Exam 2 Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robert Kessinger on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Auburn University taught by Daren Ray in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 279 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Bobby Kessinger 2/21/16 History Study Guide Test 2 Week 5 Review Questions CH. 4 pp. 113-117 How did geography influence he transmission of culture in the Americas and Africa? Chronology: North America o Civilizations developing btw 1000 and 500 BC o Dorset Culture- Northwest Canada to the Arctic o Poverty Point- Gulf of Mississippi o Foraging communities of Ohio River Valley o San Juan and Tucson basins- Southwest United States See Maps** pg.114-117 Chronology: Africa o 1000s BC- Bantu Languages expanding southward o 750 BC- Nubian Kingdom reemerges o 500 BC- First iron foundries along Niger River o Bantu Languages reach South Africa CH. 9 pp. 263-267 How did Pacific Islanders succeed in colonizing the Pacific? Map of Colonization of the Pacific** see pg. 264 Chronology: Polynesian Expansion o 3,000-2,000 yrs. Ago- Origins of Polynesian civilization o 600- “Take-off” of Polynesian expansion o ca. 800- Settlement of Hawaii o ca. 1000- Colonization of New Zealand CH. 4/9 Quiz Questions Which people ventured into the Arctic wilderness of North America using blubberfueled soapstone lamps? o Dorset The ironproducing Nubians of Napata and Meroe had extensive contacts with which river empire? o Egypt At the end of the first millennium BCE, the Garamantes started developing a slave trade across which desert? o Sahara The Bantu languages expanded in which general direction. o From Northwest to Southwest The two major "cultures" to settle the Pacific Ocean were o Caroline and Polynesian The Polynesians continued to settle new islands: o to diversity their resources base, to accommodate growing populations, and to extend economic opportunities CH. 5 Vocabulary: Zoroastrianism conflicting forces of good and evil shape the world Ahura Mazda the good deity of Zoro., present in fire and light Ahriman night and darkness (the good of evil) Jainism a way of life designed to free the soul from evil. Prophet(Mahavira) Nirvana “extinction of flame” the ultimate extinction of all sense of self in a mystical state Daoism identification of detachment from the world with the pursuit of immortality is explicit Messiah “the anointed one” chosen one of Judaism Atomic theory the theory that matter is not a continuous whole, but is composed of tiny particles Guardians political power should be concentrated in a selfelecting class of philosopherrulers Legalism “goodness” was meaningless Confucianism demanded that the state should liberate subjects to fulfill their potential Rationalism the doctrine that unaided reason can reach the truth and solve the world’s problems Syllogisms can infer a necessary conclusion from two premises that prior demonstration or agreement have established to be true Stoicism nature is morally neutral and humans make evil and good decisions What was new in the thinking of the age of sages? What were the main areas of thinking and some of the important concepts that emerged in these areas? Chronology: Science and Medicine o 6 Century BC Susutra (India) th o late 5 Century BC Hippocrates (Greece) o ca. 250 BC Archimedes (Greece) o d. 235 BC Xunzi (China) o ca. 200 BC Eratosthenes (Greece) Chronology: Skeptics and Stoics o 4 Century BC Pyrrho of Ellis (Greece) o Late 4 Century BC Zeno of Citium (Greece) o D. st0 BC Epicurus (Greece) o 1 Century CE Wangchong (China) o 1 Century CE Sextus Empiricus (Rome) How do networks, institutions, and states help explain the occurrence of the age of sages in Eurasia? CH. 5 and Ehret Reading Quiz Who’s Who (Southwest Asia) o JudaismMoses o Christianity Jesus o Zoroastrianiam Zoroaster Who’s Who S. Asia o Buddhism Gautama Siddharta o Jainism Mahavira o Brahmans Brahmanism Who’s Who Philosophers o Math Cults Pythagoras o Skepticism Epicurus o Secular Philosophy Plato and Aristotle o Parmenides Rationalism Who’s Who China o Confucianism Master Kong o Legalism Han Feizi o Daoism Laozi The Jews of Jerusalem were forced to migrate to which imperial capital in the sixth century BCE? o Babylon Sages described in Chapter 5 came from what categories of people o professional intellectuals, political advisors, prophets, and charismatic leaders