HY 102 Notes
HY 102 Notes HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present)
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see The History of Western Civilization- 1648-Present in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Why Study the West? 8/19/15 Great Chain of Being o God -> angels -> heaven -> humans -> beasts -> plants -> flame -> rocks Scientific Revolution o Tears apart the idea of the Great Chain of Being Renaissance Humanism The New World The Wars of Religion o 30 Years War ends in 1648 Protestants vs. Catholics Protestant Reformation o Martin Luther Why Should We Study History? 8/24/15 Age of Absolutism: France Feudal period comes to an end o Aristocrats losing power o Merchants losing money, economy sucks o Peasants always pissed off, heavy tax burden Have to have a country to survive and maintain power in this world o Need a leader o Tax system o Military o France and England Louis XIV o Son of Henry IV o 4 years old when he takes the throne o The Fronde Rebellion A rebellion by the aristocrats and their angry wives takes over Paris forcing Louis to flee He hates the aristocracy Only lasts 2 years o Absolutism – 5 rules 1. The king must be godlike Louis begins to brand himself o Starts universities dedicated to studying him o Apollo – go of the sun o Builds Versailles Took ½ of France’s revenue to build it Political strategy 2. King must be in control Hires people that weren’t necessarily from the nobility to run the country and promoted them by merit o Owe their job 100% to Louis o Good at their job o Nicholas Fouquet and Jean Baptiste Colbert Mercantilism: sell more shit than you buy Raising of tariffs so that people buy your shit o Louis never has to go to Parliament 3. King must be wealthy Raising of tariffs 4. Inforce religious conformity The Revocation of the Edict of Nates o Everyone has to be one religion o The Huguenots aren’t poor and leave, hurting France 5. Have a kick ass army Louis creates the most profession fighting force in Europe o Has to control Spain Invades the Netherlands o What’s new about Louis’ absolutism? Merit based system Mercantilism Brands himself The Glorious Revolution 8/26/15 Henry VIII 1540s o Made himself head of church and state o 5 problems with absolutism 1. Issue with being godlike is you have a huge image to uphold. Only going to live in your lifespan, difficult to keep up over generations 2. Doesn’t have complete control because Parliament controlled the money and taxes. Henry VIII sold off all the Catholic monasteries for short term cash and impoverished future royal generations. 3. Problem staying wealthy 4. Problem maintaining religious conformity because not all his successors will be Catholic/not 5. Problem keeping a big army o 1642 Parliament decides that it, not King Charles, represented the interests of the nation and that royal control had to be stopped English Civil War 1642 o A king on trial o New Model Army Doesn’t wear wigs Defeat Charles I and put him on trial 1646 Negotiations will begin Charged with high treason o Death of the king Charles I refuses to negotiate and is convicted Oliver Cromwell gets people to sign his death warrant Commonwealth o All sorts of new, dangerous ideas bubble up o The Levellers Want universal male suffrage and religious freedom o Quakers Women are equal o Oliver Cromwell Taxed the fuck outa England Big army Religious conformity Puritan o No swearing, no drinking, no fucking, no Christmas, no fun Responsible for massacres of Catholics and Irish The Restoration o Charles II Stewards brought back to power after Cromwell dies Grew up in France so he’s Catholic Partied a lot Had lots of mistresses o James II Brother of Charles II Military background Openly Catholic People are okay with it but they don’t want another revolution Had two Anglican daughters Ann and Mary Has to flee England o William of Orange Marries Mary, daughter of James II Alternative revolution Monarchy and parliament must work together The Enlightenment 8/31/15 Change happening in European society beginning in 17 century o Dutch and English pioneer new forms of representational government o The middling orders grow larger, wealthier, more critical of privileges and the church as the ideas brought by the Age of Reason trickle down through society Middling order People who left the farms, went to the cities, became more educated, etc. Increasingly literate population o Scientific revolution/Age of Reason Life can be understood in rational terms o Writing in the vernacular Writing in French (except the Scots) What was the Enlightenment? o 1720-1820 roughly o A period when intellectuals applied the methods of the scientific revolution to social problems o Philosophies Wrote in the vernacular Came from all over Europe but a majority were from France Really angry people with increasingly literate population Voltaire o Educated by the Jesuits o Exiled from France and goes to England in 1726 and sees religious toleration and intellectual freedom o Letters in England Launching of the Enlightenment France bans his writings o WHEN GOVERNMENT AND RELIGION MIX THEY ARE INTOLERANT AND CRUEL Diderot o Science was needed to banish ignorance st o Wrote the 1 encyclopedia Also gets banned in France Montesquieu o Believe you could scientifically study humans and come up with the best government for them Checks and balances