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HY 102 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

HY 102 Notes HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present)

Victoria Miller

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These notes cover the first half of the semester for HY 102
The History of Western Civilization- 1648-Present
Margaret Peacock
Study Guide
history, Western Civilization
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see The History of Western Civilization- 1648-Present in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
Why Study the West? 8/19/15  Great Chain of Being o God -> angels -> heaven -> humans -> beasts -> plants -> flame -> rocks  Scientific Revolution o Tears apart the idea of the Great Chain of Being  Renaissance Humanism  The New World  The Wars of Religion o 30 Years War ends in 1648  Protestants vs. Catholics  Protestant Reformation o Martin Luther Why Should We Study History? 8/24/15 Age of Absolutism: France  Feudal period comes to an end o Aristocrats losing power o Merchants losing money, economy sucks o Peasants always pissed off, heavy tax burden  Have to have a country to survive and maintain power in this world o Need a leader o Tax system o Military o France and England  Louis XIV o Son of Henry IV o 4 years old when he takes the throne o The Fronde Rebellion  A rebellion by the aristocrats and their angry wives takes over Paris forcing Louis to flee  He hates the aristocracy  Only lasts 2 years o Absolutism – 5 rules  1. The king must be godlike  Louis begins to brand himself o Starts universities dedicated to studying him o Apollo – go of the sun o Builds Versailles  Took ½ of France’s revenue to build it  Political strategy  2. King must be in control  Hires people that weren’t necessarily from the nobility to run the country and promoted them by merit o Owe their job 100% to Louis o Good at their job o Nicholas Fouquet and Jean Baptiste Colbert  Mercantilism: sell more shit than you buy  Raising of tariffs so that people buy your shit o Louis never has to go to Parliament  3. King must be wealthy  Raising of tariffs  4. Inforce religious conformity  The Revocation of the Edict of Nates o Everyone has to be one religion o The Huguenots aren’t poor and leave, hurting France  5. Have a kick ass army  Louis creates the most profession fighting force in Europe o Has to control Spain  Invades the Netherlands o What’s new about Louis’ absolutism?  Merit based system  Mercantilism  Brands himself The Glorious Revolution 8/26/15  Henry VIII 1540s o Made himself head of church and state o 5 problems with absolutism  1. Issue with being godlike is you have a huge image to uphold. Only going to live in your lifespan, difficult to keep up over generations  2. Doesn’t have complete control because Parliament controlled the money and taxes. Henry VIII sold off all the Catholic monasteries for short term cash and impoverished future royal generations.  3. Problem staying wealthy  4. Problem maintaining religious conformity because not all his successors will be Catholic/not  5. Problem keeping a big army o 1642 Parliament decides that it, not King Charles, represented the interests of the nation and that royal control had to be stopped  English Civil War 1642 o A king on trial o New Model Army  Doesn’t wear wigs  Defeat Charles I and put him on trial 1646  Negotiations will begin  Charged with high treason o Death of the king  Charles I refuses to negotiate and is convicted  Oliver Cromwell gets people to sign his death warrant  Commonwealth o All sorts of new, dangerous ideas bubble up o The Levellers  Want universal male suffrage and religious freedom o Quakers  Women are equal o Oliver Cromwell  Taxed the fuck outa England  Big army  Religious conformity  Puritan o No swearing, no drinking, no fucking, no Christmas, no fun  Responsible for massacres of Catholics and Irish  The Restoration o Charles II  Stewards brought back to power after Cromwell dies  Grew up in France so he’s Catholic  Partied a lot  Had lots of mistresses o James II  Brother of Charles II  Military background  Openly Catholic  People are okay with it but they don’t want another revolution  Had two Anglican daughters  Ann and Mary  Has to flee England o William of Orange  Marries Mary, daughter of James II  Alternative revolution  Monarchy and parliament must work together The Enlightenment 8/31/15  Change happening in European society beginning in 17 century o Dutch and English pioneer new forms of representational government o The middling orders grow larger, wealthier, more critical of privileges and the church as the ideas brought by the Age of Reason trickle down through society  Middling order  People who left the farms, went to the cities, became more educated, etc.  