Biotechnology & Society Midterm Review
Biotechnology & Society Midterm Review General Education Clusters M71A - Biotechnology and Society
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Biotechnology & Society Cluster Midterm Review UNIT 1: Assisted Reproductive Technologies Week 1 Basic Reproductive Biology and Methods of Birth Control (Rensel) Learning Outcomes: 1. List the major anatomical components of the female and male reproductive systems Females: i. uterus- site of fetal development ii. fallopian tube- location of fertilization iii. ovary (gonads)- maturation/release of eggs iv. cervix- opening of the uterus that allows m enstrual blood, sperm, and babies to go through v. vagina Oogenesis- differentiation/ development of eggs Males: vi. urethra- transport of sperm and urine to outside vii. penis viii. testicle (gonad)- sperm maturation ix. epididymis - sperm storage; tube connecting testis to vas deferens x. vas deferens- tube for passage of sperm from epididymis to penis xi. prostate gland- secret milky fluid to enhance sperm mobility xii. seminal vesicle- secrete fluid and nutrients for sperm xiii. bladder Spermatogenesis- differentiation/ development of sperm Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis • Spermatogenesis is continuous; oogenesis arrests at various time points • Spermatogenesis occurs from adolescence onward; oogenesis starts prior to birth, completes after puberty (and ends in menopause) • Spermatogenesis: meiosis produces 4 sperm; oogenesis: meiosis produces one egg (other divisions produce polar bodies, which degrade) 2. Describe the role of the HPG axis in regulating gametogenesis and pregnancy (and list the steps detailing the ovarian and uterine cycles) • HPG (Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal) Axis - 3 regions (hypothalamus, pituitary, gonads) that are connected together via hormone secretion • HPG Axis (Hypothalamic Pituitary Gonadal Axis) i. Brain in control of entire process ii. Hypothalamus release GnRH (Gonadotrophin releasing hormone → acts on Pituitary to make it release its own hormones, LH and FSH) iii. Negative feedback: way for body to regulate hormone levels Ovarian Cycle i. LH & FSH (from pituitary) stimulate the growth of follicle of egg (negative feedback) ii. developing follicle starts to release low levels of E2 (estrogen) and P (Progesterone) iii. Almost mature follicle releases HIGH amount of E2 → switches to POSITIVE feedback→ LH and FSH surge (spike in diagram) iv. surge→ Ovulation (eggs released) v. Corpus Luteum continues making E2 and P (even though egg is traveling through fallopian tube) vi. in ABSENCE of fertilization Corpus Luteum degrades→ E2 and P reduces drastically vii. restart cycle bc low hormones→ negative feedback 2. Explain what occurs at each of the 5 stages of embryogenesis (8 weeks total), and roughly when and where they occur 1. Fertilization- takes place when the sperm has successfully entered the ovum and the two sets of genetic material carried by the gametes, fuse together, resulting in the zygote, (a single diploid cell) 2. Cleavage- first stage of forming a blastocyst; division of cells through mitosis (1→ 2, 2→ 4, 4→ 8, etc) 3. Gastrulation- 11-15 days post-fertilization: cell layers form (ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm); become devoted to different organs and systems 4. Neurulation- days 16-25: formation of spinal cord and brain, other t issues 5. Organogenesis- days 26+: formation of organs; Most organ development complete by end of month 3 (except lungs and brain) (6.) Cytodifferentiation- development of specialized cells and cell functions in embryonic tissues 4. Describe what a pregna ncy test measures, and why a pregnant woman does not ovulate or menstruate a. Pregnancy tests detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which is released by embryo and detected in maternal urine b. hCG stimulates corpus luteum (and eventually the placenta) to produce estrogen and progesterone c. No drop in estrogen and progesterone = no menstruation, no return to start of cycle 5. Categorize major modes of contraception according to the three possible mod es of action . Prevent joining of egg and sperm (fertilization) i. Females – intra-uterine devices 1968: first IUDs approved by FDA Current versions: copper (last 12 yrs) and hormonal (last 3 -5 yrs) ii. Copper IUDs kill sperm in the uterus Hormonal IUDs - release progesterone; thickens cervix and inhibits sperm entry b. Prevent gamete development and/or release ii. Surgery 1. Males – Vasectomy (disconnecting vas deferens) 2. Females-Tubal ligation (disconnecting fallopian tubes) iii. The pill (Female- hormonal contraceptives) c. Prevent implantation (post fertilization) . the pill alters the endometrium (womb lining) - prevents the endometrium from preparing to receive an egg. So even if an egg has already been released it can’t embed itself into the lining i. “Plan B”- morning after pill (emergency contraceptive) Readings: 1. Lisa Urry et al., Campbell Biology, ch. 36, pp. 733-749 1/6 Reproductive Freedom: from birth -control to ART (Le Goff and Rensel) Learning Outcomes: 1. Explain how the dissociation between sex and reproduction happened during the 20th century having sex = getting pregnant BUT now with contraceptive methods that is not necessarily true • contraception legal in the US in the 19th century • Anti-contraception laws o “Comstock Laws” 1873- prohibit “mailing lewd and obscene publications, prints or pictures, and any article or thing designed or intended for the prevention of conception or procuring of abortion” (basically prohibited pornography and advertisements of contraceptives) • Many states outlaw the use of contraception ACTIVISM 1910-20s: term “birth control” 1916: Margaret Sanger opens the first US family planning clinic (arrested) 1923: first legal clinic • 1960-80s: women’s liberation movement (if the wo men WANT to) • Sexuality, family, reproductive rights • Equality in the workplace and in society • Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) - Connecticut “Comstock” law found unconstitutional • Right to privacy, even though privacy is not directly mentioned in the Constitution • Contraception for married women ONLY • Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) - Extended to unmarried couples • Discrimination (14th Amendment guarantees of Equal Protection) Discrepancy of responsibility (women MORE responsible for contraception) 2. Explain the terms of the debate over abortion For Against Argument: Argument: women’s rights, control over their bodies the embryo/fetus is a person → has rights Activism: Activism (in the US): feminists on reproductive rights (since 1960s) the “right to life” movement (since late 1960s) • Roe v. Wade (1973)- legalized abortion • the right to privacy for women • state’s interests in protection women’s health and potential hu man life (fetus is NOT a person): trimester framework (legal up to 28 weeks) • Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) • upholds Roe • viability • “undue burden” doctrine: state regulations are allowed as