Rousseau o Reason is good but it is better to follow your heart o We are all inherently good in the STATE OF NATURE Civilization makes us evil o We should try to stay out of society o Best way to make decisions is the general will What are the consequences of the Enlightenment? o It makes people think again about their own rights and how they thought about their future o Deeply revolutionary o Enlightened Despotism 2 Eastern European leaders envisioned themselves as enlightened men and women Despite their lofty ideals, they would find themselves confronted with a paradox of enlightened despotism Catherine the Great o Russia o Opened schools for women o Encouraged journalism o Brought people in to express their grievances o Pugachev Rebellion makes her backtrack Frederick the Great o Prussia o Promote religious tolerance o People can move up and down on the social ladder Joseph II o Austria o Limit surf labor o Enforce religious toleration and limit power of the Pope o Dissolves all monasteries and builds hospitals with the money o Abolishes serfdom later and redistributes the land o EVERYONE hated him The French Revolution 9/2/15 1770s o American Revolution French gov. financed it and bankrupted itself 50% of national income used to pay interest on loans 1780s o Shitty harvest o Louis XVI calls a meeting of the Estates General Estates General Clergy o Own 10% of land Aristocracy o Own 25% of land Everyone else/3 Estate o 95% of the population 3 Estate convenes Middling orders June 1789 Realize they won’t get anything done in the Estates General and BREAK AWAY 1 and 2 ndEstates lock the 3 Estate out of the building and they meet on the tennis court next door o Storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 The workers rise up and free 14 workers Peasants in the countryside are burning shit Summer 1789, Great Terror begins rd o 3 Estate call themselves the General Assembly Writes a new constitution Abolishes serfdom Constitutional monarchy When the government violates the rights of men, everything is launched into chaos Gave reason for revolution o General Assembly writes another constitution Confiscates land from the church and makes clergy take an oath of serfdom Made every man equal Didn’t abolish slavery in the colonies o Louis XVI tires to run to Austria Wants to come back with Austrian army in invade France Creates a sense of betrayal Chaos breaks loose when he comes back in 1792 1792 o Basically all of Europe mobilizes to protect the monarchy of France o The siege of the Tuileries Royal family flees to the National Assembly o National Convention Convention split down the middle Radicals vs. moderates Created a new committee Committee for Public Safety o Great visionaries/scary o 3 tasks 1. Defend France/ get invaders out of France Huge conscription plan and raise largest army in history 2. Social building Get rid of particular terms in language o Call eachother citizen Free education New calendar Replace Christianity o Worship cult of reason 3. Purge of enemies Can be arrested for discouraging patriotism o Reign of Terror Thermidorian Reaction o Creation of the Directory Unpopular and ineffective and is overthrown in 1799 Napoleon o Napoleonic Law Code o Conquest of Europe takes about 6 years o 1810, all of Europe minus Englan is under his control o The Condtenental system Like the European Union Trade with each other with no tariffs Can’t trade with the British Russians ignore it and trade with the British anyway o Getting sick of Napoleon o Teaching the Russians a lesson Russia is sneaky and Napoleon gets stuck in Moscow with 600,000 men Congress of Vienna o France gets to go o Number one thing was to create a balance of power Created buffer states around France Germans get the Ruhr valley Russia absorbs Finland and Poland o Doesn’t solve anything o Nationalism French Revolution sets up modern nationalism Double edge sword Unites people but also divides them Congress of Vienna throws nationalism out the window o French Rev. shows us the relationship between a means and an end o Doesn’t matter how beautiful the ends are if you have fucked up means Industrial Revolution 9/9/15 Life was rural before Industrial Revolution Preconditions o Raw materials why Europe? o Population explosion predicated upon an agricultural revolution, which creates demand for goods and an enlarged labor force why now? o No more famine because people aren’t dying off, they’re having more sex and babies creates more demand Why Britain first? o Plenty of capital predicated upon commercial and financial revolutions o Laissez-faire economic policy Adam Smith – A Wealth of Nations o A culture of social mobility and respect for merchants o Innovation Cotton th o Cotton in the 18 century is hard to get and hard to make o Production is difficult, making it rare. Cotton manufacturing is a cottage industry Made cotton hella expensive o Fixing the problem John Kay invented the flying shuttle 1733 1763 James Hargraves creates the spinning jenny 1769 Richard Arkwright invents water frame 1793 Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin Separates the seed from cotton itself Slave holding becomes way more profitable o How do we power factories? Water! Limits where you can build the factory Rivers can freeze Steam! 