Increasingly literate population o Scientific revolution/Age of Reason  Life can be understood in rational terms o Writing in the vernacular  Writing in French (except the Scots)  What was the Enlightenment? o 1720-1820 roughly o A period when intellectuals applied the methods of the scientific revolution to social problems o Philosophies  Wrote in the vernacular  Came from all over Europe but a majority were from France  Really angry people with increasingly literate population  Voltaire o Educated by the Jesuits o Exiled from France and goes to England in 1726 and sees religious toleration and intellectual freedom o Letters in England  Launching of the Enlightenment  France bans his writings o WHEN GOVERNMENT AND RELIGION MIX THEY ARE INTOLERANT AND CRUEL  Diderot o Science was needed to banish ignorance st o Wrote the 1 encyclopedia  Also gets banned in France  Montesquieu o Believe you could scientifically study humans and come up with the best government for them  Checks and balances  Rousseau o Reason is good but it is better to follow your heart o We are all inherently good in the STATE OF NATURE  Civilization makes us evil o We should try to stay out of society o Best way to make decisions is the general will  What are the consequences of the Enlightenment? o It makes people think again about their own rights and how they thought about their future o Deeply revolutionary o Enlightened Despotism  2 Eastern European leaders envisioned themselves as enlightened men and women  Despite their lofty ideals, they would find themselves confronted with a paradox of enlightened despotism  Catherine the Great o Russia o Opened schools for women o Encouraged journalism o Brought people in to express their grievances o Pugachev Rebellion makes her backtrack  Frederick the Great o Prussia o Promote religious tolerance o People can move up and down on the social ladder  Joseph II o Austria o Limit surf labor o Enforce religious toleration and limit power of the Pope o Dissolves all monasteries and builds hospitals with the money o Abolishes serfdom later and redistributes the land o EVERYONE hated him The French Revolution 9/2/15  1770s o American Revolution  French gov. financed it and bankrupted itself  50% of national income used to pay interest on loans  1780s o Shitty harvest o Louis XVI calls a meeting of the Estates General  Estates General  Clergy o Own 10% of land  Aristocracy o Own 25% of land  Everyone else/3 Estate o 95% of the population  3 Estate convenes  Middling orders  June 1789  Realize they won’t get anything done in the Estates General and BREAK AWAY  1 and 2 ndEstates lock the 3 Estate out of the building and they meet on the tennis court next door o Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789  The workers rise up and free 14 workers  Peasants in the countryside are burning shit  Summer 1789, Great Terror begins rd o 3 Estate call themselves the General Assembly  Writes a new constitution  Abolishes serfdom  Constitutional monarchy  When the government violates the rights of men, everything is launched into chaos  Gave reason for revolution o General Assembly writes another constitution  Confiscates land from the church and makes clergy take an oath of serfdom  Made every man equal  Didn’t abolish slavery in the colonies o Louis XVI tires to run to Austria  Wants to come back with Austrian army in invade France  Creates a sense of betrayal  Chaos breaks loose when he comes back in 1792  1792 o Basically all of Europe mobilizes to protect the monarchy of France o The siege of the Tuileries  Royal family flees to the National Assembly o National Convention  Convention split down the middle  Radicals vs. moderates  Created a new committee  Committee for Public Safety o Great visionaries/scary o 3 tasks  1. Defend France/ get invaders out of France  Huge conscription plan and raise largest army in history  2. Social building  Get rid of particular terms in language o Call eachother citizen  Free education  New calendar  Replace Christianity o Worship cult of reason  3. Purge of enemies  Can be arrested for discouraging patriotism o Reign of Terror  Thermidorian Reaction o Creation of the Directory  Unpopular and ineffective and is overthrown in 1799  Napoleon o Napoleonic Law Code o Conquest of Europe takes about 6 years o 1810, all of Europe minus Englan is under his control o The Condtenental system  Like the European Union  Trade with each other with no tariffs  Can’t trade with the British  Russians ignore it and trade with the British anyway o Getting sick of Napoleon o Teaching the Russians a lesson  Russia is sneaky and Napoleon gets stuck in Moscow with 600,000 men  Congress of Vienna o France gets to go o Number one thing was to create a balance of power  Created buffer states around France  Germans get the Ruhr valley  Russia absorbs Finland and Poland o Doesn’t solve anything o Nationalism  French Revolution sets up modern nationalism  Double edge sword  Unites people but also divides them  Congress of Vienna throws nationalism out the window o French Rev. shows us the relationship between a means and an end o Doesn’t matter how beautiful the ends are if you have fucked up means Industrial Revolution 9/9/15  Life was rural before Industrial Revolution  Preconditions o Raw materials  why Europe? o Population explosion predicated upon an agricultural revolution, which creates demand for goods and an enlarged labor force  why now? o No more famine  because people aren’t dying off, they’re having more sex and babies  creates more demand  Why Britain first? o Plenty of capital predicated upon commercial and financial revolutions o Laissez-faire economic policy  Adam Smith – A Wealth of Nations o A culture of social mobility and respect for merchants o Innovation  Cotton th o Cotton in the 18 century is hard to get and hard to make o Production is difficult, making it rare. Cotton manufacturing is a cottage industry  Made cotton hella expensive o Fixing the problem  John Kay invented the flying shuttle 1733  1763 James Hargraves creates the spinning jenny  1769 Richard Arkwright invents water frame  1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin  Separates the seed from cotton itself  Slave holding becomes way more profitable o How do we power factories?  Water!  