long as they do not create an “undue burden” or “substantial obstacle” for women 3. List the causes of infertility and the reason that high FSH indicates infertility infertility= inability to become pregnant after one year of unprotected sex USA: 6% married women, 11% of all women 15 -44 yrs. • Prominent Cause= Maternal Age • One indicator of infertility= HIGH FSH o FSH should only be elevated briefly at the start of the cycle and at ovulation, not chronically o high FSH is a biomarker that indicates loss of viable follicles OTHER CAUSES OF INFERTILITY Female: -endometriosis -ovulation disorders -fallopian tube damage Male: -impaired sperm quality (including motility) -low sperm quantity 4. Define ART, IVF, and list the steps of IVF • ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) - “all fertility treatments in which eggs and sperm are handled” (does NOT include artificial insemination) o use by couples with trouble getting pregnant o parents concerned about familial diseases o women who can’t maintain a pregnancy (surrogacy) • IVF (In-Vitro Fertilization)- series of procedures used to treat fertility or genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child Process of IVF: 1. collect eggs and sperm a. easy to obtain large quantities of sperm naturally b. normal ovarian cycle: egg retrieval yields o ne egg i. OVARIAN STIMULATION - hormone injections (including FSH aka “GOnal -F” and HCG or LH to stimulate final maturation) ii. Goal: produce up to 15 mature eggs Transvaginal Ultrasound Aspiration 2. Incubate Eggs and Sperm 3. Culture Embryos (petri dish w/ nutrients) a. Cleavage (2-4 days) stage OR Blastocyst (5 -6 days) 4. Select Embryos (genetic testing) and Transfer to Uterus . Estrogen and progesterone injections sometimes used increase chance of implantation a. Freeze leftover embryo s 5. Discuss the potential risks to mothers and babies when using IVF a. Risk of multiples i. ex. Octomom Maternal Fetal ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome premature birth complications from egg retrieval (surgery) low birth weight pre-eclampsia congenital malformations caesarian section other long-term effects 6. Explain the mechanics of mitochondrial replacement therapy 7. Discuss the arguments for and against mitochondrial replacement therapy Objections Responses a form of genetic modification reproduction already involves genetic modification (recombination; diet, vitamins, etc.) will lead to “designer” babies technology only modifies mtDNA- no modification of observable traits such as hair, color, sex, etc. long-term effects unknown CRISPR technology working on this “slippery slope” to modification of ??? monkeys not get aged nuclear genome can’t assess long-term 8. Name several ethical & social issues raised by ART and explain what are the difficulties at stake a. labor involved in helping other people reproduc -e b. the possible commodification of the human body c. selection of desired traits in children through prenatal testing and screening d. status of embryos (creation, selection, conservation, disposition) 9. Explain the legal issue created by surrogacy . commercial/altruistic a. traditional/ gestational b. no international norm i. illegal in some countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Portugal) ii. non-commercial is legal in UK, Ireland, Denmark, Belgium iii. Legal in most US states (California), India, Russia, Ukraine Readings: 1. Michael Ryan, “Countdown to a Baby,” The New Yorker, July 1, 2002: 68-77 2. Kim Tingley, “The Brave New World of Three -Parent I.V.F.,” The New York Times, 27 June 2014 3. Lewis Vaughn, Bioethics (Oxford UP, 2015), “Opinion in the Matter of Baby M”, 510 -17 Week 2 1/11 Reproductive Labor, Distributions of Risk, and Tissue Economies (Lee) Learning Outcomes: 1. Debate both sides of the question as to whether IVF enlarges women’s freedom a. yes - more freedom i. for women who afford to pay for fertility services b. no . for women who are recruited for oocyte donation and surrogacy 2. Define traditional surrogacy and gestational surrogacy . traditional surrogacy . when a woman is artificially inseminated with the father’s sperm i. the woman is the baby’s biological mother a. gestational surrogacy . the woman is implanted with the intended mother’s egg and the father’s sperm i. IVF is a necessary part of this process to create an embryo and implant ii. woman carrying baby is NOT the baby’s biological mother 3. Understand the term reproductive labor and understand the way its status as remunerated (as paid work) or not has been altered by biotechnology . reproductive labor . food preparation, housekeeping, etc. i. has been unwaged from American colonial era to early 20th century ii. seen as unskilled services - feminists argued the opposite, saying that having repro labor unpaid was due to the patriarchy and in slavery -white supremacy iii. reproductive labor replenishes the productive laborer by providing support as well as reassuring the productive labor of his humanity, allowing him to continue his labor a. reproductive labor is the concept of rehumanizing the wage worker, as a reminder tha t the wage worker is more than their labor they are an individual . once you start getting paid for something you enjoy, you start to enjoy it less and less b. gestational surrogacy rehumanizes white, rich ppl 4. Understand the social context of gender inequality , class differences, and geopolitical/racial stratification as it intersects with infertility biotechnology . mainly rich and white women take advantage of poor women of color (who need to make money) to carry their child a. these women are usually young women, and do not have many rights in countries outside of the USA (in this case, India) . women living in the USA can fight for custody of their child while those in India cannot 5. Explain how key legal cases have shifted definitions of maternity and paternity both delinking and relinking these notions to biological ties . California Uniform Parentage Act of 1975: giving birth is proof of maternity a. Baby M case preserves maternity of birth mother (Whitehead) . however for “best interests of child” is given to the Sterns b. Johnson v Calvert (1993) . Mark and Cristina Calvert paid an African American woman, Anna Johnson, to the gestational surrogate mother. However, Johnson began fighting for custody of the child. California court rules that child can only have one mother. Because of the contract and genetic link of the child, Calvert is ruled as the mother. 1. Case sets precedent for “Procreative Intent” 2. makes ART less like adoption cases and m ore like reproduction cases c. Revised Uniform Parentage Act (2002) . This act applies to children born as a result from ART. This prevents sperm, egg, and embryo donors to claim parentage rights. Also allowing single persons and unmarried couples to establish parentage based on intention to parent and allows for more than one legal mother. 