The religions of NigerCongo societies included devotion to o A God, territorial spirits, and personal ancestors CH. 6 How did trade routes affect the new Eurasian empires? Eurasian Trade map** see pg. 152 Chronology: China and the Silk Road o Ca. 500 BC Chinese silks appear in Europe o Ca. 139 BC Zhang Qian sets out for Bactria o 111 BC Chinese found Dunhuang o 102 BC Chinese invade Ferghania What role did geography play in the rise and expansion of the Persian Empire? Chronology: Rise and Fall of the Persian Empire o 6 Century BC Cyrus the Great founds Achaemenid dynasty o Early 5 Century BC Completion of royal road from Susa to Sardis o 490 and 480 BC Unsuccessful efforts to conquer Greece o 334 BC Alexander conquers Persian Empire How was Rome able to conquer and rule a vast empire? Chronology: Roman Expansion o Ca. 290 BC Rome reaches limit of expansion in Italy o 146 BC Rome destroys Carthage o 148 BC Rome annexes Macedon o 133 BC Pergamum added to Roman Empire o 51 BC Conquest of Gaul completed o 30 BC Rome annexes Egypt o 43 CE Rome invades Britain o 106 CE Conquest of Dacia completed What were the main characteristics and enduring legacy of Asoka’s empire? Chronology: The Reign of Asoka o Ca. 268232 BC Reign of Asoka o 260 BC Conquest if Kalinga o 258 BC Accomodation with Buddhism o ca. 200 BC Breakup of Asoka’s empire How did Han rule in China differ from that of the Qin? Chronology: The Qin and the Han o Ca. 256 BC Ruler of Qin discontinues imperial rites o Ca. 247 BC Shi Huangdi becomes ruler of Qin state; beginning of Qin expansion o 214 BC Construction of Great Wall begins o 210 BC Death of Shi Huangdi o 206 BC Beginning of Han Dynasty o 141 BC Han Wudi becomes the Han emperor o ca. 139 BC Embassy f Zhang Qian to Central Asia o 220 CE Collapse of Han dynasty Chronologrd The Han and the Xiongnu o 3 Century BC First xiongnu state emerges o ca. 176 BC Xiongnu conquers Gansu o 127120 BC Chinese mount successful operations against the Xiongnu o 7894 CE Ban Zhao leads celebrated campaigns against the Xiongnu How and why did significant states emerge beyond the great empires? CH. 6 Reading Quiz True or False: Roman and Chinese emperors corresponded with each other personally. o False Vocab Check o Empire A state that binds many political communities in allegiance to a single source of authority o Ahura Mazda the Zoroastrain God o Dunhuang a Chinese outpost on the Silk roads o Greek name of the Indian Ocean Eryhraen Sea Why did the Romans and other Europeans have to pay for Chinese goods with gold and silver? o They had few products to trade that Asians wanted Who founded the Persian Empire? o Cyrus the Great When Rome was first founded, what was its greatest resource? o Warriors What was Rome's most vulnerable border? o North towards the Germanic Tribes Which of the following was a political title in Rome? o Consul, tribune, and imperator Asoka converted to what religion after conquering most of India? o Buddhism Shi Huangdi was an emperor in which dynasty? o Qin Comparing Silk Road and the Erythraean Sea How does commerce over sea differ from commerce over land? Why do traders need to know about the politics of the places they enter? Why did they need to know about the products available? What other logistics need to be managed to engage in commerce? How does the merchant’s handbook (the Periplus) differ from the Chinese court chronicles? Chinese court chronicles were called JihLi which means Daily Chronicles Commerce over Land and Sea Reading Quiz Match Chinese names with English placenames: o Tat’sin Rome o ArHsi Parthia o T’iaoChih Babylon o Zhongguo China o Haihsi Egypt What impressed the Chinese in the reports they heard about Rome? o Kings chosen by merit instead of lineage, Government archives, and Smooth succession between rulers Why did the Chinese emissary KanYing not proceed to Rome o He was told the sea causes fatal homesickness CH. 7 What difficulties did the Western Roman Empire face? See Western Roman Empire and its Invaders Map** pg. 187 Chronology: The Transformation of Empire in the West o 162180 Reign of Emporer Marcus Aurellius o 3 and 4 Century Germanis migrants enter empire in increasing numbers o 323 Founding of Constantinople o 378 Battle of Adrianople, Roman Emperor killed th o Late 4 Century Huns break out of Central Asia o 410 Visigoths sack Rome o 476 Last coemporer in the west deposed The Barbarian West ca. 