Limits where you can build the factory  Rivers can freeze  Steam!  1712, Newcomen patents his “atmospheric engine”  1769 James Watts make the engine more efficient so that it runs in a circular motion  1785, steam engines are applied to textile manufacturing  factories can be closer o Size is limited by the amount of steam you can produce o Steam is limited by strength of the metals that make up the engine  Making stronger metals  1856 – Bessemer discovers that pre-heated iron and carbon make steel  Consequences o Better metals means better tools, meaning bigger factories  The cottage industry is increasingly rendered obsolete o Britain becomes manufacturer to the world o Factory owners get very wealthy  owned 1/3 of shipping and ½ of railroads o Consumers have access to lots of new goods o The split of the middle class  Some become extremely wealthy  Making of the working class  Class of urban factory workers is born as a product of the Industrial Rev.  Every single member of the family was expected to work in the factory  Huge labor supply means people are paid terrible wages  No law or government regulation to say that workers are mistreated o Sadler Commission 1832 The Liberal Response the Industrial Revolution 9/16/15 th  19 Century liberals o People are inherently good o Therefore they don’t need government to rule them  1 response o Adam Smith  A Wealth of Nations  Claimed to be scientific and applied scientific theory to the economy  Supply and demand  To impede the flow of money through government intervention  World and national economies are healthiest when left alone  Invisible hand o Thomas Malthus  Eventually, as the population grows, we will run out of food  War, famine, epidemics, natural disasters prevented this  Poor are just doomed to be poor  Better to let the die than help them o David Ricardo  Iron law of wages  Worker population is low, employers must pay higher wages  high wages lead to healthier workers  healthy workers have more kids  more children means more workers  more workers can be paid less because they can be replaced  lower wages lead to unhealthy workers  unhealthy workers die and worker population is low o No recourse  Workers find that they have no recourse against ill-treatment and starvation wages  Luddites  The Frame Breaking Art o Made machine breaking a capital offence  The Utilitarians o Classical liberal theorists are then challenged by the utilitarians o Jeremy Bentham  Principles of Moral and Legislation 1789  Use reason to discover the laws that define man  Best institution brought the most happiness to the greatest amount of people  Demanded manhood suffrage and end of slavery o John Stuart Mill  Argued for more interventionist policies  Protect children  What was the effect? o Workers unrest o British passed the Six Acts o National Charter 1839 Britain o Socialism Socialism 9/21/15  Socialism’s beginnings o Can be seen in the earliest human societies o Early socialists went farther than Mill in arguing for radical solution  Communal ownership in natural resources and raw materials  Utopian Socialists o Believed they’d be able to convince the upper/middle classes to give up their ownership of natural resources and the means of production o Saint Simon  To be a good Christian is to be a socialist o Charles Fourier: phalanx  Everyone would work according to their abilities o Robert Owen  In factory owner’s interest to participate in socialism  John Locke was right  Provide a good environment  Created a model town for citizens  Production went up  New Harmony  Revolutionary Socialists o They came to believe that the only way for workers to achieve a just society was to seize the means of production o Karl Marx and Frederich Engels  Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital/Capital  Materialistic interpretation of history  Most important thing about society is economic structure  Everything about you is derived from economic status  Economic determinism  Dialectical Materialism o There is a finite amount of material in the world, all human history is a story of class struggle  Alienation o Over time, the worker has become alientated from the things that he produces and from his fellow man. He has become another piece of capital to be bought/sold  Because of these realities… o Because the real story of history is class war  REVOLUTION!  Revolution o It is impossible as long as the workers lack class consciousness and fail to recognize that there is a class war going on o What is preventing it?  Religion  Upholds the Great Chain of Being  Christian morality preaches obedience, promise of heaven at the end of a miserable life  Nationalism  Encourages people to be submissive  Donald Trump  War helps  Trade Unions  Convince people to be complacent in the system o A workers’ revolution is the only way  Then what? o Marx gets hella vague o A classless society would ensue o Government would fade away  Flaws  Find human happiness in only material items, ignoring spirituality and altruistic societies  They underestimate our greed  Marx remains important, nonetheless…  Because he was the first to point out just how important economics is to history  Because his critique of capitalism is profound and hard to ignore  Because he speaks to the needs of the least powerful members of society  Failure, largely  How can freedom be found? The Rise of the Nation State 9/23/15  The Congress of Vienna: Turning back the clock o Dominated by monarchy: England, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria o State system lasts for 90 years o Sets the