Past Study Guide For Exam 1
Past Study Guide For Exam 1 BIO 203
Popular in Ecology and Evolution
Popular in Biology
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Glover on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 203 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Kelly Miller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Ecology and Evolution in Biology at University of New Mexico.
Reviews for Past Study Guide For Exam 1
Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/22/16
Important Contributors to Evolutionary Thought Belon- French Naturalist Homology “comparative anatomy” Cuvier- Homology principle of correlation of parts. Owen- coined homology applied it to vertebrates. Religious god was constantly creating. Avicenna- Persian polymath- Law of superposition ( oldest rock on the bottom) Steno- Danish, Principle of original horizontality ( rock deposited horizontality) William Smith-English Geologist- Principle of Faunal Succession ( oldest rock correlates to oldest time period) Lamarck- Transmutation- Spontaneous generation of new species. The environment causes change in organisms and those changes be passed on. Basic Evolutionary Concepts Pattern and Processes- regularities in observations (pattern), regularities in causes ( process) and processes lead to patterns. Homology- regularities of similarities among diverse organisms. Same but different. Law of superposition- ( oldest rock on the bottom) Principle of Original Horizontality- ( rock deposited horizontality) Principle of Gradualism- hutton- things change slowly over time. Principle of Faunal Succession- (Smith)- oldest rock correlates to oldest time period Uniformitarianism- (lyell) changes we saw in the past are the same we see today. Extinction of Species- Cuvier observed this- all organisms in species die. Most fossils species are extinct. Catastrophism- (cuvier) change is abrupt and catastrophic Transitional or Intermediate forms –taxa with features intermediate between other taxa. Whales are good examples with their little hand bones. Adaptation- descent with modification and it increases fitness. Natural selection is how it occurs. Vestigial Features- features that have no purpose. Inheritance of acquired characteristics- Lamarck- characteristics acquired in lifetime passed on to offspring. Microevolution and Natural Selection Microevolution-generation to generation change in allele or genotype frequency in population. Natural Selection- mechanism for change in adaptation, filter, only organisms that fit the environment survive. Three conditions and three types. 1. Heritable variation exists within populations of organisms. 2. Organisms 3. These offspring vary in their ability to survive and reproduce. Directional Selection- average phenotype changes in one direction Ex: more resistant to less resistant. Reduces diversity. o Fixation of Alleles- favorable alleles may become 100% o Extinction of Alleles- unfavorable alleles may become 0%. Stabilizing Selection- selects against both extremes, variability is reduced. Similar to balancing selection o Balancing Selection- heterozygotes are selected for. Ex: Malaria resistance in those who are heterozygote for sickle anemia. Disruptive Selection- selection for extreme phenotypes and against average phenotypes. Genetic Drift- random change in allele frequency in populations- undirected. Due to chance. Chance that gametes are chosen. Strongest in small populations, lead to extinction or fixation, of alleles by chance. o Founder Effect- small number alleles from a large population found a new population. Loss of genetic variation. o Bottleneck- sudden reduction in size of a population (diseases and catastrophes) both result in increased frequency of some recessive alleles, and increased probability of homozygous recessives. Gene Flow- movement of alleles between populations. Results in equalizing allele frequencies. Gene duplication- chromosome mutation and whether an organism is a haploid, diploid or polypoid. The main source of variation. Gene transfer- incorporation of outside alleles o Transformation- incorporation of alleles from the environment o Conjugation- plasmids shared between bacteria o Transduction- viruses can move dna into another organism (horizontal) Horizontal gene transfer- incorporation of alleles from other organisms Recombination- reshuffling of alleles due to sexual reproduction. Mutation- errors in DNA replication only in gamete cells does it matter. o Deleterious mutation- one that lowers fitness Fitness-The ability to produce offspring relative to other individuals. Evolutionary arms race- ( counter- adaptation) predator and prey get stronger back and forth. Organism- one individual of a species. Population- a group of organisms from the same species that regularly interact. Taxon – any group of named organisms Gene pool- all gametes available in one generation Hardy- Weinberg Principle- to predict genotypes and frequency of genotypes of offspring. Mendel states that equilibrium the allele frequencies do not change and if they do then evolution has occurred. Requires a closed system. 