Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Canterbury on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 80176 - GEOL 1010 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Alan B Coulson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Environmental Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/22/16
Lecture 5—1/26/16 Geology in the News Volcanic glass ‘egg’ found after Kilauea (Hawaii) eruption last week Geologists have never found anything like this before Part 1- Volcanoes Which are the only two countries that have more volcanoes than the US? Case Study: Krakatoa What were the effects of Krakatoa on the world? Explosiveness What does the Volcano Explosivity Index (VEI) do? Explosive vs. Non-Explosive What is viscosity and by what two things is it controlled? What is silica content’s effect on viscosity? Non-explosive Features What does Pahoehoe mean? What does Aa mean? What are vescicles? Explosive Features How fast does lava flow? Several hazards beyond lava What is lahar, and how does it form? What are Pyroclasts? How are they classified? What is the danger of Pyroclasts? What is pyroclastic flow? Volcanoes What are the different types of volcanoes? What are the characteristics of a shield volcano? What are the characteristics of a tephra volcano? What are the characteristics of a stratocone? Supervolcanic Eruptions What are two examples of supervolcanic eruptions? What were the effects of each of these supervolcanoes? What is a hotspot? How do hotspots explain the formation of Hawaii? Lecture 5—1/28/16 Sedimentary Processes Why do we care about sedimentary processes? Part 1- Forming Sedimentary Rock What is weathering? What is the difference between physical weathering and chemical weathering? What is erosion? What are some examples of erosion? What is deposition? What is a basin? What is an accommodation space? What is subsidence? By what is subsidence caused? What forms from sudsidence? What is lithification? What is compaction? What is cementation? Part 2- Classification How are detrital rocks formed? What are some traits of detrital rocks? Describe sorting Describe rounding How are chemical sediments formed? How are chemical sediments different from detrital? Why are chemical sediments economically viable? How are biogenic sediments formed? Part 3- Mass Wasting (landslides) Why do we care about landslides? Slope Destabilization What is an angle of repose? What are the effects of moisture and vegetation on the stabilization of a slope? Types of Mass Wasting What are the categories of Mass Wasting based on? What are two examples of mass wasting? Causes of Mass Wasting What causes mass wasting? Risk Assessment What are risk assessment maps and why do they have to be updated so frequently? Prevention What are some ways to prevent mass wasting? Prevention: Costs What is an example of a time that mass wasting prevention could have helped? Lecture 7—02/04/16 Part 1- Intro to Metamorphism Why do we care about metamorphism? Temperature Describe geothermal gradient? What is the avg value for Geothermal Gradient? Metamorphism via Heat What is contact metamorphism? Pressure 1 bar = 1 atmospheric pressure at surface What is an average pressure gradient? What are the two different types of pressure? Define each of them. About how deep do metamorphic rocks form? Exposure How do metamorphic rocks get back to the surface? Metamorphism via Pressure Where does regional metamorphism form? How is this different than forming rocks by temperature? Other types of Metamorphism What is fault metamorphism? Describe metasomatism. What is an ore? What is seafloor metamorphism? Part 2- Metamorphic Rocks & Environments What metamorphic rock forms? Metamorphic Change Describe metamorphic grade. What is the problem with metamorphic grade? What is an index mineral? What is the risk of using an index mineral? What is a metamorphic facies? How do these help us? How can we interpret facies? Part 3- Length of Metamorphism What do prograde and retrograde mean? How do minerals form like trees? What are the types of Metamorphic Rocks? Describe each of them. Lecture 8—2/9/16 Geology in the News Sudden volcanic erupting found to trigger from gas bubble rapidly formed in magma underneath the volcano This study could help discover why sudden volcanic eruptions happen Part 1- Structural Geology What is structural geology? What is deformation? What is the difference between topographic features vs geologic structures? Tectonic Forces What are the three types of tectonic forces and how do they relate to the types of plate boundaries? Response to Stress What is the difference between brittle and ductile? What can these conditions be based on? What is the speed of deformation? Part 2- Types of Structures What is a fold? Why is it difficult to have just one fold? What is a limb? What is a hinge? Classifying Folds How are fold