526 Map** see pg. 190 Why was China better adapted for longterm survival than Rome or India? Making Connections: Rome: o Geography Long land frontier and narrow sea lanes impede movement of troops and info o Culture Germanic peoples beyond empire’s borders covet Roman wealth, with prosperity gap leading to envy and hostility; limited identification by barbarians with Rome o Economy Adverse balance of trade drains wealth out of empire China: o Geography Round shape ensures that centrally located armies can get quickly to any point on frontier; numerous rivers and canals facilitate communication o Culture Subject peoples embrace Chinese identity; barbarian immigrants adopt Chinese customs and language o Economy Size, productivity, and technical inventiveness lead to self sufficiency Chronology: The End of Dynasties in China and India o 220 Last Han emperor forced to abdicate o 304 Contenders for Chinese throne call in barbarian armies o 415 Huns begin to infiltrate India o ca. 467 Demise of Gupta Empire How did some new states in Asia indirectly benefit from the steppelanders’ invasions? What were the bases of Ethiopia’s prosperity? Chronology: The Rise of Ethiopia o 340s Spread of Christianity in Ethiopia o Early 6 Century King Kaleb begins conquest of southern Arabia o 530s Environmental crisis undermines control of Southern Arabia What were the crises of the sixth and seventh centuries? What were the results of Justinian’s attempts to reunify the Roman Empire? Who were the “new barbarians”? How were the Arabs able to conquer a vast empire so quickly? How did Islam shape the politics of the Muslim world? Chronology: Islamic Expansion o 570632 Life of Muhammad o 630early 650s Muslim conquest of Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and Persian Empire o ca. 700 Muslim conquest of North America o ca. 715 Muslim conquest of Spain o 751 Battle of Talas; Arabs victorious against Chinese What were the achievements of the Tang dynasty? How did Tibet and Japan differ in their relationships with China in the seventh and eighth centuries? CH. 7 Reading Quiz Islam Vocab o Quran Islamic Scriptures o Caliph successor to Prophet Muhammad o Shia political faction supporting Ali nephew of Muhammad o Sharia Islamic Law What is one of the two ways Japan solved the problem of succession? o Emperors abdicated before death and chose their successor The Eastern Roman Empire is commonly called: o Byzantium The Vandals ext. a kingdom in: o North Africa Japan adopted Buddhism from: o Korea Muhammad, the Islamic Prophet, was from: o The Arabian Peninsula True or False: Pastoralists who invaded China from the steppe lands usually adopted Chinese language and culture: o True Which of the following was NOT a kingdom in the Korean Peninsula? o Yamato What contributed to Ethiopia’s success? o Economic base of agricultural surplus, adoption of Christianity as its official ideology, and strategic trading position of its port on the Indian Ocean CH. 8 Vocabulary: o Jihad “striving” o Dharma the teachings of Buddha o Manichaeanism religion of obscure origin, probably rooted in a heretical form of Zoroastrianism o Shinto “way of the gods” o Bon similar and heavily indebted to Buddhism o Sati the burning to death of a widow on her husband’s funeral pyre o Lotus Sutra most famous of Buddhist scriptures What role did war and commerce each play in spreading religion in parts of Eurasia and Africa?? See Rise of World Religions Map** pg. 217 Chronology: War, Trade, and Religion o 366 Founding of Dunhuang th th o 7 and 8thCenturies Rapid Islamic expansion o mid8 century Uighurs adopt Manichaeanism o 9 century Seaborne pilgrims begin to arrive in Mecca; Muslim merchant communities thrive in major Chinese ports and in East African ports th o mid11 century King Anuruddha introduces Buddhism to Burma; Islam begins to penetrate West Africa What are some examples of ways in which kings’ conversion to Christianity or Buddhism mutually benefitted kings and missionaries? Chronology: Early Conversions to Christianity o 312 Emperor Constantine of Rome o ca. 301314 King Trdat of Armenia o ca. 325 Georgia (King Mirian and Queen Nana) o 340s King Ezana of Ethiopia Chronology: The Intro. Of Buddhism in Korea and Japan th o Late 4 century Chinese refugees introduce Buddhism in Koguryo o Ca. 520530 Kings of Paekche and Silia convert to Buddhism o 538 First image of Buddha arrives in