1712, Newcomen patents his “atmospheric engine” 1769 James Watts make the engine more efficient so that it runs in a circular motion 1785, steam engines are applied to textile manufacturing factories can be closer o Size is limited by the amount of steam you can produce o Steam is limited by strength of the metals that make up the engine Making stronger metals 1856 – Bessemer discovers that pre-heated iron and carbon make steel Consequences o Better metals means better tools, meaning bigger factories The cottage industry is increasingly rendered obsolete o Britain becomes manufacturer to the world o Factory owners get very wealthy owned 1/3 of shipping and ½ of railroads o Consumers have access to lots of new goods o The split of the middle class Some become extremely wealthy Making of the working class Class of urban factory workers is born as a product of the Industrial Rev. Every single member of the family was expected to work in the factory Huge labor supply means people are paid terrible wages No law or government regulation to say that workers are mistreated o Sadler Commission 1832 The Liberal Response the Industrial Revolution 9/16/15 th 19 Century liberals o People are inherently good o Therefore they don’t need government to rule them 1 response o Adam Smith A Wealth of Nations Claimed to be scientific and applied scientific theory to the economy Supply and demand To impede the flow of money through government intervention World and national economies are healthiest when left alone Invisible hand o Thomas Malthus Eventually, as the population grows, we will run out of food War, famine, epidemics, natural disasters prevented this Poor are just doomed to be poor Better to let the die than help them o David Ricardo Iron law of wages Worker population is low, employers must pay higher wages high wages lead to healthier workers healthy workers have more kids more children means more workers more workers can be paid less because they can be replaced lower wages lead to unhealthy workers unhealthy workers die and worker population is low o No recourse Workers find that they have no recourse against ill-treatment and starvation wages Luddites The Frame Breaking Art o Made machine breaking a capital offence The Utilitarians o Classical liberal theorists are then challenged by the utilitarians o Jeremy Bentham Principles of Moral and Legislation 1789 Use reason to discover the laws that define man Best institution brought the most happiness to the greatest amount of people Demanded manhood suffrage and end of slavery o John Stuart Mill Argued for more interventionist policies Protect children What was the effect? o Workers unrest o British passed the Six Acts o National Charter 1839 Britain o Socialism Socialism 9/21/15 Socialism’s beginnings o Can be seen in the earliest human societies o Early socialists went farther than Mill in arguing for radical solution Communal ownership in natural resources and raw materials Utopian Socialists o Believed they’d be able to convince the upper/middle classes to give up their ownership of natural resources and the means of production o Saint Simon To be a good Christian is to be a socialist o Charles Fourier: phalanx Everyone would work according to their abilities o Robert Owen In factory owner’s interest to participate in socialism John Locke was right Provide a good environment Created a model town for citizens Production went up New Harmony Revolutionary Socialists o They came to believe that the only way for workers to achieve a just society was to seize the means of production o Karl Marx and Frederich Engels Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital/Capital Materialistic interpretation of history Most important thing about society is economic structure Everything about you is derived from economic status Economic determinism Dialectical Materialism o There is a finite amount of material in the world, all human history is a story of class struggle Alienation o Over time, the worker has become alientated from the things that he produces and from his fellow man. He has become another piece of capital to be bought/sold Because of these realities… o Because the real story of history is class war REVOLUTION! Revolution o It is impossible as long as the workers lack class consciousness and fail to recognize that there is a class war going on o What is preventing it? Religion Upholds the Great Chain of Being Christian morality preaches obedience, promise of heaven at the end of a miserable life Nationalism Encourages people to be submissive Donald Trump War helps Trade Unions Convince people to be complacent in the system o A workers’ revolution is the only way Then what? o Marx gets hella vague o A classless society would ensue o Government would fade away Flaws Find human happiness in only material items, ignoring spirituality and altruistic societies They underestimate our greed Marx remains important, nonetheless… Because he was the first to point out just how important economics is to history Because his critique of capitalism is profound and hard to ignore Because he speaks to the needs of the least powerful members of society Failure, largely How can freedom be found? The Rise of the Nation State 9/23/15 The Congress of Vienna: Turning back the clock o Dominated by monarchy: England, France, Russia, Prussia and Austria o State system lasts for 90 years o Sets the stage for the rise of nationalist movement Dividing up Europe o They decided