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Cal State Fullerton - HIST 110 - Study Guide

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background image 1.  Sargon I- He was the leader of the Akkadians round 2340 B.C.E.  a.  He overran the Sumerian city-states and established a dynastic empire 
b.  He used former rulers of the conquered city-states as his governors. 
c.  His power was based on the military, mainly his standing army of 5,400 men 
d.  His empire included all of Mesopotamia as well as lands westward to the 
Mediterranean  e.  His empires inspired generations of Near Eastern leaders to emulate his  accomplishment.  f.  Sargon was remembered in chronicles as a king of Akkad who “had no rival or  equal, spread his splendor over all the lands, and crossed the sea in the east. In his 
eleventh year, he conquered the western lands to its furthest point and brought 
under his sole authority. 
g.  His empire was located in the flat land of Mesopotamia.  2.  Hammurabi  a.  In 1792 B.C.E., a new empire came to control much of Mesopotamia under  Hammurabi.  b.  Hammurabi ruled over the Amorites or Old Babylonians, a large group of Semitic  speaking seminomads.  c.  He employed a well-disciplined army of foot soldiers who carried axes, spears,  and copper or bronze daggers.  d.  He learned to divide his opponents and subdue them one by one  
e.  By using these methods he gained control of Sumer and Akkad, creating a new 
Mesopotamian kingdom.  f.  After his conquests he called himself the sun of Babylon, the king who has the  four quarters of the world subservient.  g.  He established a new capital at Babylon 
h.  He was a man of war and a man of peace. 
i.  He had a strong interest in state affairs and saw himself as a shepherd to his 
people.  j.  Hammurabi is best remembered for his law code, a collection of 282 laws. It was  called The Code of Hammurabi.  3.   Harappa  a.  Many written records exist, but their language has not yet been deciphered 
b.  The Harappan economy was based primarily on farming, but they also carried out 
extensive trade with Mesopotamia  c.  Harappans were very smart they ran water and sewer systems 
d.  They were destroyed by the Aryans 
e.  Harappa never recovered  
4.  Nile  a.  It is by far the greatest river 
b.  Longest river on Earth and by far the most predictable 
c.  Every year around the same time The Nile would rise to about the same height  
d.  Its predictability made agriculture easier 
background image e.  The Nile supported largest population of the Bronze Age  
f.  Allowed the first nation state to develop in Egypt. 
5.  Narmer/Menes  a.  In 3100 BC Egypt was unified because of a man known as Narmer or Menes, he  became the first king(pharaoh) of Egypt  b.   He united Upper and Lower Egypt.  6.  Khufu/Cheops  a.  The largest and most magnificent of all pyramids was built under King Khufu. 
b.  He built the Great Pyramid of Giza 
7.  Hittites  a.  They were from a tribe known as Indo-Europeans. 
b.  Hittites arrived in Anatolia (modern Turkey) 
c.  When Egypt began to decline Hittites began to head to the near east  
d.  They were part of the reason why Egypt began to decline 
e.  Another reason why they began to decline was  internal problems over religion 
f.  The Egyptian priests were becoming too powerful for the pharaoh to control. 
g.  They Hittites kingdom had its capital at Hattusha 
h.   They were the first Indo-European peoples to make use of iron, enabling them to 
construct weapons that were stronger and cheaper to make.    8.  Minoans  a.  They were the first Greeks meaning that they spoke Greek and had a Greek religion 
b.   Came from the North and settled in central and southern Greece  
c.  When they arrived in Greece, there was already a great civilization there 
d.  Minoans were the first civilization to develop in Europe. However, Minoans weren’t 
Greek and nobody really knows where they came from.   e.  Minoans taught Mycenaeans the important factors in order to be a civilization 
f.   The Mycenaeans were so thankful that the decided to destroy the Minoans  
g.  Mycenaean Greece was not unified, instead it was politically divided into city-states. 
h.  The biggest of the cities was Mycenae  
i.  Mycenaeans spent most of their time fighting each other. 
  9.  Hyksos(1651-1551)  a.  The people who invaded Egypt 
b.  They came from the North East (They were Pastoralists) 
c.  Were backwards compared to the Egyptians, but they did excel at war 
d.  They had an advantage over the Egyptians, because they had developed body 
armor, a superior bow, and most importantly they had the chariot  e.  Egyptians had few soldiers, had no body armor, inferior bows, and they did not  have the chariot.  f.  Hyksos defeat Egyptian army and conquer most of Egypt 
g.  First time in history that the Egyptians were successfully invaded. 