classified? What is antiform? What is synform? What is overturned? What is an anticline fold? What is a syncline fold? What is a horizontal fold? What is a plunging fold? What is a joint? What does no more movement mean? What is a fault? What is a dip-slip fault? What is a hanging wall? What is a foot wall? What is a normal dip slip fault? What is a reverse dip slip fault? ***Study Hint: You MUST identify the hanging wall versus the foot wall BEFORE determining if it’s a normal or reverse fault*** What is a thrust fault? What is a strike slip fault? What is a left-lateral fault? What is a right-lateral fault? ***Study Hint: Make sure to get the orientation before trying to identify the fault*** Faults and Forces Different faults form depending on the type of force applied Compression—Reverse dip slip; Tensional—Normal Dip Slip; Shearing—Strike slip Lecture 9—2/11/16 Geology in the News 6.4 magnitude earthquake in Southern Taiwan Apartment buildings fell over Several dead and 100 missing Chinese New Year celebrations cancelled—Big Deal Part 1—Introduction to Earthquakes Why do we care about earthquakes? What causes earthquakes? What is an earthquake? What is elastic deformation? How frequent are Earthquakes? Small ones? Larger ones? Largest ones? How powerful are Large Earthquakes? The Point of Movement What is a focus? How deep are they usually? What is an epicenter? Movements Before and After What is a foreshock? What is an aftershock? Part 2—Seismic Waves What are the three types of waves produced? Describe each of them. Part 3—Measurement and Detection What is a seismometer? What are three myths about seismometers? What kind of data can a seismometer give us? Where did it happen? Why is knowing the focus of the earthquake important? What is the key to determining the focus? How do you find the focus? How big was the Earthquake? Describe the Mercalli Index. What is the problem with this method? Describe the Richter scale. What is moment magnitude? Quakes and Plates Where do earthquakes usually occur? Where do the deepest foci occur and why? Risk Assessment Why is predicting earthquakes so difficult? Damage Control What are some methods for damage control of earthquakes? What is liquefication? Lecture 10—2/16/16 Geology in the News Tin cans found embedded in the walls after Taiwan earthquake Shows that buildings weren’t made from reinforced concrete like they were supposed to Part 1- Geologic Time Why do we care about geologic time? Dating Methods What are two approaches to dating methods? Why do relative dating? Relative Dating What is a fossil? What is stratigraphy? What are unconformities? What are some reasons for unconformities? Types of Unconformities What are the three types of unconformities? Describe each of them. What are some problems with unconformities? Part 2- Stratigraphic Principles What is the P. of Original Horizontality? What is the P. of Superposition? What is the P. of Cross-Cutting What is the P. of Faunal Succession? For what is this principle useful? Correlation with fossils Why aren’t all fossils good for correlation? What is an index fossil? What makes an index fossil a good index fossil? What are some other correlation tools? Describe each of them. Part 3- Geologic Time Scale How was the geologic time scale originally built? Geologic Time Units Eons What are the four recognized eons? Describe each of them. What are the four eras in the most recent eon? Describe each of them. Lecture 11 – 2/18/16 Geology in the News New info why quakes occur deep in subduction zones Scientists confused on how subduction zones can move under so much pressure Water released from a mineral called lawsonite enables the fault to move despite the high pressure environment Part 1- Absolute Ages Two approaches: - Non-radiometric - Radiometric What are the two methods to non-radiometric dating? Describe each of them. What are the restrictions of each of them? Describe radiometric dating. What is an isotopes? What is radioactive decay? What is radiation? What is the parent atom? Describe the daughter atom. What is a decay series? Debunk the misconception about radioactive decay. Describe half-life What is crucial about half-life? What are the requirements for half-life? What are the problems with open system? Part 2- Case Study: Carbon 14 What is special about the Carbon-14 isotope? Forming Carbon 14 Global distribution- carbon is found all over Earth Reactions are in a steady state: amount we are creating is the same as the amount we are taking down Commented [A1]: How do we know it works? Can’t carbon date everything Why can we date fossils? Calculating the age Age = [ln(N f/N )/-0.693]*half-life N f/N0 = % of 14C in the sample relative to amount of food in living tissue - How much parent is left What are the assumptions for Carbon-14? What is the limit of Carbon-14 Dating?
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