Study guide unit two
Study guide unit two Hist 1700-04
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaytie Gull on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1700-04 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Michelle Orihel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see American Civilization in History at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
History 1700 Exam Two (2/26/2016) ______________________________________________________________________________ Imperial Relationships “Rule Britannia” 2/3/16 1. First British Empire (15831783) a. Revolved around the Atlantic World; Europe, Africa and America b. Protestant faith c. Not enslaved d. Liberties were secured by parliament e. British Patriotism i. Loyalism: Royal allegiance to the British empire ii. “Rule Britannia” 1. Britain’s too good be slaves 2. No one else is so blessed iii. Loyal to King George III, Patriot king 2 . Seven Years War a. First Global War i. Britain, Hanover, and Prussia vs Spain, and France ii. Fighting on four continents and three oceans iii. Origin of the Seven Year War was the Ohio Valley iv. British moved west 1. Caused by British population doubling every 2025 years 2. French built forts so that they could protect their land v. England(Navy) had an Imperial Rivalry with France(Army) b. What role did the Seven Year’s War play in causing the American Revolution? i. During the Seven Year War the British went into a large debt which caused them to have to increase taxes. c. Albany Congress/ Plan, 1754 i. First intercolonial meeting ii. “Join or Die” editorial cartoon 1. Proposal for the Union made by Benjamin Franklin 2. Join or fall to the French d. George Washington’s first experience with military leadership i. Began as a land surveyor ii. Was in the Virginia Militia, 1755 iii. French had a fort near Pittsburg Pennsylvania (Fort Dusquesne) iv. British had George Washington build a fort in western Pennsylvania (Fort Necessity) v. Fort Necessity turned out to be a large Military/ Diplomatic disaster 1. George Washington’s first military experience 2. French destroyed Fort Necessity e. William Pitt, The British Prime Minister i. Policy of total war, complete war effort causing full mobilization of all troops for war ii. During the beginning of the war the French defeated the British, but toward the end the British had victories f. The Plains of Abraham, 1759 – Quebec i. British launched a surprise attack verse the French ii. They scaled they walls which shocked the French 1. Battle only lasted 20 minutes 2. Both commanding officers died during the battle iii. Battle led to the collapse of the French Empire in North America 1. Treaty of Paris, 1763 a. French had to choose between Canada and Guadeloupe i. Chose Guadeloupe since it was in the Caribbean b. Change in French Territory g. As a result of the Seven Year War i. Huge national debt for Britain ii. New and increased taxes iii. Victory is the cause of more problems From Many to One, Creation of the American Republic 2/5/16 1 . Reorganizing the Empire a. During the seven years war the British empires national debt almost doubled b. George Grenville, British Prime Minister and the Chancellor of the Exchequer i. Man in charge of the British money c. Due to the large amount of debt, Britain need Revenue i. Taxes were the solution ii. The British empire started to tax the colonies iii. Compared to before the war when the colonist were not taxed as much 2 . Early Reforms a. Salutary Neglect – Policy to avoid strict enforcement of parliamentary law, keep colonist obedient to England b. Proclamation line – The forbidding of settlements past the Appalachian Mountains c. Pontiac’s War – Many colonists were upset with postwar policies so they joined with natives to fight the British soldiers and settlers out of the area d. PanIndianism Molasses Act – A act for the better securing of the trade of English sugar to America e. Sugar Act – Used to encourage better trade to America 3 . Stamp Act i. Mandated the use of stamped paper for all official papers, must be stamped to be official b. Caused the Boston Riot, August 14, 1765 i. Bostonians created an effigy of Andrew Oliver 1. Effigy A stuffed dummy created in the likeness of a person 2. Attached to the effigy was a verse about going against the cause of freedom, being convinced by the Devil so instead of stamping others he hung himself. 3. Andrew Oliver had just become the one to distribute the stamps ii. Hung it from the liberty tree 1. Tree planted by Puritans in 1646, symbol of Boston’s connection to the founding of the colonies iii. Such a large crowd had gathered that they were in control before any of the British were there iv. The Bostonians took the effigy down and put it in a casket to have a fake funeral. There was a mock funeral procession down the streets of Boston to the office and home of Andrew Oliver. They destroyed both his office and home. 1. Destroyed government property 2. No loss of life. a. Andrew Oliver wasn’t at his house because when he heard the riot was coming he went and hid at the governor’s mansion. v. In the end as a reckoning for being the stamp distributer he was forced to kneel in front of the Liberty tree and had to resign from his job. c. Due to the Boston Riot it was unsafe for anyone to accept the position as the stamp tax collector i. Story of the Boston Riot was printed and distributed around the colonies causing many more riots to occur against the stamp tax. ii. The stamp tax was unenforceable d. Stamp Act Congress i. Took place in New York on October 1765 1. Intercolonial meeting wasn’t legal 2. It wasn’t authorized by the British government 3. 