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History of Rock N Roll Study Guide

by: Khatren Reed

History of Rock N Roll Study Guide Music 262

Marketplace > Washington State University > Music 262 > History of Rock N Roll Study Guide
Khatren Reed

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About this Document

This is the study guide for the upcoming exam on 2/26/16
Music 262 Rock Music: History and Social Analysis
Brian Carter
Study Guide
Music, history, Rock n Roll
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Khatren Reed on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Music 262 at Washington State University taught by Brian Carter in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 198 views.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
History of R&R Study Guide Doo-wop • Emphasizes melody above • Reflected the increased (though still limited) commercial possibilities for black music • The name “Doo-wop” did not come until the 1970s • Star groups of the time: The Platters, The Coasters, The Drifters • Grew out of urban settings (mainly East Coast) • Only a handful made it from the street-corner to stardom • Manly “One hit wonder” groups • Doo-wop was the domain of innocent teenage love The Roots of Doo-Wop: 1930’s- Mill’s Brothers • Inspired younger groups to a polished sound in a more R&B direction The Orioles and The Ravens • Early R&B Doo-wop • Important transition groups The Teenagers (Frankie Lymon) • Featured 13-year old singing artist Frankie Lymon • Biggest hit: Why Do Fools Fall in Love The One Shots • Few doo-wop groups managed to make it oto the charts or sustain careers • Many groups became the one hit wonders • Individuality was erased by the group History of R&R Study Guide Neo-Doo-Wop (early 60’s) • Two Leading Neo-Doo-wop groups of the 1960’s: The Coasters and The Drifters • Both groups affiliated with Jerry Leiber and Mike Stroller Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller • Great songwriting team of the 50s • The “Rogers and Hart” of R&R • Paved the way for the Brill Building writers and Phil Spector productions • First white writers to compose authentic R&B • Helped expand R&B’s range by incorporating a pop-style emphasis The Coasters • New personnel changes the name to The Coasters • Use of Playlets The Drifters—“Uptown R&B” • L&S turned to more serious approach compared to the Coasters • Developed a high-tech production style • Referred to as “Uptown R&B” • The Teen Idols—Rock and Roll’s Turning Point • February 3, 1959 (the death of Buddy Holly) is considered a turning point • The Teen Idols • Most successful teen idol- Bobby Vinton Brill Building Pop • Country turned to Top 40 formats • Songwriters dominated the industry not the singers Aldon Music Publishing • A symbol for the popular music in New York • Pop singers rarely wrote their own music • Songwriters were usually grouped in pairs (one/music- the other/lyrics) Neil Sedaka and Howie Greenfield • Less varied in sound since they were writing for Sedaka Gerry Goffin and Carole King • Most prolific hitmakers at Aldon • Their variety and ability to change with times kept them in busines • Philadelphia and American Bandstand History of R&R Study Guide • City was the most successful teen idol “machine” • Engine of the teen idol machine was American Bandstand • Dick Clark-host of Bandstand The Payola Scandal/ Alan Freed • Payola defined: Bribery of an influential person in exchange for the promotion of a product or service, such that of disc jockeys for the promotion of records The “Girl Group” • A sound and style rather than an individual voice or image • Success usually linked to a specific producer • Projected HIS vision rather than the groups vision • The music often has an underlying current of sexuality behind the innocence The Chantels • Maybe was their big hit in 1957 • Important model for the girl groups that followed The Shirelles • Patterned themselves after the Chantels • Bridged doo-wop and uptown New York pop-soul The Ronettes • Became the “Bad girls of pop” The Righteous Brothers • Spector’s last great success • Spector arrested on suspicion of committing murder and later claimed that she committed suicide but he made a 911 call saying “he might have killed some” so ended up guilty/ diagnosed himself as insane R&B and the Push Toward Soul • Rock & Roll was another name for R&B Atlantic Records • Premier R&B label of the 1950’s The Soul Pioneers • Key element of soul: The influence of gospel music • Four leading soul pioneers: Ray Charles/ Sam Cooke/ Jackie Wilson/ James Brown Ray Charles • Not really R&R music • Drew from the entire spectrum of music • Church based music (influenced Aretha Franklin/ James Brown) History of R&R Study Guide • Ignited R&B with the impassioned testifying of a southern, Holy Roller revival meeting Sam Cooke • Known as the graceful voice in soul music • Very different from Ray Charles • Voice is a more floating quality compared to Charles • Brought his melodic style of gospel to pop songs with graceful ease Jackie Wilson • Enormous range and sheer power- great instrument of R&R • Sweeping register leaps, rich vibrato, falsetto breaks was his trademark • Energetic and agile showman • Used all styles of gospel singing to fuel his spectacular vocal gymnastics James Brown • Paved the way for others such as Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, Sly and the Family Stone • Became known as the “Hardest Working Man in Show Business” • Also became known as the “Godfather of Soul” • Unique Sound- Groove referred to as “The One” • Never had a #1 song on the POP charts • But had 17 #1 songs on the R&B charts Solomon Burke • Brought a country influence into R&B • Burke never celebrated a number one hit on the pop charts but enjoyed many hits in the R&B charts Wilson Pickett • Atlantic’s best-selling southern soul performer • In the Midnight Hour- one of the most successful songs of soul era Instrumental Soul- Memphis • Formed Booker T. and the MG’s Otis Redding • Skillful at delivering ballads with passion • Earned a reputation as leading performer of soul ballads The Instrumental Groups (1950’s) • Usually built on a simple riff • 1950’s groups set the trends for music that followed- Rocks First Garage Bands Duane Eddy History of R&R Study Guide • Developed a style known as “twangy” guitar • Formed the model for surf band guitarists that followed 1960’s Instrumental Groups (Surf Music) • Surf music was primarily an instrumental style • Lack of vocals necessitated experimenting with sounds on the guitar • Guitar had virtually disappeared as lead instrument in early 60’s pop • Reestablished the guitar as a central role of R&R The Ventures • Solidifed the two guitar/ bass/ drum line-up • Not originally a surf band • Became a crowd favorite with the surf crowd Dick Dale and the Deltones 2/22/16 • King of the surf guitar • Dale’s Deltones spawned many garage bands around Southern California • Songs: Lets Go Trippin’ and Misirlou Garage Rock • Simple, raw form of rock & roll • Inspired by British Invasion bands • First wave of do-it-yourself punk rockers Louie, Louie- The Kingsmen • Composed in 1956 by Richard Berry • First recorded by Berry’s group, The Pharaohs • Lifted their version from The Wailers, a Seattle band who missed out on success of this • FBI declared it “incomprehensible at any speed” The Beach Boys • America’s answer to the Beatles • Painted a landscape of beach, paradise, hot rods and California girls • Combination of the Four Freshmen and instrumental surf music • Brian Wilson • Brian Wilson was the quiet genius of the group • Influenced by Phil Spector’s wall of sound


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