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Midterm Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Midterm Notes LSLS 7060

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Here is a study guide to help you with your midterm. It contains important information from the relevant articles in class, all of the accepted IPA symbols broken down into consonants and vowels, a...
Applied Linguistics
Dr. Hye Pae
Study Guide
IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to LSLS 7060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Hye Pae in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Midterm  Notes   International  Phonetic  Alphabet   Written  by:  Krista  Anstead   February  2016     Assignment:     Transcribe  the  story  that  you  wrote  in  your  group  using  the  IPA  symbols     Acronyms:   •   International  phonetic  alphabet  =  IPA     Readings/References:   Celce-­‐Murcia,  M.,  Brinton,  D.,  &  Goodwin,  J.  M.  (1996).  Teaching  pronunciation:  A  reference  for     teachers  of  English  to  speakers  of  other  languages.  Cambridge:  Cambridge  University     Press.   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Phonics  and  whole  language:  Linguistic  foundations.  In     Applying  linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.  67-­‐81).  New  York:     Routledge.   Razfar,  A.  &  Rumenapp,  J.  (2014).  Phonology:  Why  languages  sounds  different  to  second     language  learners.  In  Applying  linguistics  in  the  classroom:  A  sociocultural  approach  (pp.     42-­‐66).  New  York:  Routledge.     Chapter  3  Notes   •   IPA:  summary  of  the  sounds  in  all  languages  in  the  world  and  how  to  describe  them   o   no  language  makes  every  sound  on  the  chart   •   Description  of  IPA  chart   o   Every  sound  has  an  official  name  consisting  of  the  voicing,  place  of  articulation,  and   the  constriction  of  airflow   o   Some  boxes  have  two  symbols:   §   Right  is  voiced   §   Left  is  voiceless   o   Left  column  explains  how  airflow  in  the  mouth  is  constricted   §   Plosive:  airflow  stops  completely  /b/   §   Nasal:  air  comes  out  of  the  nose,  not  the  mouth  /m/   §   Trills:  continuous  stopping  and  movement  of  air  “r”  in  Spanish   §   Taps/flaps:  brief  stop  in  airflow  /t/   §   Fricative:  airflow  continues  but  is  constrained  /f/   §   Lateral  fricatives:  “l”  sound  if  mouth  is  flatter  and  made  a  hissing  noise  (do   not  occur  in  English)   §   Lateral  approximants:  allow  air  through  mouth  like  /l/     o   Top  line  specifies  place  of  articulation  –  where  articulator  most  constricts  the  airflow   §   Bilabial:  lips  touching  /b/   §   Labiodental:  lip  touches  teeth   §   Dental:  tongue  touching  teeth   §   As  tongue  moves  further  and  further  back  in  mouth   •   Palate-­‐alveolar   •   Retroflex   •   Palatal   •   Velar   •   Uvular   §   Throat  sounds   •   Pharyngeal   •   Epiglottal   •   Glottal     o   Vowels:  allow  the  most  air  and  sound  through  the  mouth  (sonorant)     Consonant  Handout  Notes   •   There  are  25  English  consonant  sounds     •   learners  whose  native  language  has  a  simpler  syllable  structure  tend  to  do  one  of  two   things:   o   simplify  English  words  by  dropping  final  consonants   o   simplify  clusters  by  inserting  extra  vowels  to  create  more  syllables   •   flap  allophone:   o    in  English,  we  voice  and  flap  any  medial  /t/  that  comes  at  the  beginning  of  an   unstressed  syllable  or  occurs  between  voiced  sounds  (fourteen,  master)   o   voicing  and  quick  tongue  flap  on  alveolar  ridge  produces  more  of  a  /d/  sound   than  a  /t/  sound  (water,  butter,  getting,  party)   o   when  to  use  flap   §   in  agent  nouns  ending  in  –er  derived  from  verbs  (writer)   §   in  nouns  ending  in  –ity  (quality)   §   phasal  verbs  ending  in  /t/  (hit)   §   many  phrases  with  prepositions  (a  bite  of)     Vowel  Handout  Notes   •   vowels  are  considered  to  be  the  core  or  peak  of  a  syllable   •   there  are  14  vowels   o   11  are  simple  vowels  or  vowels  with  an  adjacent   glide  (accompanied  by  /y/  or  /w/  /ey/  /ow/)   o   3  are  diphthongs           •   Distinguishers  of  vowel  sounds:   o   which  part  of  the  tongue  is  involved  (front,  central,  back)   o   how  high  the  tongue  is  when  the  sound  is  produced  (high,  mid,  low)   •   rounded  vowels  versus  spread  vowels   o   determined  by  lip  position   o   spread:  /iy/  in  Pete  /i/  in  pit   o   most  open  position:  /a/  in  pot   o   rounded:  /u/  in  put  and  /uw/  in  boot   •   tense  versus  lax  vowels   o   tense:  articulated  with  more  muscle  tension   §   serves  to  stretch  articulation     §   are  usually  accompanied  by  a  glide   §   can  occur  in  both  stressed  open  and  closed  syllables     o   lax:  articulated  with  less  muscle  tension   §   do  not  have  tendency  toward  diphthongization     §   only  occur  in  closed  syllables  of  monosyllabic  words  when  stressed   •   many  S  will  have  difficulty  articulating  difference  between  adjacent  tense  lax  vowel   phonemes  /iy/  and  /ı/   •   vowels  tend  to  lengthen  before  voiced  consonants       Consonant  Video  Notes   •   Teaching  tip:  Do  not  refer  to  actual  letter  but  break  down  into  component  features   •   Three  features:   o   Place  of  articulation:  Where  in  your  mouth  do  you  make  the  sound   §   Bilabial  (involving  both  lips)   §   Dental  (tongue  against  teeth)   §   Alveolar  (tongue  against  back  of  gum  ridge  above  upper  teeth  /s/)   §   Postalveolar  (Tongue  further  back  towards  pallet  /sh/)   §   Palatal  (tongue  on  roof  of  mouth  /yuh/)   §   Velar  /k/   §   Glottal  /uh/   o   Manner  of  articulation:  how  you  pronounce  sound   §   Nasal:  air  through  nose  /m/   §   Stop/plosive:  stop  air  /k/   §   Fricative:  to  rub,  continuous  restricting  hissing  air  flow   §   Approximant:     o   Voicing:  letting  vocal  cords  in  voice  box  vibrate  together   §   Voiced  sound:  typical  vowels  are  voiced   §   Voiceless:  no  vibration  in  throat     Vowel  Video  Notes   •   Teaching  tip:  Do  not  refer  to  actual  letter  but  break  down  into  component  features   •    Features     o   height:  position  of  jaw  when  making  sound  or  how  close  tongue  is  to  roof  of   mouth   §   open:  I  u   §   mid:  e  o   §   close:  a   o   backness:  how  far  forward/back  tongue  is  in  mouth   §   front:  i  e   §   central:  a   §   back:  o  u     IPA  Practice   Questions   Answers   1.   stop   1.   'stap   2.   top   2.   'tʰap   3.   little   3.   'lɪɾl ̩ i 4.   bright   4.   'bɹat   5.   tool   5.   'thul   6.   stripe   6.   'strap   7.   battle   7.   'bæɾɹ  ̩ 8.   attack   8.   ʌ'thæk      


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