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Kinesiology Study Guide, Quiz 2

by: Maria D'Angelo

Kinesiology Study Guide, Quiz 2 MOV 300

Maria D'Angelo
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

Bones and Joints
Dr. Krisanne Chapin
Study Guide
Kinesiology, MOV 300, Chapin
50 ?




Popular in Kinesiology

Popular in Cinema And Media Studies

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria D'Angelo on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MOV 300 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Krisanne Chapin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Kinesiology in Cinema And Media Studies at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Bones   § An example of an internal load and an external load that acts upon bone tissue.   o (muscle or tendon/ligament) and (gravity, inertia, contact) forces?   § Bone is best able to handle ______ loads, and least able to handle ________ loads. o compressive and shear   § The two primary determinants of compressive strength of bone.   o calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate?   § Property of bone that describes how it responds differently (i.e., can handle more/less stress) depending on the type/direction of the load.   o ANISOTROPIC   § The principle that describes a bone's response to stress/loads.   o Wolff's law   § Cells that build bone are called ______________, while cells that resorb/break down bone are called____________.   o osteoblasts and osteoclasts   § Term that is defined by an increase in bone mass due to a predominance of osteoblast activity.   o bone hypertrophy   § Term that is defined by the predominance of osteoclast activity.   o bone atrophy   § Name three types of bone markings th at result from loads applied to those bones. o condyles, facets, heads, epicondyles, spines, trochanters, fossa, foramen, sulcus   § The name of the condition defined by decreased bone mass and a history of fractures.   o Osteoporosis   § Type 1 osteoporosis affects _____ percent of women over the age of ______ .   o 40 and 50   § The components of the female athlete triad.   o disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis   § A primary factor/cause of both the female athlete triad and Type I osteoporosis.   o estrogen deficiency   § Name three lifestyle and dietary factors that detrimentally affect bone mineral density.   o physical inactivity, low body weight, cigarette smoking, estrogen/calcium/vitamin D deficiencies, excessive consumption of protein and caffeine   § The main shaft of a long bone is called the __________, and the proximal and distal endpoints are called _________. o diaphysis and epiphysis   § The majority of growth plates are closed by _______ years of age, but some close as late as ________ years.   o ~18 and 25   § Epiphyses are covered with this to provide protection, cushion and reduce friction.   o articular/hyaline cartilage   § The formal term for the location of longitudinal bone growth is ______________. Circumferential growth takes place at the inner lining of the ______________.   o epiphyseal plate and the periosteum   § This is the name of the interior lining of th e cortex of a long bone.   o Endosteum   § The number of bones in the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton.   o 80 and 126   § This component of bone makeup gives bone it's flexibility and ability to undergo strain.   o Collagen   § Two bone types, distinguished by their poro sity.   o cortical bone and trabecular (or cancellous) bone?   § This component of bone contributes to its strength and transports nutrients. o Water   § A type of load in which one part of the bone is dealing with tension and part is dealing with compression.   o Bending   Joints   § The position in which all joints considered to be at zero degrees.   o anatomical position   § Identify three purposes of the articular cartilage within diarthrodial joints?   o protection, reduced friction, distribution of loads, secretion/absorption of synovia l fluid   § Individuals with increased joint laxity (hypermobility) are susceptible to this type of injury.   o displacement injury (dislocation, subluxation)   § This principle describes how soft tissues will adapt as a function of the tension experienced over time. o Davis' law   § The point beyond which an tendon or ligament will NOT return to it's original/normal resting length following an injury?   o elastic limit   § Gomphosis and suture are examples of this joint type.   o synarthodial joint   § The structural classification name, a nd name of the fluid that cushions our diarthrodial joints. o Synovial   § The pubic symphysis is an example of this functional joint type.   o Amphiarthrodial   § The six types of diarthrodial joints.   o trochoidal, ginglymus, sellar, condyloid, arthrodial, enarthrodial   § The mid-radioulnar joint and distal tibiofibular joint are examples of this joint type.   o syndesmosis joint   § Ginglymus is to hinge as sellar is to_____. o saddle § The only sellar joint in the body.   o 1st carpometacarpal joint   § Which joint types allow movement in all three planes (three degrees of freedom)?   o enarthrodial (ball&socket) and arthrodial (gliding) joints   § Name 3 ginglymus joints in the body.   o humeroulnar, tibiofemoral and talocrural joints?   § Name three structural components of diarthrodial joints that make them unique from synarthrodial and amphiartrodial joints.   o joint capsules, synovial fluid and articular cartilage   § A joint with limited mobility would be classified as _________.   o Amphiarthrodial   § The relative elasticity or restrictiveness of an individual's liga ments is determined by the proportions of ________ and __________ within the tissue. o elastin and collagen? Higher elastin to collagen = hyperlaxity, lower elastin to collagen = hypolaxity.   § Static joint stability is provided by these tissues.   o bones, cartilage (e.g., meniscus, labrum), ligaments & other connective tissue (e.g., fascia)   § Dynamic contributors to joint stability include these 3 factors.   o muscles, proprioception and motor control   § The glenohumeral joint and coxafemoral joint are both enarthrodial joints with similar motions available. Which can be considered less stable than the other and why?   o Glenohumeral joint is considerably less stable because the glenoid fossa (socket) is not as deep as the acetabulum, and because the muscles surrounding the cox afemoral joint are bigger and stronger.   § This proprioceptive structure is sensitive to the tension within a musculotendinous unit.   o golgi tendon organ   § Myotatic or "stretch" reflexes depend upon this proprioceptive structure within the muscle.   o muscle spindle   § Muscle spindles are responsive to the amount and rate of _________ in a muscle and respond by _________ tension in the same muscle.   o STRETCH and CAUSING/INCREASING   § The nervous system's mechanism for quieting the stretch response (i.e., ignoring muscle spin dles) in muscles that oppose a voluntary movement.   o reciprocal inhibition   § A type of stretch that capitalizes on the GTO response by encouraging contraction of the target muscle (building tension) followed by relaxation and passive stretch of the target musc le.   o Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)  


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