10. Ahmose I  a.  He reorganized Egyptian military using Hyksos military weapons and the  Egyptians retook control of Egypt 
background image b.  In 1551 Egypt was finally free of Hyksos and this begins the period of the new  kingdom.  c.  The Egyptians built a large army and went out to conquer other lands.  11. Hatshepsut(1478-1458 BC)  a.  First known female ruler of the world; First Egyptian Queen 
b.  Succeeded by her nephew Thutmosis III 
12. Thutmosis III (1458-1425)  a.  He was the greatest conqueror of all time (in Egypt)     
b.  In 1457 BC Thutmosis III fought in the battle of Megiddo 
13. Megiddo  a.  First battle in the world that we know about and have details about. 
b.  The Egyptians won and conquered the Near East. 
c.  Egypt was the most powerful country up until now 
d.  Thutmosis III was the most powerful ruler up until now. 
14. Indo-Europeans  a.  They were from a tribe known as Indo-Europeans. 
b.  Indo-Europeans had a huge impact on many of the most important languages, such as 
English.  c.  Thousands of years ago the Indo Europeans tribe broke up and scattered in every  direction.  d.  They went all over Europe, Middle East, and India 
e.  Their languages began to disperse and developed into unique languages 
f.  Since they trace back to the same original language, languages were very similar 
g.  Almost every single language in Europe today is Indo-European 
h.  Romans, Greeks, and Persians all have Indo-European languages. 
  15.  Aryans  a.  They split from the Indo-European tribe and eventually ended up in India , which is home  for one of the oldest civilizations (3 rd  major civilization)  b.  Aryans arrive at Harappa/India 
c.  Civilizations were named after major cities 
d.  Harappans were very smart, they ran water  and sewer systems 
e.  They had a system of writing that has yet to be deciphered  
f.  Harappans had experienced a number of problems before the arrival of the Aryans, such 
as cold weather, which led to a decline in the growth of crops as well as having a limited 
amount of resources, which led to warfare.  
g.  So, when the Aryans arrived they were able to destroy the Harappa civilization and  replace it with nothing.  h.  India was sent to a long dark age.  i.  Dark Ages characteristics  1.   Population plummets, people were either killed or fled. 
2.  People would often forget how to read and write. 
16. Mycenaeans   a.  They were the first Greeks meaning that they spoke Greek and had a Greek religion 
b.   Came from the North and settled in central and southern Greece  
background image c.  When they arrived in Greece, there was already a great civilization there 
d.  Minoans were the first civilization to develop in Europe. However, Minoans weren’t 
Greek and nobody really knows where they came from.   e.  Minoans taught Mycenaeans the important factors in order to be a civilization 
f.   The Mycenaeans were so thankful that the decided to destroy the Minoans  
g.  Mycenaean Greece was not unified, instead it was politically divided into city-states. 
h.  The biggest of the cities was Mycenae  
i.  Mycenaeans spent most of their time fighting each other. 
i.  Greeks(North West) Mycenaean Period   j.  They were the first to be attacked by the pastoralist people 
k.   The Mycenaeans were already weakened internally before they were attacked. 
l.  A group of Pastoralist came to Greece an attacked 
i.  Every Mycenaean city was destroyed  ii.  The Mycenaeans had known an attack was coming  iii.  In the last days of the Mycenaean period there were frantic efforts to grow  stronger and build a better wall and fortresses to block invaders through 
the ocean. 
iv.  The Mycenaeans survive for a few more years before someone attacks and  ends them once and for all.  17. Rameses II  a.  Leads the list of pharaohs in many categories 
b.  Ruled Egypt for the longest amount of time 
c.  First time two regions were under the same control 
d.  Had the most children (100+) 
e.  Built the most monuments 
f.  His main goal was to restore the power in Egypt specifically from Hittites 
g.  Spent his first year reorganizing Egyptian Army 
h.  During this time the Egyptian Army consisted of 20,000 soldiers (4 units of 5,000 men 
each) Each unit was named after an Egyptian god  i.  Most important weapon of war was the chariot  ii.  Altogether the Egyptians had 3,000 teams of chariots [used chariots to reconquer  Near East]  i.  1274 the battle of Qadesh was fought  i.  By far the biggest battle during the Bronze Age   ii.  Hittites + Allies = 27,000 men Egyptians = 20,000  j.  Muwatallis was the Hittite King   i.   Egyptians are moving North, Hittites already there  ii.  Muwatallis decides to play a trick on Rameses  iii.  He decides to play a trick on Rameses  iv.  He sends two spies into the camp to pretended to be deserters from the Hittite  Army   v.  They give Rameses info about Muwatalli army  vi.  They say that Qadesh army is nowhere near Qadesh, but still far up North  vii.  Rameses believes them  k.  Rameses does not take precautions as they approach Qadesh, assuming Hittites are not  there. 

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School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan Chrissanthos
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what will be on the exam.
Uploaded: 02/23/2016
16 Pages 70 Views 56 Unlocks
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