9 Colonies were represented 4. Resolutions of the Congress a. Colonist were loyal to the crown and they blamed the taxes on parliament i. There wasn’t anyone representing the colonist personally causing them to say “No taxation without representation” 5. There was no thought of independence at this time 6. There was mixed success from this congress concerning the stamp tax a. Stamp act was repealed in March of 1766 b. British passed the Declaratory Act i. Act stated that Parliament had the right to legislate for it colonies no matter what the case is ii. The colonists were subordinate and dependent upon the imperial crown and parliament e. The Stamp Act Crisis was the first act of the American Revolution i. People were starting to be made aware of their rights with the British Government From Resistance to Revolution 2/8/16 1. Three main events led up to the American Revolution: took place between 17631776 a . Boston Massacre i. Townshend Act, 17671770 1. Charles Townshend, Exchequer (Secretary of the Treasure) 2. Cause duties on imports from Britain a. Put taxes on products brought from Britain i. Majority of the colonist commodities were from Britain 3. Enforcement of Townshend Act a. Parliament sent British troops to enforce that custom duties were collected b. Went against the policy of no standing army i. Can only have an army if going foreign to fight a war ii. Violated the rights of the colonists c. Arrival of British Troops in Boston, 1769 i. Employment ii. Competition iii. Conflict iv. The soldiers needed additional employment to be able to provide since the military didn’t pay well enough v. Caused a very intense competition for jobs between colonist and soldiers vi. Raised the animosity between them vii. There were regular confrontations between colonist and soldiers by 1770 viii. There was already tension but adding alcohol created conflict d. Boston Massacre, March 5 1770 i. Group of apprentices came upon a British soldier on guard. They started to cause conflict and eventually the guard pushed one of them down. It wouldn’t have been as bad but when the apprentice was pushed down a large group of angry drunk men rounded the corner and started a riot. At the beginning of the riot there were more soldiers that joined the other soldier but before they could shoot their guns they had to read the riot act. ii. The Riot act had to be read, which took about an hour. It was read in an effort to calm down a riot and not have to cause injury. iii. What occurred next isn’t really known but before the hour was up a gun was fired, by the end of the massacre five of the angry mob were dead, one of which was a free black man. iv. After the massacre Paul Revere created an engraving of the massacre printed up and it was hung all over the place along with spread throughout the colonies. b . Boston Tea Party i. Tea Act 1. Designed to give the East India Company a monopoly of the sale of tea for North America. Three parts: a. Lowered Colonist tax on tea b. Granted the East India Company the monopoly c. Appointed royal agents who payed off tea tax based on profits made in the colonies d. East India Company – British merchant company that dealt with Asia e. Monopoly – Exclusive possession or control of trade in a commodity, tea 2. This made the colonists mad for two reasons a. Took business away from colonial tea merchants b. Made colonist think it was another move to increase parliaments authority over them. ii. Boston Tea Party – 1773 1. Meeting held December 16 a. Old south church – 5,000 people in attendance 2. Resistance to the tea act a. 100 men boarded three ships b. Smashed open chest of tea and threw them into the ocean. i. 90,000 pounds of tea ii. 342 chests of tea iii. Valued at 10,000 pounds (About 1.2 million pounds nowadays) c. “Boston Harbor a teapot tonight” 3. Coercive/ Intolerable acts – March 1774 a. Until the money is payed off i. Boston harbor closed ii. Town meetings banned iii. Annulled government which limited the government iv. Dissolved the colonial assembly v. Appointed a military governor b. Purpose was to break up the resistance in New England and to isolate the rebellion 4. Impact on the colonies a. Sam Adams made it appear that the British were “Starving Boston” b. Created sympathy for Boston i. Unified the patriots ii. Made reconciliation with Britain less possible iii. Independence still wasn’t a factor but more people were drawn to the patriot cause 5. First continental congress took place – September 1774, Philadelphia a. 55 delegates came from 12 colonies b. Wanted to repeal the coercive acts Britain was putting on the colonists. c . Lexington and Concord i. Battle of Concord 1. General Thomas Gage wanted to seize the stockpile of weapons from the colonist. a. Thomas Gage was the British military governor b. Colonist were led by John Hancock and Sam Adams i. Militia – Body of citizens organized for military service 2. The Bostonians knew of the British’s plans a. Formed a committee of safety i. Acted as government during the war ii. Riders sent to warn the people that the British were coming 3. Lexington – April 19, 1775 a. British soldiers versus 70 militiamen on Lexington green i. 8 colonists dead, 10 wounded 4. Concord a. Larger militia group at concord bridge i. 3 British dead, no colonial losses 5. As a result of the battles a. British had 73 dead and 202 injured