6. Identify several ethical questions that are consequent upon biotechnology’s rendering separable and viable body parts and tissues that were formerly integral to persons . Should there be a temporary stop to egg donation during a 5 -10 year study? a. Should anonymity be taken away? 7. Understand why language (e.g., is important to ART biotech infrastructures) . uteruses are viewed as “empty vessels” and the surrogate will not have any connections with the baby a. potential surrogates are kept as a Weste rn medical model b. language helps recruit potential surrogates Readings: 1. S. Lochlann Jain, “Inconceivable: Where IVF Goes Bad” from Malignant: How Cancer Becomes Us (UC Press, 2013): 128-150 • Main Points o There have never been a long term study of egg donations o lack of health data on egg donation and hormones = no health risk? o data should be tracked, however this means NO anonymity - might turn ppl off of the whole idea of donating o lack of research = structured ignorance of cancer o language plays a huge role in recruiting young women o IVF is a rarely regulated industry 2. Kalindi Vora, “Experimental Sociality and Gestational Surrogacy in the Indian ART Clinic,” Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology, 79:1, 63-83 • Main points: o Manushi Clinic in India § clinic gets volunteered surrogates through word of mouth § Focus on couple Reeta and Sanjay, who go to clinic § Clinic only helps women who cannot give birth to a child --and must have proof § Fully anonymous eggs are chosen § Potential surrogates are told their uteruses are “empty spaces” in order to not get attached § Surrogate mothers live in a hostel and formed a bond with the other women § Risks: same risks as pregnancy and risk of multiple pregnancies § Go to India bc lower wait time and cheaper 1/13 Prenatal Testing and Screening (Le Goff & Rensel) Learning Outcomes: 1. Define the concept of eugenics and describe the practices it encompasses a. Eugenics(well born): a set of practices aiming at improving the genome of the human population. i. negative and positive eugenics 1. negative: limitation of sexual reproduction, including sterilization, of people with “undesired” traits (nazi eugenics) 2. positive: promotion of sexual reproduction of people with “desired” traits (can actually have a certificate) b. Eugenics -> Pseudoscientific: belief on optimization of ‘quality’ of human race through selective breeding . this is unscientific because, for example, selec ting based off of social class isn’t scientific because it’s not based off our genetics -> genetics was linked with eugenics when it was first being discovered 2. Summarize the history of the eugenics movement worldwide and in the U.S. . largely supported by progressive people a. 1910-1920s eugenics gained lots of power and public support . baby contest-who had the best babies(positive eugenics) but also people being sterilized by force(negative eugenics) i. sterilization eugenics laws (64,000 people were sterilized) ii. eugenics laws were also considered immigration laws(1924) and marriage laws 1. immigration laws; more areas were favored against others a. from poor country-> wouldn’t be accepted 2. reproduction wasn’t private but public decisions 3. marriage laws- interracial marriages prohibited b. 1927- Buck vs Bell . considered constitutional on procedural grounds and substantive grounds (‘a favor’ for them and society to not have kids etc) 1. main idea-being an imbecile is genetic and society doesn’t have to take the burden of these people c. 1942-Skinner vs Oklahoma . sterilization for prisoners held unconstitutional by supreme court because it distinguishes between blue -collar and white collar crimes d. In US: . sterilization took place in early 1980s: latina women sterilized by force in LA 1960s -70s 3. Compare and contrast pre -implantation and post-implantation testing and/or screening, and describe the tests involved in each (e.g., amniocentesis, PGD, etc.) . pre-implantation- genetic testing of fertilized eggs . goal: selection of embryos for implantation i. IVF embryos, use PGD/PGS(screening) techniques for monogenic (disease caused by a mutation in one gene) diseases a. post-implantation- genetic testing of the implanted embryo or fetus . goal: aid in decisions (termination, preparation for birth, pre -natal treatments to correct problem before birth) i. case study-trisomy 21 testing and cell free DNA testing 1. trisomy 21- use hormones/proteins in maternal body as standard marker BUT screening allows for false positive results, also go through diagnostic test (amino or CVS) . trisomy 21-> down syndrome (monogenica) 2. CF testing- (can also test for monogenic diseases) gives lower fals e positive rates-> fewer diagnostic test 4. Explain the difference between a screening test and a diagnostic test in post -implantation testing . first, screening= test to determine whether an embryo is at risk: then move on to diagnostic test= further tests, more invasive, that are more accurate than screen 5. Describe what cell free testing is and why it “improves” on current testing methods for detecting aneuploidies . it is a noninvasive screening test that takes a sample of “naked DNA” in the mother’ s blood stream to test for aneuploidies and can also be possible to test for monogenic disorders. they have a lower false positive rate when detecting aneuploidies 6. Discuss the pros and cons of the ethical dilemmas in selecting traits in embryos . pros- adjust to better suit environment a. cons- expectations for that child to fulfill those selected traits, slippery slope 7. Distinguish between different meanings of the word “normal” . Normal as healthy and opposed unhealthy a. Normal as average/ordinary and opposed t o extraordinary b. Normal as socially accepted and opposed to deviant c. Normal as good and opposed to bad 8. Discuss whether contemporary practices of embryo selection are a new form of eugenics Readings: 1. Jasmeet Sidhu, “How to Buy a Daughter,” Slate 14 Sept. 2012 • main points: unlike the expected assumptions, a couple desperately wanted to have a daughter. simpson, the mother allowed herself to become pregnant naturally 3 times to see if fate would give her a daughter, but they were all boys. On her th ird attempt, abortion crossed Simpson’s mind, displaying her yearn for a daughter. Doctors saw great potential profit in sex selection and proceed it calling it “family balancing” to make it more palatable. Now “fertility doctors have turned a procedure o riginally designed to prevent genetic diseases into a luxury purchase” a path easily seen to go down a slippery slope 2. Pam Belluck, “Test is Improved Predictor of Fetal Disorders,” The New York Times 26 Feb. 2014 • main points : cell free DNA test are 10x s better in predicting cases of down syndrome and such compared to other standard blood test and are not invasive; however,diagnostic tests are recommended if positive results are shown to further guarantee those results. they are still undergoing research to help identify other monogenic disorders and sex linked diseases and the research has been funded by Illumia but this testing is not yet covered by insurance for all patients 3. Alison Piepmeier, “The Inadequacy of ‘Choice:’ Disability