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Unit 2 Gen Psych Study Guide

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by: Carolina Notetaker

Unit 2 Gen Psych Study Guide PSY 2012

Marketplace > Florida State University > Psychlogy > PSY 2012 > Unit 2 Gen Psych Study Guide
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About this Document

This is a study guide for Unit 2 of Erica Wells General Psych Course. It includes all of the learning objectives and some pictures to help with the concepts.
General Psychology
Erica Wells
Study Guide
General Psychology, Erica Wells
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolina Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2012 at Florida State University taught by Erica Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Florida State University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
PSY 2012: LEARNING OBJECTIVES UNIT 2 BIOPSYCHOLOGY (CH 3) 1. Distinguish the specific parts of neurons (soma, axon, dendrite, terminal)  and what they do/what function they serve for the neuron 2. Explain how neurons communicate using action potentials and  neurotransmitters Neurons respond to neurotransmitters by generating electrical activity. When there are not  NTs acting on a neuron, it is at resting potential. When there is enough of a charge inside  the neuron (threshold), an action potential will occur 3. Describe how the brain changes as a result of development, learning, &  injury Neural plasticity: changes over time in brain and nervous system. Development: 1) Growth of dendrites and axons 2) Synaptogenesis (forming of new synapses)  3) Pruning (death of certain neurons/axons)  4) Myelination (insulating axons with myelin sheath) Learning: long term potentiation (makes synapses perform better) Injury: in adulthood, plasticity decreases sharply and can recover only partially from brain  injury / illness  4. Differentiate between the central and peripheral nervous systems Central: brain and spinal cord Peripheral: autonomic (parasympathetic/sympathetic) & somatic  5. Identify the four lobes of the cerebral cortex and describe the function/role  of each in our behavior.   Frontal: motor function, language& memory. Executive functioning. Contains motor cortex  (movement) and prefrontal cortex (thinking, planning and language) Parietal: touch and perception. Contains somatosensory cortex (sensitive to pressure, pain  and temperature) Temporal: hearing, understanding language, and sorting autobiographical memories.  Contains auditory cortex Occipital: specialized for vision, contains visual cortex 6. Describe the roles that the major brain structures of the central nervous  system (the basal ganglia, limbic system, cerebellum, brain stem, spinal  cord) play in behavior Basal ganglia: helps control movement Limbic system: emotional center of the brain that also has a role in smell, motivation and  memory. (contains thalamus and hypothalamus)  Cerebellum: balance and coordinated movement Brain stem: connects cerebral cortex and spinal cord. Basic bodily functions. (Relay station  between cortex and rest of NS) Spinal cord: conveys signals between brain and body 7. Clarify how the somatic and autonomic nervous systems work in  emergency and everyday situations Somatic: voluntary movement Autonomic: parasympathetic (rest and digest) & sympathetic (fight or flight) 8. Describe what hormones and glands are and how they affect behavior Endocrine system: consists of glands that release hormones Hormones: molecules that influence particular organs. (Carried through blood vessels,  slower acting than neurotransmitters) ­ Pituitary gland: master gland that directs the other glands of the body ­ Adrenal gland: releases adrenaline and cortisol during states of emotional arousal ­ Sexual reproductive glands: testes in males, ovaries in females. Sexual  Hormones: testosterone &estrogen  9. Describe genes and how they influence psychological traits Genes: our genetic material composed of DNA. Hold information corresponding to various  biological traits Genotype: set of genes transmitted to us  Phenotype: set of observable traits Some organisms have adaptations that make them better suited to their environment. Ex:  survive and reproduce at higher rates than other organisms (fitness), then those adaptations have a higher frequency in the population (evolution by natural selection)  10.Explain the concept of heritability and how the study of behavioral genetics  allows us to distinguish between the influence of genes/heritability and  environment on particular traits Heritability: percentage of variability in a trait across individuals that is due to genes Family studies examine the extent to which a characteristic runs in the family. Twin studies examine concordance (presence of same rate in both members of a pair of  twins) to determine if a characteristic is genetically influenced Adoption studies examine the extent to which children adopted into new homes resemble  their adoptive as opposed to biological parents. If the child resembles biological: trait is  genetically influenced. If child resembles adoptive: environmentally influenced  SENSATION AND PERCEPTION (CH 4) 1. Compare and contrast sensation and perception Sensation: detection of physical energy by our sense organs, which sends that info to the  brain  Perception: brain’s interpretation of raw sensory data  ­ Brain activation is highest when stimulus is first detected, then sensory adaption  occurs (diminished sensitivity)  Transduction: Process of the nervous system converting sensory info into electrical signals  in neurons 2. Describe how our sensations are translated into perceptions After being transduced, our brains then organize the sensory data into meaningful concepts. Our brains piece together 1. what’s in our sensory field, 2. what was there a moment ago,  and 3. what we remember from our past.  ­ We attend to multiple senses at once (parallel processing)  ­ Bottom up processing: construct a whole image from its parts ­ Top down: impose our beliefs and expectations on the stimuli we perceive 3. Describe how perceptual sets & perceptual hypotheses influence our  perception Perceptual sets: occur when our expectations influence our perceptions Perceptual constancy: allows us to perceive stimuli consistency across conditions. We don’t see the size, shape or color of an object changing despite the objective fact that they do.  4. Describe the role that attention plays in perception Selective attention: process of selecting one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing  others. (Cocktail party effect) Inattentional blindness: failure to detect stimuli that are in plain sight when our attention is  focused elsewhere. Subliminal perception: processing of sensory info that occurs below the level or conscious  awareness.  5. Describe how we perceive motion To determine motion, the brain compares visual frames of what is to what was.  (Phi phenomenon: gives the illusion of movement) 6. Describe how we perceive color Different theories of color perception: Trichromatic theory: color vision is based on our sensitivity to three primary colors (blue,  green and red). Explains color blindness  Opponent process theory: sees color vision as a function of complementary, opposing  colors: red v green, blue v yellow, black v white 7. Describe the three different body senses Somatosensory: touch and pain (stimuli applied to skin, temperature and injury) Proprioception: kinesthetic (movement) sense. Body position. Helps us keep track of where  we are and move efficiently Vestibular: equilibrium and balance (due to semicircular canals in inner ear) 8. Explain how pain perception differs from touch perception Similar initial pathways but touch info travels more quickly than pain info. Touch informs us  of our immediate surroundings.  Pain alerts us to take care of injuries  9. Describe the field of psychology called human factors Optimizes technology to better suit our sensory and perceptual capabilities. Uses what we  know about psychology and sensory systems to build more ergonomic gadgets and tools.  SLEEP (CH 5) 1. Explain the role of circadian rhythms and how our bodies react to a  disruption in our biological clocks Daily cyclic rhythm that lasts 24 to 25 hours. Light triggers the increase or decrease of  melatonin 2. Identify the different stages of sleep and the neural activity and dreaming  behaviors that occur in each 5 stages of sleep in 90­minute cycles. Non­REM is stages 1­4 Stage 1: very drowsy, transition quickly to stage 2, theta waves Stage 2: brain waves / heart rate slow down, body temp decreases, muscles relax Stage 3 & 4: Large amplitude delta waves become more frequent REM sleep (stage 5): stage during which brain is most active, vivid dreaming most often  occurs. AKA paradoxical sleep. Appears like you’re awake  ­ Non­ REM dreams: shorter, more thought –like, repetitive, concerned with daily tasks ­ REM dreams: more dreams, emotional, prone to plot shifts, biologically crucial.  ­ Delta waves: deep sleep 3. Identify the features of sleep disorders (3 major) 1. Insomnia: Difficulty falling or staying asleep  2. Narcolepsy: Disorder characterized by the rapid and often unexpected onset  of sleep  3. Sleep apnea: Disorder caused by a blockage of the airway during sleep, resulting in  daytime fatigue 4. Describe the theories of dreaming  1. Freud’s dream protection Theory: dreams are wish fulfillments  2. Activation Synthesis Theory: Dreams reflect inputs from brain activation originating in the pons, which the forebrain then attempts to weave into a story 3. Contra Activation Synthesis Theory: Damage to forebrain may totally eliminate  dreams­ even if pons is properly functioning. Dreams may be consistent/connected  over time. Maybe motivational / emotional content.  4. Neurocognitive: Dreams are a meaningful product of our cognitive capacities, which  shape what we dream about.  5. Define psychoactive drugs, and explain the major differences between each  category of drugs (i.e., depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens) Psychoactive drugs: chemicals that change perceptions and mood through their actions at  the neural synapses. (They stimulate, inhibit, or mimic the activity of the brain’s natural  chemical messengers, the neurotransmitters).  Depressants: depress the effects of the CNS (alcohol & sedatives). Females experience  effects more heavily  Stimulants: Rev up the CNS, increasing our heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.  (cocaine, methamphetamine)  Narcotics: Opiates that relieve pain and induce sleep. (Heroin, morphine, codeine)  Psychedelics: Called hallucinogenic, produce dramatic alterations in perception, mood, and  thought. (Marijuana, LSD, Ecstasy)  6. Define tolerance, withdrawal, and dependence Tolerance: Needing more and more of a drug to achieve the desired effects Withdrawal: Discomfort and distress that follow reduction or stopping of use Dependence:  ­ Physical: continued use to avoid withdrawal symptoms.  ­ Psychological: continued use motivated by intense cravings.  7. Explain how drugs alter the nervous system (i.e., the effects on  neurotransmission at the synapse) Neurotransmitters allow neurons to communicate with each other, and psychoactive drugs  distort this process. (decreases neurotransmission)   


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