuba and Barbados; 5% America Barbados: Most successful colony at growing sugar cane Slaves in S. America died much quicker than in colonies -diseases -lack of water -malnutrition -harsher climate; lack of water caused heat stroke  slavery was so successful in S. America that it was not abolished until 1900s at a slow pace.  Important American labor shift (1680s): -Number of African slaves grew tremendously, meanwhile number of indentured servants had dropped due to better quality life back in England due to cash crops profits -price of slaves had dropped, making them easier to sell -slaves were preferred by plantation owners because they were slaves for life, they passed on their status of slave down to children, and it was harder for them to run away due to their color  all these components lead to te idea of color superiority, correlating race with social class. race was not a color thing, but a cultural thing: Europeans associated white with purity and darkness with evil. -Africans were considered heathens, thus slavery was views as justifiable Inequality growth: As cash crops created more wealth, race became a more important.  Creation of Slave Codes: -lifetime servitude -children born to slaves are slaves as well -no voting rights -to testifying in court against whites -blacks can’t marry white women -legislators also make it harder for plantation owners to free their salves as means of keeping them from becoming free 1800s -race determines the economic/social aspects of southern colony life -northern colonies also had slavery, but not like south due to lack of fertile land and its beginnings  more slaver births than slave deaths; most slaves were American born, thus imports begin to stop, as slave population replenishes itself; U.S. imported more slave women  Slave usage: Upper South (Maryland, Virginia, Carolina): tobacco industry demanded more slaves; composed 1/3 of population. Southern South: much heavier dependence on slaves; constructed majority of population deep south (Alabama, Mississippi): slavery had still not yet reached this area Northern colonies: slaves were used for dignified jobs Slaves’ lives were unpredictable  The Great Awakening: Religious revival throughout the colonies about their salvation Johnathan Edwards: preacher that talked about pre-destination and emotional individualism [this develops part of the individualistic character of America; the idea that one had to act on oneself to be saved] people also learned to rebel and question things such as the justification of having slaves [seeds of abolition were sowed]  French and Indian War: (7years’ war, fought between British Protestants and French Catholics on American soil) -fight starts when small group of people led by G. Washington killed a French diplomat in the forest. at the same time, war in Europe breaks out [the 1 real world war]: Prussians and French attack Britain. -British dominated at sea, French dominated on both countries at land.  war ends when British win over Montreal and other French outposts in French Canada; also got Florida because Spanish allied with French.  Because of this war, Britain gained lots of land, but more than it was capable of maintaining.  Pontiac’s War: Began when Native prophet saw a vision from their main deity telling him that the only way they could enter heaven was to rebel against the British and expel British influence. -preached for Pan American Native unity against them. Pontiac, was heavily influenced by the prophet’s words and became one of the main leaders of the wars; taught natives that it was possible to dominate the British. They also wanted to rebel because the British were much harsher than the French [French would intermarry and have peaceful trading with Natives, which the British did not do] war ends due to supply shortage and disease, forcing Natives for a call for peace.  Beginning of American Revolution: Meanwhile the colonists are happy governing themselves without interference from Britain, who is close to bankruptcy due to their attempt at conquering India. due to the expensive wars discussed prior and their plans at conquering India, they decided to tax colonists for the first time ever, causing anger in them. -stamp act -currency act -declaratory act -sugar act -royal proclamation line -Townshend act  John Locke’s ideas inspire colonists; the assembly of Virginia radicalizes all colonies, leading them to revolt, starting with the writing of their grievances and staring that they are no different from British people in Britain and have the same rights.  Merchants stop importing British goods that require a stamp, thus avoided the taxes; stamp act repealed within a year due to money loss.  Violent riots beginning in Boston were repeated in other cities in which stamp collectors and their houses were burned; deeply threatened and soon all stamp collectors returned back to Britain  Sons of Liberty are born to organize resistance against imposed taxes.  Women boycotted by hand spinning their clothing instead of buying it; other colonists did the same thing with taxed goods.


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