and What’s Wrong with Feminist Framings of Reproduction,” Feminist Studies, Vol. 39, No. 1 (2013), 159-86 • main points: Piepmeier argues and challenges the feminist framing of reproduction and this idea that the women has a “choice” to make on whether she wants to abort he r potential child if they would be born with disabilities or keep them. First, she challenges these mothers to consider the fact that when hearing, reading and thinking about aborting their potential child with a disability, to consider the fact they are b asing their opinions and decisions off stereotypical aspects of having a child with for example down syndrome. another topic she discusses is how down syndrome is linked and considered to be this “tragedy”; down syndrome -> this horrible disease that consis t of hardship. Another noted point she presents is the challenge of the ultimate “choice”; not recognizing the complexities that define reproductive decision making in regard to disability means that feminist conversations are limiting and are distorting an important conversation about reproduction” 4. Lewis Vaughn, Bioethics (Oxford UP, 2015), Cases for Evaluation: “The Kingsbury’s,” “Causing Deaf Children,” and “Cosmetic Embryo Selection” • main points: Kingsbury case - the kingsbury family decided to undergo PGD as the husband, Chad, inherited a genetic defect that causes a form a colon cancer, causing their offspring the increase their chances of having cancer by 50%. They chose PGD and now have a child that is at no genetic risk for colon cancer. Some fin d PGD as a way towards a slippery slope and interferes with the natural processes and see it as a way of disrespecting people who are disabled • Causing deaf children: a couple are looking to use PGD in order to select an embryo that expresses the disability of deafness to better fit in the family and share similar characteristics. only 3% of IVF -PGD clinics are allowing for PGD processes to be used in this manner, however many view this as being ethically wrong for purposely causing a child a disorder thereb y limiting their opportunities in life • cosmetic embryo selection- permission was granted to create a baby free from genetic disorders -> this permission is leading to a slippery slope of designer baby. embryo screening is starting to not only be restricted life- threatening conditions but also for cosmetic reasonings that are being argued to also have a “life -threatening effect” Week 3 1/18- No Class 1/20 The Moral Status of Embryos and Stem Cell Research (Le Goff & Rensel) Learning Outcomes: 1. Define key terms: stem cell, pluripotent, multipotent, embryonic stem cell, adult stem cell, induced pluripotent stem cell, somatic cell nuclear transfer (aka therapeutic cloning), reproductive cloning a. stem cell- an unspecialized cell that can reproduce itself indefinitely and under appropriate conditions, differentiate into specialized cell types b. pluripotent-cells that can turn to any tissue in the body c. multipotent- is specialized, yields new cell types for given tissue only d. embryonic stem cell- (natural occurring type of stem cell) cells that are present in the blastocyst and they are pluripotent e. adult stem cell- (natural occurring type of stem cell), have a lower therapeutic and are multipotent. loca tions of these cells are the brain, teeth, heart, skin, gut, etc f. induced pluripotent stem cell- no embryo involved! reprogramming factors used to make cells pluripotent cell and transferred back into patient i. not the same as SCNT, doesn't work as well, ep igenetic and gene expression patterns differ from SCNT (look like they’re pluripotent but retain some traces of their differentiation -> less usable in stem cell research, aren’t totally in that de-differentiated state) g. somatic cell nuclear transfer/ therap eutic cloning- a process that involves collecting any somatic cell, removing the nucleus, transform it into an egg that will reprogram it to be pluripotent, direct differentiation to specific interest t hen transplant cells back into patient . this solves the issue of immune rejection h. reproductive cloning- 2. Describe the possible sources and usages for embryonic stem cells in the lab and as therapeutic agents . can be used for studying human development (understanding how cells develop into different tissue types) and how different disease progress and respond to different therapeutic agents a. generate cells that produce product of interest (pancreatic cells produc e insulin) b. stem cells as therapy, provide replacement cells for a patient 3. Discuss the moral status of embryos and explain what research policies should be followed accordingly . 3 main moral statuses . full value-> as a person-> respect for rights/life as a person-> legal prohibition i. intermediate value-> seen as “potential” human life (not fully human but not just tissue) -> a certain respect but not like humans -> use within limitations ii. no moral value-> as tissues-> no particular moral treatment (like an organ)-> no legal restriction 4. Argue for or against the patentability of cell lines . yes, patentable because they differ from genes: differentiated cells, isolation method can be patented if there is enough variation a. no, they present a similar case to gene s: it’s still “naturally occurring” 5. Explain how induced pluripotent stem cells are formed . somatic cell is isolated, treat cell with reprogramming factors -> de-differentiate, then transplant cells back into patient 6. Discuss the pros and cons of embryonic stem cell transfer, SCNT, and induced pluripotent stem cells from a medical/health perspective . embryonic stem cell transfers . pros- they are naturally occurring pluripotent -> best to use for research i. cons- many ethical concerns regarding the destruction of embryos a. SCNT . pro- fixes the issue regarding immune rejection i. cons- destruction of embryo-> creation of an embryo with sole purpose of tissue (wrong intentions) b. induced pluripotent stem cells . pros- no embryo involved i. cons- doesn’t work as well as SCNT cells 7. Discuss the current state of research into human stem cells as therapy . embryonic stem cells are much more useful in research since they are pluripotent however there is an ethical debate on its use, due to the destruction of embryos in the process, however US is currently undergoing debate on the status of an embryo 8. Explain the ethical concerns raised by reproductive cloning . most cloning experiments fail, entailing the death of cloned ani mal and possibly of the surrogate mother a. those who are born are usually unhealthy b. medical issue: dolly died early Readings: 1. Scott and Weismann, “cloning”, in The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book Main points • cloning technologies are essential tools of modern biology as they help us understand genetic basis of human development and disease • cloning can be used as a supply of therapeutic stem cells that wouldn’t be rejected by the patient • ethical issues surrounds cloning as embryos are being destroyed in the process • US is the only place that