1. If original allele frequencies are A1=p A2=q 2. Genotype frequencies in the next generation will be P2, 2pq and q2. Panmixia- associated with hardy-weinberg. It is random mating. Sexual Selection Assortative Mating- it is non-random mating Positive- Partners choose each other because they are similar. This leads to inbreeding. o Inbreeding- mating between relatives o Inbreeding depression- lower overall diversity and lower overall fitness. Negative- breeding between two partners that are not alike. This increases diversity. Sexual Selection- competition based on ability to obtain best mates or many mates Sexual dimorphism- different forms of the different sexes within the same species Investment Asymmetry- females usually are more invested in the offspring than males. Eggs are expensive but sperm are cheap. Females want quality mates males want as many mates as possible. Intrasexual competition- competition of the same sex for mates. Combat- active behavioral interaction between members of the same sex. A males fitness is based off excluding other males from mating with females through fighting. Sperm removal- sperm from other males may be removed or replaced in a female by a new male. Mate choice- individuals in one sex chose from the other sex who to mate with. Female Choice- females choose from among males who to mate with. Most commonly females choose. They set the barrier. Male fitness is directly related to the level of female preference for a specific male phenotype. The preferred phenotype increases in frequency within the population under sexual selection even if natural selection is selecting against it. Male choice – very rare but happens in seahorses. Male ornaments- morphological or behavioral features that are very exaggerated. Runaway Selection- both the male ornaments and the females’ preference will grow if unchecked by natural selection. Nupital Gifts- a non sperm gift given to the female by the male during sex. It is often something of nutritious value. Courtship- mate stereotyped copulatory rituals . Sexual conflict- sexual interaction between male and female is competitive. Different sexes have different goals for mating. Males want more mates than females. Females want more stimulation than males. The phenotypes females like in males make it harder for males to contribute to young. Ect… Cryptic female choice- females choose the mate after insemination. Sometimes will mate with another mate to use their sperm instead. Sperm competition- sperm have to compete inside of female genitalia Hybrid- offspring produced from mating between two different populations or species. Isolating mechanisms- any factor that stops two populations from producing viable fertile hybrid offspring. ( Isolation of gene pools preventing gene flow) Prezygotic Isolation- before the fertilization of an egg. Something that can stop mating or hinder fertilization. o Geographic Isolation- populations live in different geographic locations o Habitat Isolation- populations live in different habitats in the same area. o Behavior Isolation- differences in attraction signals and courtship o Temporal isolation- breed at different times of day or different seasons o Mechanical Isolation- different anatomical don’t all for mating o Gametic Isolation- gametes can’t fuse to form a zygote. Postzygotic isolation- after the egg is fertilized. Things will prevent it from turning into an adult. o Reduced Hybrid Viability- genetic incompatibility may abort fetus o Reduced Hybrid fertility- hybrids are sterile o Hybrid Breakdown- first generation of hybrids can reproduce and survive but later one die and cannot. Speciation- when a new species is formed- is asexual species it is due to mutation. In sexual taxa it is due to isolation of gene pools. o Allopatric- is due to geographic separation of species o Sympatric- occurs without physical separation Short Answer Questions List five cultural changes in the reaisance that helped the development of evolution. 1. Renewed emphasis on learning 2. Assimilation of classical and Arabic learning 3. Age of enlightenment 4. Protestant reformation 5. Development of the printing press Name four ideas from geology that had an impact on evolution. 1. Gradualism 2. Uniformitarianism 3. Law of superposition 4. Principle of faunal succession Name five fundamental observations and three inferences that describe natural selection. 1. Populations would increase exponentially if all could reproduce successfully 2. Populations appear to be more or less stable over time 3. Resources are limited 4. Members of a population vary in their characteristics 5. Much of the variation between individuals in heritable Inference #1- more individuals are produced that can be supported Inference#2- successful survival depends of heritable features Inference #3- unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to gradual change in population What are five assumptions that must be made for hardy Weinberg? 1. No mutation 2. No gene flow 3. No genetic drift 4. Random mating 5. No natural selection What are three sources of variation 1. Mutation 2. Recombination 3. Gene transfer What are four main constraints on evolution? 1. Gene correlation 2. Lack of variation 3. Fitness trade offs 4. Historical constraints
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'