Japan o 574622 prince Shotoku, first great royal patron of Buddhism th o 7 century Rapid expansion of Buddhism in Japan under royal patronage Chronology: The Spread of Christianity o Ca. 500 Clovis, king of the Franks, converts to Christianity o 960s Harold Bluetooth of Denmark converts o 966 Conversion of King Mieszko of Poland o ca. 988 Vladimir of Kiev adopts Orthodox Christianity o ca. 997 Norway adopts Christianity o 1000 Iceland adopts Christianity o 1001 Coronation of Stephen of Hungary as a Christian monarch What were the methods by which, once adopted by rulers, Christianity and Islam gained followers? What role did monasticism play in world religions? Chronology: Early Monasticism o Ca. 250 Zhu Shixing is the first Chinese to be ordained Buddhist priest o 2 century Earliest Christian monastic communities (Egypt) o 6 century Life of Saint Benedict o 7 century Abbess Hilda rules important religious establishments th o late 8 century Rabia alAdawiyya, Islamic Sufi mystic CH. 8 Reading Quiz “There is no compulsion in religion” is a quote from which sacred text? o Quran True or False: NonMuslims in early Muslim states had to pay a special tax but were forced to convert. o True Long distance trade was relatively unimportant in diffusing which religion? o Christianity Manicheaism, which teaches that the universe is divided into good and evil, was likely a deviation from: o Zoroastrianism Which of the following states converted to Christianity to strengthen their alliance with (Eastern) Rome? o Lazica (aka Georgia) Who is regarded as the first royal patron of Buddhism in Japan? o Prince Shotoku True or False: During the postClassical Era, Buddhism gradually replaced Hinduism as the major religion in India. o False Match the Christian Ruler with his country/people o Vladimir The Rus o Trdat Armenia o Ezana Axum/Ethiopia o Thoregeirr Thorkelsson Norse Benedict was a famous o Christian Monk The first Muslims were: o Arabs CH. 9 How did geography influence the transmission of culture in subSaharan Africa and the Americas? Chronology: Civilizations of the Americas ca. 2001200 o Ca. 200800 Flourishing of Moche and Nazca civilizations o Ca. 2001000 Maya Classic Age (lowlands) o 1000 Andean city of Tiahuanaco abandoned o ca. 11061200 Tula abandoned What were the environmental consequences of the Islamic conquests? What were the particular environmental challenges in Japan and the names used to address them? How did policy in Indian kingdoms and in China promote exploitation of the environment Chronology: population of China, 7301000 o 730 Vagrant families ordered to resettle in agricultural colonies o 734 Rice cultivation on the Huai River o 750 China’s population is 50 million o mid8 century onethird of China’s population lives in the Huai and the Yangzte valleys th o 11 century Half of China’s population lives in the Huai and Yangzte valleys What were the economic bases for the growth of kingdoms in Southeast Asia? How did Pacific Islanders succeed in colonizing the Pacific? Chronology: Polynesian Expansion o 3,0002,000 yrs ago Origins of Polynesian civilization o 600 “Takeoff” of Polynesian expansion o ca. 800 Settlement of Hawaii o ca.1000 Colonization of New Zealand Where did Christendom expand in the 8 and 9 centuries? See Expansion of Christendom Map** pg. 269 CH. 9 Reading Quiz Which of the following American civilizations was divided into competing city states? o Maya Which of the following foods in English is NOT based on an Arabic word? o Lemon, Sugar, and Cotton The Buddhist monk Gyoki was famous in Japan for: o Building bridges and Roads How did the Tang Dynasty encourage an increase in food production in China? o Broke up large landholdings and distributed the land among taxpayers, Stabilized the price of grain using storehouses, and Introduced new strains of rice taken from conquered territories Which state or people in Southeast Asia relied on harbor tolls, piracy, and commerce with China to sustain its economy? o Srivijaya Who first settled Hawai'i o Polynesians Which of the following postclassical two leaders claimed to be the successors of the Roman Emperors o Charlemagne and Boris FernandezArmesto (the textbook author) suggests that world history is best thought of as: o Similar to climate change Which African state grew wealthy through trade across the Sahara desert? o Ghana
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