conducts human embryonic stem cell research that does not have a law prohibiting human reproductive cloning o not many reproductive clones have survived (animals) and if they did they were unhealthy 2. Hyun, “Stem Cells”, in The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book • stem cells are great for treating degenerative diseases and such, such as Parkinson, diabetes • ethical concern regarding the destruction of embryos and fair trea tment of embryo donors 3. Bonnie Steinbock, “What Does ‘Respect for Embryos Mean in the Context of Stem Cell Research?,” Women’s Health Issues, Vol. 10, No. 3, May/June 2000, 127-30 • embryos are argued to have a “form” of human respect as they are potential life, however this isn’t to confuse it with the same respect and values that people have o this “potential” differentiates embryos from other tissues or cells in the body or even a dead body as it is capable into becoming life • NBAC gave permitted funding fo r embryonic stem cell research done with the use of spare embryos but not funded for those embryos made purposely for research o some argue that both intentions should be valid, making embryos for reproductive purposes benefits embryo, but if its for resear ch it sacrifices embryos to benefit others UNIT 2: Beyond The Genome Week 4: 1/25 Governing Fertility: Animal Husbandry and Family Production (Lee) Learning Outcomes: No Learning Outcomes posted - posting notes instead (sorry it’s a lot) JAN 25 - Family derived from “familus”: household slaves - Euripedes says Wife: a thing for housekeeping - Sentimental view of family - Economic view of family o Nothing more than the chief housemaid o Family is passing down of wealth to someone relate d to you to consolidate wealth § Domestic enslavement of women · Monogamy and male dominance to safeguard inheritance § Political (especially with royalty) · Proletariat don’t have as much stakes of wealth…can have more love marriages o Women can’t have multiple partners compared to men § Why? You can’t figure out father of child (women is obviously mother in any instance) § Cuckold: can’t figure out if child is yours o Monogamy’s function is that one’s progeny is the man’s child § This matters if you see children as people who carry on wealth and property § Hoard wealth - Matrilineal family in China (Hosua) o Walking marriage/pairing marriage o Large family units/multigenerations o Sex is not part of family wealth o Don’t have to channel wealth through genetic linkage - My Year of Meats: problem of who gets the child is brought up o Has sentimental view of family o Affects everyone in culture even if they are not reproductive subjects o Sentimental view used to sell a commodity (meat) o Suzie Flowers: sentimental? § No – artificially constructed, shown the production process § Film ending first (sentimental first) then see it unravel § Speeding of meat production segment = speeding u p of meat industry to produce more food and more profit for meat industry - My Year of Meats: Historical Context o Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” o FDA Inspection Act passed due to them o Quotes meant to show the troubles of immigrants ignored § People only remembered how it affected meat (self -interest) o Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives o Focalization: whose perspective do we take (not necessarily point of view) o Immigrant family in book § Martinez family: father’ s hand cut off (think of Sinclair) o Shows how there are always stories left out § Middle of Gulf War fever: background of militarism § Dawes does not get in · Does help her with story of DES o We like to see well -dressed people doing cooking shows § Shows why Dawes get cut from show · Poor (red meat too expensive) · African American, descendants of slaves § Other family that is picked had a bed -and-breakfast that used to be a plantation § BUT only by seeing “other half” can we learn about DE S o Documentary interlude with lesbian family (unconventional) o DES banned in chicken, but not in beef § Ignored because of “promised profit” - Social problems o Big commercial stores vs/ small business o Urban vs. rural o Globalization (demise of regional identity) o Cultural differences and relationships (Japan and America) - Narrative in My Year of Meats o You think the story is about diversity of families in US and Janes biracial heritage o Focalizing with her view, we discover WITH HER about DES and structured ignorance o Finds herself in the middle of another storyline (marketing beef) § In real life, we are thrown into the middle of someone else’s story § If you donate egg, you are trying to help infert ile women and thrown into their story, and not know consequences as a result o Ozeki wants to see how we make meaning § Because we see ending (that’s where we put meaning) § Do we let audience go on journey NOT knowing ending? · Process of error and being thrown into another story is part of the story · Wants to show multiple stories o Doctrine of Manifest Destiny § Settlers and immigrants to the US were destined to move across the US and settle and push aside the Native Americans § Occurs by gunpoint and armed force § Wide, open spaces § US is a nation of immigrants that we forget (Spanish brought cowboys, tumbleweed is fro Russia) o Biopolitics: deciding populations you want to populate § Population comes from Grace Boudreax (l ots of adoption) · She talks about how it’s the biggest problem § In the US we celebrate our immigrant heritage but we have had laws banning immigrants rom other other countries · Favoring reproduction of blacks and not whites o US pressured Japan t o sign Beef Agreement § Japan cannot have standing army (US army is their defense and controlled by them) § Underlying militarism that’s the background but should be the foreground o American obsession with guns = pornography - Point of novel: Connect a lot of different issues: synthetic hormones, manifest destiny gun violence, wal -mart legal practices, patriarchal family to channel wealth and power through men (John Ueno) , gulf war and militarism, immigration and racial diversity, income inequality Readings: 1. Ruth Ozeki, My Year of Meats pp. 1-284 (with endnotes and footnotes) 2. Excerpt from Friedrich Engels, “The Origin of Family, Private Property, and the State” • This reading is pretty abstract and talks about a lot of things, so I talked to Professor Lee about what we need to know about it and basically… • Familus = slaves • The family originated out of the idea of slavery, with the wife being the “household maid” • Purpose of heterosexual, nuclear families is to hoard wealth down your genetic family lineage • Women feel more stigma having multiple partners than men • Why? Historically (before genetic testing), men want to ensure they know which child is theirs...if a woman has multiple partners, it’s hard to know who is the father 3. Nancy Langston, Toxic Bodies: Hormone Disruptors and the Legacy of DES , 83-111 • Rachel Carson’s novel Silent Spring exposed DDT used in WWII to kill mosquitos as harmful to people and challenged the idea that “science could