to rim big countries with defensible borders by shuffling little countries around in defiance of local desires o Divided up Europe among 5 great powers o The Congress System and the Holy Alliance Like a United Nations kinda 5 great powers would rule their people with paternalistic autocracy Would hold conferences to figure out what’s wrong If that didn’t work, they’d ban together to crush it Defense of conservativism/ monarchy Revolutions: 1820-1848 o All of it fails o 1848 Entire continent west of the Elbe River exploded into revolution because of bad weather Ireland – potato famine Bread prices went up Economy sucks People turn to the monarchy for help and get nothing Uprising starts in France (England and Russia are excluded) Germany All speak same language and share same culture Made up of 40 little independent states Just needed to figure out what their aims were and who their leaders would be Didn’t think of themselves as Germans Either Austria or Prussia need to take charge o Neither of them wanted a democracy The Professors Parliament o Decided against Austria because they were preoccupied squashing revolutions within their country Prussian monarch wasn’t too excited either o Frankfurt Constitution o Fredrick William IV Refused the crown because it was LAME! Italy The Risorgimento (resurgence of Italian unity and greatness) Like Germany, it has its culture but it’s not a unified state 5 main regions o Sardinia o Tuscany o Venicia o Papal States o Sicily They really wanted to create a unified Italy Revolts started in Sicily and pushed north French intervene, Austria intervenes King Charles Albert of Sardinia is the only one who embraces a united Italy/Risorgimento Austria-Hungary Really corrupt government, huge peasant population very unlike Italy and Germany Population didn’t share a language and culture People desperate to get out of the Empire People not united All revolutions fail Significance? o Liberalism, nationalism, and socialism were viable movements o The Ancient Regime still had a lot of residual power o Radicals were either proscribed or fled to America, where many movements started o Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary had to come together as a nation before they could do anything o Given that unification was only going to happen from top down, it wasn’t likely they would become liberal democracies o German/Italian unification depended on what happened to Austria- Hungary Nationalism, 1848-1871 9/28/15 Austro-Hungary o Barley weathered the revolutions of 1848 Problem that lead to 1848 didn’t go away o Lost alliance with Russia and Crimean War Italy o After 1852 Victor Emmanuel II names Count Cavouras 1 Minister He strengthened Piedmont-Sardinia against Austrians Fostered modern financial infrastructure Established diplomatic ties with France France promises to aide in exchange for Savoy o 1859 Austria demanded Piedmont-Sardinia stop its military build-up Italians refuse and Austria invades Italians win France doesn’t want a strong Italy Occupy Rome o 1860 Italy is still split into 4 major parts o Grassroots movements in southern Italy start to gain momentum to fight for unification Headed by Guiseppe Garibaldi Victor Emmanuel’s armies head south to make sure Garibaldi didn’t establish his own country Garibaldi submitted to Victor Emmanuel II as king of Italy o Liberals still aren’t happy because it is still a monarchy, not a democracy Germany o The weakness of Austro-Hungary empire, Napoleon III being a shmuck, and needing a great minister made unification impossible o German nationalists were torn in attempting to decide between Prussia and Austria Prussia Really economically strong Efficient government Awesome army Bismarck Born Prussian aristocrat Mother was middle class Didn’t really care about school “greatest goal in life was to drink 1,000 glasses of champagne” Found religion in Lutheran church Idea that politics should be governed by practical means Real politick Wanted to ensure Prussia’s strength and supremacy Makes alliance with Russia o The German Confederation 2 wars allow Prussia to annex places and unify Germany France starts to worry o 1866 Napoleon III alarmed at growing might of Prussia Demanded that Bismarck hand over some German territory or at least Belgium Bismarck responds by progressively isolating France o The Franco-Prussian War 1870 Bismarck gossips and gets everyone on his side against the French Spain? Spain needs a new king Bismarck persuades them to offer the crown to Leopold, the Prussian king’s cousin o Leopold really didn’t give a shit about running Spain but the French cared if he was running Spain o Wilhelm (Prussian king) didn’t know anything about it and told Leopold to turn it down The Ems Dispatch o France says that Wilhelm had to promise that not he nor his family will ever take the Spanish throne ever o Wilhelm is on vacation and refuses because he is dishonored at a spa and writes a telegram o Bismarck edits the telegram to rile up the German people and sends it to everyone in the press Prussian victory Prussians are super superior to the French in so many ways Napoleon III is captured and gives up the throne Consequences French o Everything falls apart o Paris is fucked because Bismarck doesn’t let up o Lose Alsace-Loraine Germans declare national statehood
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