b. Colonists had 8 dead and 95 wounded Revolutionary War, 17751783: 2/12/16 – 2/17/16 1 . North a. The Revolutionary war began in April 1775 i. Outside of Boston, Lexington and Concord b. Governor Gage sent soldiers to seize weapons from Lexington and Concord i. 1,000 Britain soldiers went to end the resistance ii. Colonist started a battle against the British iii. Sam Adams and John Hancock were the ringleaders of the Patriots c. Second Constitutional congress – May 1775 i. Met after the battle of Lexington and Concord finished 1. George Washington was made the commander in chief 2. Washington was the ideal leader because he was always the tallest in the room ii. Establish a continental army, an army to battle the British 1. What is the difference between the Continental Army and Militia? a. The militia were more citizen soldiers who didn’t have to follow all of the polices that military had to. b. The continental army a standing army that was trained specifically for battle, there were many rules they had to follow. d. Siege of Boston – March 1776 i. Dorchester Heights ii. The Green mountain boys, led by Ethan Allen, attacked the British at Fort Ticonderoga 1. They won and they seized the cannons and took them to Boston 2. The British retreated to Halifax, Nova Scotia e. British strategy – 1776 i. Devised by General William Howe 1. Gain control of the Hudson river valley to shut New England off from the rest of the colonies f. Invasion of New York City – July 1776 i. 32,000 troops with British 1. Regular and Hessian troops a. Hessian troops were the specialty troops, like now day black ops ii. 19,000 troop with the continental army 1. They were commanded to hold New York City 2. Eventually the Patriots were forced to retreat a. Battle of Long Island/ Manhattan g. American Strategy i. Washington doesn’t want to retreat but realized that they can’t withstand the British 1. If the colonist lost all of the continental army, they would lose their chance at independence, developed the Fabian strategy. h. British Occupation of New Jersey i. People of New Jersey were given amnesty if they would take an oath of Allegiance to the King. 1. Amnesty – Being forgiven for being a Patriot, forgiven of their crimes 2. Caused collapse of resistance i. December 1776 i. A very small army of 300, many who were about to finish their time up at the end of the year. ii. Thomas Paine wrote the, American Crisis 1. These are the times that try men’s souls 2. Don’t give up keep fighting j. Washington’s Crossing i. Crossed the Delaware River at night, a surprise raid on the British 1. Battle of Trenton 2. After they won the battle they went back to camp then later attacked Princeton 3. Winning both battles helped to raise the soldier’s moral k. Saratoga – 1776 i. General Burgoyne and 6,000 troops forced to surrender ii. Proved that continental army could win against the British iii. Showed the failure of British strategy 1. This caused Britain to try and bargain with them, if they return to the English, put off the rebellion, the English would have the taxes be like they were before the sevenyear war. a. Wanted reconciliation iv. France made an Alliance with the Americans 1. The France American Alliance – 1778 a. King Louis XVI b. France would help the colonist by providing military and financial assistance. i. This was essential to the American victory 2 . South a. British changed their strategy in 1778 i. Turn south 1. Staple crops, helped the south make profit 2. West Indies 3. More loyalists in the southern colonies, more friendly with the British 4. The British were strongest on the coast because of the Navy b. In response to the British going south, the colonists, led by Nathaniel Greene (Washington’s second in command) drew the British to the interior, where they were the weakest. i. Caused a civil war since it was the patriots verses the loyalists, sometimes neighbor versus neighbor c. Battle of Yorktown – October 1782 i. While the British were waiting for their navy to arrive, Washington began to attack Lord Cornwallis 1. Lord Cornwallis was the commander of the British army ii. In the midst of the attack the French navy arrived and assist the Patriots 1. The French surrounded them on the ocean and the colonist from the land iii. The British were all forced to surrender 1. Parliament agreed to peace negotiations 2. Traditional for commander to surrender sword to other army’s commander a. Cornwallis appointed his second in command to give up his sword b. Second walked over to the French general, who refused it and pointed to Washington c. He went to Washington, but he also said no and pointed to his second who took the sword 3 . Treaty of Paris, 1783 a. Peace Negotiations American diplomats: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin 1. New to European politics a. Used this to their advantage b. Treaty of Paris, 1783 i. Unconditional Independence ii. All territory East of the Mississippi belong to the United States of America iii. Fishing rights to Newfoundland iv. During the negotiations there was no thoughts for the Indians, even when it came to them being kicked out of their land as the United States expanded to the west A Republic if you can Keep it: 2/19/16 – 2/22/16 1 . Articles of Confederation a. Postrevolutionary America i. Primarily and Agrarian civilization 1. Farmers, lived off the land ii. No national identity 1. Known as the united states are… 2. Wasn’t till after the Civil War that it became the U.S. is… v. America was identified by the individual states c. Thomas Jefferson i. My country is Virginia; His primary attachment wasn’t to America but to his state d. Articles of Confederation i. 1781 – Confederation of sovereign states 1. No chief executive 2. No judiciary 3. Unicameral legislation a. Unanimity required to pass legislation 4. Powers of Congress a. Can declare war, establish an army, create treaties b. May negotiate with Indian nations c. Right to issue Currency 5. Congress Can’t a. Not able to tax, only able to request revenue from states i. No way to pay for army or fund the government b. Unable to regulate trade between states i. Each state has the right to work how they want ii. How did the Articles of Confederation reflect the experience of the American Revolution? 