and should master nature” • Scientists raised concerns that DDT was hurting people and environment even after WWII • Public became concerned about “aerial spraying” of pesticides and chemicals like DDT • FDA and other regulatory ag encies hesitant to listen to consumers or agriculture • Lobbyists claimed DDT affected no one...scientists could only find endocrine disrupting effects, but it was not enough to warrant real fear • Thalidomide: hormone artificially created for pregnant women as a sedative...caused birth defects • Used in Europe, but when brought to the US, Frances Oldham Kelsey in the FDA rejected it because of findings about its harm to the fetus and birth defects • Despite this, Richardson-Merril (company that brought thalidomide) had given it to doctors and pregnant women had been exposed • Kelsey warned doctors about the use of other synthetic hormones in causing birth defects • Diethylstilbestrol • DES should have been ban ned by the FDA and USDA Beef, but was not • 1971 (New England Journal of Medicine ): published article that DES caused cancer in humans...first chemical to show this • Found through women who developed extremely rare clear -cell adenocarcinoma...most of them had mothers who took DES during pregnancy • Struggle ensued between Representative Fountain and FDA on whether DES caused cancer and whether that link was strong enough to give reason to ban it • Fountain brought Hertz to assert claim that DES was in beef and it could hurt humans • TIMING was important (not necessarily dosage) • First banned in pregnant women, finally cattle • used for abnormally tall girls; shows the effects of gender roles: girls who were tall would never find love, so they must be treated • Risk put on people rather than companies (need precautionary)...consumer bears risk, but no profit • Did not to tell women because it would hurt them emotionally or stress them out • Companies wanted synthetic hormones because of the profit, but why FDA defending? • higher-level politicians in FDA had ties to these industries • DES had a large effect on many people due to the pill and residue in animal meat, and this was extended due to long bureaucratic debates 1/27 Environmental Exposures (Lee) - Novel vs. Scientific or Theoretical Essay: Assembling /combining pieces –various social issues—to make a portrait of historical moment - social issues connected through BEEF -EX ad account representative John Ueno - 1) story about biotechnology and science frameworks: DES and how genetic determinism (geneticism) gave way to relational biology aka "epigenetics, systems biology, microbiome studies, gene -regulatory network approaches" (Landecker 2). "The cell plus its milieu" is the "entity of actio n" (2). o Expect to hear in SOCGEN class o (these two are the same story!) o Do we only need to promote growth? (unlimited wealth) § Is promotion of limitless wealth a good thing? o Estrogen and synthetic carcinogens very similar o Choices of the way we tell story § Timeline · Dawes synthesizes DES · Jane timeline through Dyann 124 -127 o Documentary interlude · Langston timeline: war story o Use of DDT in war to control malaria and typhus (Carson exposed in Silent Spring) § Thought to cause premature birth o After 1945 used in plants o 1972 it was banned o DES given to offset DDT premature birth o Research showing negative effects...why still allowed § Profit and lobbying § Women treated as experimental subjects § New class of drugs: dangerous enough only to be given by prescription · Regulating with information is not effective § ending first with suzie § hybrid - 2) story about U.S. national culture, history of European settler -colonialism, expansion of a population through a) technological dominance/conquest b) an ideology of manifest destiny and c) the directing of reproduction and population o American or Gender Studies class - manufacture and use of synthetic hormones/ estrogens in U.S. livestock production - manifest destiny gun violence in U.S. (Rodney Piers killing of Hattori) - Walmart’s labor practices - patriarchal family serving to channel wealth and power thru men (John Ueno) - monogamy only for women (Fred Dunn) - Persian Gulf War/s Immigration in the US - racial diversity in the US Wealth inequality in the US NOTES - Joichi Ueno is a play on John Wayne o Joichi is in love with American culture (John Wayne is a very American symbol) o Gender inequality; domestic abuse o Why use this figure of John Ueno? § John Wayne: opening of frontier, clearing of indigenous people, mani fest destiny § John Ueno embodies domestic violence § When we show another culture, it’s to show our own culture · Everything we are not · Easier to see in another culture the social problems we do not want to acknowledge in our own culture o Cross dressing: Japanese as an American § Who can play the American? Is also an issue in the show · Do we remember non -white women? Catalina Martinez; Dyann: African American, middle -class, lesbian · However, the white women are different class: Suzie is a wife of a pipe fitter, Grace adopts kids, Bunny is an ex - stripper, Christina Bukowski’s mom works for Walmart o Class difference but no racial · John Ueno is racial cross-dressing as an American while the novel discusses the difficulty in racial cross -dressing as an American · John Ueno wants his own kid: IVF: fertility treatments are about the desire to be a parent of child that is genetically similar to yours o Possessive individualism and property · Race o Dawes turned back o John’s comment about it not being about black people: reflect actual US feelings about immigrants § Fixation of globalization · Disappearance of local distinction in nation o Big box stores taking over o Bukowski story § Wal-Mart labor practices § Disappearance of small business for big businesses · Disappearance of cultural differences across nations o Acceptance of guns in US § Yoshi Hattori shot by Pierce § Used Castle Doctrine: use lethal mean to protect home · Image of protecting women and children § Guns, race, meat, and Manifest Destiny come together § Militarism is a sexual deviation in Japan · Not considered porn in US · Suzuki loved that you could buy gun at Walmart o Sex and guns related (what is obscene) o Cultural differences · Comstock: anti-obscenity law, birth control was obscene - Ozeki says labor is opposed to capitalism o Capital has root in holding lots of heads of cattle (caput o Wealth used to produce more wealth as opposed to buying more § Related to livestock or cattle o Frye’s geography: line separating people = stick = stock - Why did the US pressure Japan to take beef, and not any other country? o Richer, military controlled by the US o Military power is like porn for this reason o Also why it’s such an important point in the novel o WWII: kobe beef - Capital effects biotech through profit o Why go through this whole story instead of going to DES? § Show the realizing error: thought story was that but its this · STRUCTURED IGNORANCE: · Profit causes people to be unethical o Untold health effects on human and livestock - Precautionary Principle: proponent of activity should bear burden of proof o Potential costs are high compared to benefits o Europe has this principle - Langston: time of exposure is what’s mos t important (not necessarily doses) o Your own body does not have a feedback loop - Landecker: What we take in as food and environement can affect our genes § Timing is important (critical periods) - Your body is open to the environment; pla sticity: new perspective on biology (timing) - Food today o We eat it readymade and prepare differently o Does that affect us? - Mother as a place to study epigenetic effects? o Gender responsibility on women § Landecker does not stress, said it will go to grandparents and husband…overly optimistic? - Stress from environment Readings: 1. Ruth Ozeki, My Year of Meats pp. 285-end 2. Hannah Landecker, “Food as Exposure: Nutritional Epigenetics and the New Metabolism,” The London School of Economics and Political Science 1745-8552, 1-28 (2011) *I may reread and add more before Wednesday • Separate into 4 aims • 1) We used to have a view of an “old” metabolism and now we have a “new” one • “old metabolism” - energy and chemical conversion; nineteenth and early twentieth centuries • “new metabolism” - food itself matters and is historically and culturally specific • “stoffwechsel” = metabolism = changes of state undergone by food in the body; food is a source for building materials and a substrate (the food itself matters) • “Kraftwechsel” = energy conversion • We have shifted from stoffwechsel to kraftwechsel and now are going back to stoffwechsel • People metabolize food differently in different cultures • Nutritional epigenetics: the way f ood affects patterns of gene regulation • Food in critical periods of development (like in utero) can affect systems body will use in the future to metabolize food • 2) Analyzing how food affects gene expression • (Mouse example) Outside environment changes the inside constitution at molecular level • Change in the potential of genes to be expressed in body as protein products • Potential expression pattern can be inherited • Food affects the systems that metabolize food • ex) presence of absence of nutrients can cause the body to have a different number of cells in digestive organs or more or less receptors for metabolic hormones • “Food transforms organism’s being as much as organism transforms it” • Molecules are changed and attached to DNA strand, order physical configurations of genes, or work with RNA molecules to change gene expression • gene stays the same, but its potential for expression during individual’s lifetime changes and can be passed down • Input-output manipulations • starvation or selective deprivation to see physiological effect on individual or offspring • Racial disparities • Marginalized races that have suffered cultural and economic disruptions and nutritional stress may pass down these epigenetic changes • evidence for diseases like diabetes to be more inclined in poorer populations • If the body is open to the environment, then it can be open to environmental intervention (biological plasticity) • There is a “molecular route” from the environment to the person and a mech anism that affects metabolic systems • 3) The environment food is in, including laboratory synthesized “foods” • Molecularization: perception, manipulation, conceptualization, and capitalization of molecular spaces and processes of the body in life science • There are “nets of causality” that affect foods • Synthetics, laboratory created diets are not the same as regular diets • ex) just because Soylent contains the nutrients we need doesn’t mean it’s a food substitute - food itself provides nutritional benefits • Food is transformed into molecules that have measurable effects • “You are what your eat eats”: what your meat is fed or surrounded by can affect you • Folic acid is an example of a nutrient that is artificially increased in our environment (due to our own making) and we are unaware of how much we are consuming • Food is transformed into significant molecules that affect gene expression • 4) food as exposure in a historical and cultural context and how food molecules affect biotechnology, toxicology of pesticides, food packaging, nanotechnology, food engineering and marketing, preservatives, and nutrigenomics • Physical act of eating incorporates bioactive molec ules that are material and social • GMOs: thinking, visualizing, and controlling food as molecules that interact with our inner molecules • you feel connected to environment and social nature of agriculture through eating • Food interacts with molecular makeup o f every individual • Ingestion and digestion is part of social, technical, and political networks of food production, regulation, and consumption • We are not just what we eat, but what our grandparents and ancestors have eaten and what our food ate • Responsibility is being shifted away from mother laterally to grandparents and paternal effects • Nanotechnology: an example of making food functional • “thickener should not just thicken, it should provide protein and enhance mood” • Molecularization of food • food is an immersive environment • metabolism is a site for reshaping the body and therapeutic intervention • We have created a certain world for ourselves in which we consume food - biomedicine heals us in the many ways we have intervened • We are open to the environment i n ways we never knew • Methylation is both a chemical change on DNA and an imprint of nutritional status and national policy regimes (forcing folic acid for example) • Metabolism: zone of who should eat what and where responsibility is for maintenance of food environment • Food is a conditioning medium, not just source of energy or building block • Nutrients give information about the world that a body will inhabit Week 5 2/1 Epigenetics and DES (Rensel) Learning Outcomes: 1. Give a brief history of genetics in the 20th century and describe how “environment” fits into the current view of disease development Genetics in 20 century: 1956 Watson and Crick create first model of DNA molecule & discover genes determine heredity 1963 Frederick Sanger develops DNA sequencing technique 1967 Genetic Code is “cracked” and scientists predict characteristics 1987 Department of Energy (DOE) announces 15 year plan to sequence human genome 1990 Researches begin Human Genome Project (=HGP) 1999 HGP completely sequences first human chromosome 2000 J. Craig Venter & Francis Collins announce sequencing of entire human genome 2003 HGP is successfully completed 2007 Genome-wide association study (GWAS) to link genomics to disease Environment in disease development: · Food: (Dutch Hunger Winter 1944 -45) o Daily calorie intake dropped from ~1700 to ~500 o Graph of deaths within first year of life skyrockets 1944 -45 o Children whose mothers were exposed to famine during gestation exper ience long-term consequences o Late gestation: Glucose intolerance (=GI) o Mid gestation: GI, Microalbuminuria, Obstructive airways disease o Early gestation: GI, Atherogenic lipid profile, Altered blood coagulation, Obesity (women only), Stress sens itivity, Coronary heart disease, Breast cancer · Endocrine disruptors: (synthetic estrogen – diethylstilbestrol (=DES)) o Women exposed to DES in womb have increased cancer risk o Elevated rates of: o Infertility o Spontaneous abortion o Preterm delivery o Ectopic pregnancy (most noticeable difference between VEC vs no VEC) o Loss of second-trimester pregnancy o Preeclampsia (VEC vs no VEC are basically equal) o Early menopause o CIN 2+ (moderately abnormal cells found on surface of cervix, can become cancer and spread if not treated) o Breast Cancer at 40 years or older (not substantial difference) · Maternal care: (rat example) o Good mothering: licks and grooms rat pups a lot, results in: o More outgoing and adventurous behavior o Less anxious and more easily recovers from stress o More calm and collected o Bad mothering: rarely licks and grooms rat pups, results in: o Introverted and anxious behavior, more e asily scared o Is more prone to stress and recovers with more difficulty (stress lasts longer) 2. Define and put in context: Genome -wide association study, monogenic, polygenic, critical periods, multigenerational, trans -generational, epigenetic, `DNA meth ylation and histone modifications, central dogma Define and put in context: · Genome-wide association study (=GWAS): study method that tries to identify which DNA variants can be linked to certain diseases · Monogenic: disease caused by mutation in one gene (Mendelian inheritance pattern) examples: → Cystic Fibrosis → Huntington’s Disease → Sickle Cell Anemia · Polygenic: disease as a consequence of multiple genes and/or other factors, including: → Heart Disease → Diabetes · Critical Periods: Time periods in which human body changes/develops dramatically and is therefore more vulnerable to outside factors → Embryonic period → Early childhood → Adolescence/puberty · Multigenerational: (exposure) of some kind of environmental factor affects: → Initially exposed woman = F0 → Her daughter = F1 → Her granddaughter = F2 · Transgenerational: same but includes her great-granddaughter = F3 who was never in any way exposed · Epigenetics: Study of heritable chang es in DNA expression that are not due to changes in DNA sequence → “heritable” is controversial (not necessarily heritable) → Variations of definition include: changes “can be transmitted through mitosis and/or meiosis” · DNA methylation/histone m odification are molecular mechanisms of epigenetics → Methylation: Methyl groups added to certain DNA bases → repress gene activity (=gene silencing) → Histone mod.: combination of different molecules can attach to histones (=”tails” of proteins) that alter activity of DNA wrapped around them (increases or decreases expression of gene) · Central Dogma (of biology): DNA is the molecule of heredity and is passed from parents to offspring → Contains instructions for building RNA and proteins → DNA codes for RNA, RNA codes for proteins 3. Give examples of multigenerational and trans -generational (where available) effects of exposure to DES, vinclozolin, famine, and maternal care, and describe how non -human research models play into this research · Non-human research models are used for this research, especially animals with short life spans, because the development of disease and other effects of certain possibly damaging factors can be followed more easily · Trans-generational effects of these potentially damaging factors are not really known yet for humans because the F3 generation is still growing up · DES and vinclozolin both seem to affect reproductive organs (uterus and ovaries), vinclozolin was trans - generationally passed on in mice in which the ratio of control vs vinclozolin ovaries became bigger in favor of vinclozolin ovaries over the F1-F3 generations · Maternal care can be seen as a multi-generational or trans-generational effect because the behavior of the mother toward her offspring indirectly determines the offspring’s behavior toward its own offspring and so on · Famine as a factor in pregnant women, depending on time of exposure, can cause various diseases and conditions that can be passed on from generation to generation 4. Describe how DNA methylation and histone modifications affect gene expression · DNMT = DNA Methyltransferase is an enzyme that attaches methyl -groups to the bases in DNA · The methyl groups replace the transcr iption factor, the protein that “turns on” genes, meaning there is no signal for the target gene (=gene silencing) · Histone acetylation, done by the enzyme histone acetyltransferase (=HAT), opens up the chromatin structure and enables transcription, thus increasing gene expression · Histone deacetylation is done by the enzyme Histone deacetylase (=HDAC) and closes the chromatin structure, disabling transcription and decreasing gene expression · Histone methylation can increase or decrease gene expression 5. Explain when epigenetic changes occur (naturally and otherwise) Epigenetic changes occur especially during critical periods · Embryonic period · Childhood and adolescence · But also during adulthood and menopause · Old age External factors (=exposure) examples: · Diet · Toxic chemicals · Exercise · Psychological state (Biologically) Programmed events · Fertilized egg’s maternal and paternal DNA is de -methylated and become totipotent/pluripotent · Re-methylation helps embryonic cells differentiate and then turn into a specialized cell 6. Describe how a trans -generational effect of exposure might occur (i.e., what cell line must be affected for direct transmission in F1?) Readings: 1. Charles Schmidt, “Uncertain Inheritance,” Environmental Health Perspectives 121, A299-A303 (2013) · Effects from insecticide “methoxyclor” and vinclozolin found to carry on b etween generations (low sperm count, high rates of infertility) at least 4 generations (trans -generational) · Studies by Skinner and Cupp resulted in many more studies and similar findings about “trans -generational effects from exposure to a wide array of environmental stressors” · Foundations in animal data: scientists think that epigenetic inheritance patterns cause trans -generational effects, these are linked to chemical modifications of DNA, not DNA mutations 2. Danielle Simmons, “Epigen etic Influences and Disease,” Nature Education 1, 1-6 (2008) · Diet during critical periods can change inherited genes and increase risk of certain diseases · Epigenetic gene silencing “turns genes on/off” and this can lead to differential ex pression · 3 different types of epigenetic systems: DNA methylation, histone modifications and RNA associated silencing · Disrupting any of these systems can lead to abnormal activation or silencing of genes · These disruptions have been linked to cancer and other syndromes and disabilities · Epigenetic therapy is a form of combating diseases caused by epigenetic changes · This therapy is based on the fact that epigenetic changes are reversible 3. NIH/National Cancer Institute, “Women Exposed to Synthetic Estrogen Diethylstilbestrol (DES)
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