stage for the rise of nationalist movement  Dividing up Europe o They decided to rim big countries with defensible borders by shuffling little countries around in defiance of local desires o Divided up Europe among 5 great powers o The Congress System and the Holy Alliance  Like a United Nations kinda  5 great powers would rule their people with paternalistic autocracy  Would hold conferences to figure out what’s wrong  If that didn’t work, they’d ban together to crush it  Defense of conservativism/ monarchy  Revolutions: 1820-1848 o All of it fails o 1848  Entire continent west of the Elbe River exploded into revolution because of bad weather  Ireland – potato famine  Bread prices went up  Economy sucks  People turn to the monarchy for help and get nothing  Uprising starts in France (England and Russia are excluded)  Germany  All speak same language and share same culture  Made up of 40 little independent states  Just needed to figure out what their aims were and who their leaders would be  Didn’t think of themselves as Germans  Either Austria or Prussia need to take charge o Neither of them wanted a democracy  The Professors Parliament o Decided against Austria because they were preoccupied squashing revolutions within their country  Prussian monarch wasn’t too excited either o Frankfurt Constitution o Fredrick William IV  Refused the crown because it was LAME!  Italy  The Risorgimento (resurgence of Italian unity and greatness)  Like Germany, it has its culture but it’s not a unified state  5 main regions o Sardinia o Tuscany o Venicia o Papal States o Sicily  They really wanted to create a unified Italy  Revolts started in Sicily and pushed north  French intervene, Austria intervenes  King Charles Albert of Sardinia is the only one who embraces a united Italy/Risorgimento  Austria-Hungary  Really corrupt government, huge peasant population very unlike Italy and Germany  Population didn’t share a language and culture  People desperate to get out of the Empire  People not united  All revolutions fail  Significance? o Liberalism, nationalism, and socialism were viable movements o The Ancient Regime still had a lot of residual power o Radicals were either proscribed or fled to America, where many movements started o Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary had to come together as a nation before they could do anything o Given that unification was only going to happen from top  down, it wasn’t likely they would become liberal democracies o German/Italian unification depended on what happened to Austria- Hungary Nationalism, 1848-1871 9/28/15  Austro-Hungary o Barley weathered the revolutions of 1848  Problem that lead to 1848 didn’t go away o Lost alliance with Russia and Crimean War  Italy o After 1852 Victor Emmanuel II names Count Cavouras 1 Minister  He strengthened Piedmont-Sardinia against Austrians  Fostered modern financial infrastructure  Established diplomatic ties with France  France promises to aide in exchange for Savoy o 1859 Austria demanded Piedmont-Sardinia stop its military build-up  Italians refuse and Austria invades  Italians win  France doesn’t want a strong Italy  Occupy Rome o 1860 Italy is still split into 4 major parts o Grassroots movements in southern Italy start to gain momentum to fight for unification  Headed by Guiseppe Garibaldi  Victor Emmanuel’s armies head south to make sure Garibaldi didn’t establish his own country  Garibaldi submitted to Victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy o Liberals still aren’t happy because it is still a monarchy, not a democracy  Germany o The weakness of Austro-Hungary empire, Napoleon III being a shmuck, and needing a great minister made unification impossible o German nationalists were torn in attempting to decide between Prussia and Austria  Prussia  Really economically strong  Efficient government  Awesome army  Bismarck  Born Prussian aristocrat  Mother was middle class  Didn’t really care about school  “greatest goal in life was to drink 1,000 glasses of champagne”  Found religion in Lutheran church  Idea that politics should be governed by practical means  Real politick  Wanted to ensure Prussia’s strength and supremacy  Makes alliance with Russia o The German Confederation  2 wars allow Prussia to annex places and unify Germany  France starts to worry o 1866 Napoleon III alarmed at growing might of Prussia  Demanded that Bismarck hand over some German territory or at least Belgium  Bismarck responds by progressively isolating France o The Franco-Prussian War 1870  Bismarck gossips and gets everyone on his side against the French  Spain?  Spain needs a new king  Bismarck persuades them to offer the crown to Leopold, the Prussian king’s cousin o Leopold really didn’t give a shit about running Spain but the French cared if he was running Spain o Wilhelm (Prussian king) didn’t know anything about it and told Leopold to turn it down  The Ems Dispatch o France says that Wilhelm had to promise that not he nor his family will ever take the Spanish throne ever o Wilhelm is on vacation and refuses because he is dishonored at a spa and writes a telegram o Bismarck edits the telegram to rile up the German people and sends it to everyone in the press  Prussian victory  Prussians are super superior to the French in so many ways  Napoleon III is captured and gives up the throne  Consequences  French o Everything falls apart o Paris is fucked because Bismarck doesn’t let up o Lose Alsace-Loraine  Germans declare national statehood


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