1. Citizens were shying away from a centralized government a. Stay away from president and taxes iii. Problems with the Article of Confederation 1. Newburgh Affair – March 1783 a. Upstate New York, Many unpaid for their service for month/ years, trying to figure out how to force congress to pay them b. Wanted to take over congress with the army, George Washington convinced them to be patient 2. Shay’s Rebellion: 1786 1787 a. Led by Daniel Shay b. So many farmers were overburdened with debt and they were starting to lose their land and go to debtor’s prison. Started to rebel. c. George Washington stated that there is a lack of life in the government and unity in the United states. The country needed a constitution 2. Constitutional Convention a. Annapolis Convention – 1786 i. Met in Annapolis Maryland ii. Delegates were called from every state; they didn’t want to do anything right away but they knew that something needed to be done. The set up a convention to revise the government to become better and be more unified. b. Constitutional Convention: May September 1787 i. Met in Philadelphia, inside the state house 1. Same place that the Declaration of Independence was signed ii. 55 men were present from 12 of the states 1. Only state not there was Rhode Island 2. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson both weren’t there because they were on diplomatic missions 3. George Washington was appointed to preside a. He didn’t want to attend but he was convinced to iii. Constitution was released with George Washington’s stamp of approval 1. He was trusted because after the conclusion of the revolutionary war he retired instead of becoming a military dictator like he could have iv. James Madison: Father of the Constitution 1. Protégé of Thomas Jefferson 2. Virginia Delegate 3. Not a public speaker, very private 4. Very smart, was a scholar of history a. By learning from the past the future can become better v. Convention secret to allow all delegates to be open and not worried about what they said, wanted an open forum c. Virginia Plan – Benefits the larger states i. Created by the Virginia delegates, mainly James Madison 1. Replace the Articles of Confederation 2. Bicameral Legislature a. Two houses b. Representation by population c. Judiciary i. Supreme court d. Executive, elected by congress e. Congress can veto any state legislation d. New Jersey Plan – Better for the smaller states i. Created by William Patterson 1. Revision of the Articles of Confederation a. Taxation, regulation of commerce 2. Unicameral legislator a. Only one house 3. Represented by state ii. Let the larger states unite but no one can force us, the small states, to be swallowed by the tyranny of the larger states e. Great compromise i. By Roger Sherman, Connecticut delegate 1. Bicameral Legislator a. House of representative – by population b. Senate – by state 2. Slavery (Conflict between north and south) a. 3/5 clause i. As far as representation of population goes each slave would count as 3/5 of a person 1. Gave the south more representation b. Slave trade i. Deciding whether the united states should participate in the slave trade 1. Decided to postpone decision for 20 years. 3 . Ratification Debates a. In order for the constitution to be ratified had to be ratified by nine states, ¾. i. Constitution was released to the public September 1787 ii. State ratification conventions between 17871788 b. Debate between Federalist and Antifederalists i. Federalists 1. Wanted a wellconstructed union 2. Released the federalist papers to show the need for a centralized government ii. Antifederalists 1. Wanted to focus on local/ state governments a. Disliked the idea of a centralized government 2. Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee were the leaders of the antifederalists a. Richard Henry Lee worried that with the creation of this centralized government would create an oligarchy i. An elite group that would chase power b. National capital was too far away c. There wasn’t enough representation i. 30,000 – 1 representative c. June 1788 i. Although the majority of people were antifederalist, 9 states ratified the constitution d. Antifederalist contribution i. The Bill of Rights 1. First ten amendments to the Constitution 2. 1791 e. As a result of this… i. Stronger national government 1. We the people not we the states ii. Congress given the right to tax iii. States were prohibited from issuing money iv. National government had the right to regulate foreign and interstate commerce f. The new era i. First Presidential election held ii. Washington was inaugurated as president – March 1789 iii. First capitals of the united states 1. New York City 2. Philadelphia 3. Washington D.C.
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