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INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide Part 1

by: Kalie Maniglia

INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide Part 1 INR2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Political Science > INR2001 > INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide Part 1
Kalie Maniglia

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Covers part 1 of the study guide...more coming soon!
Introduction to International Relations
Nolan,Richard Anthony
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kalie Maniglia on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to INR2001 at University of Florida taught by Nolan,Richard Anthony in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Relations in Political Science at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
INR2001 Exam 2 Study Guide 1. Security dilemma (pg. 228): The circulating issue worldwide caused by armaments of states who claim weaponry to be for defense being perceived by other states as threats.  As military strength increases insecurities increase  Drives both sides to drive up armaments  Possibly Triggered by misconceptions between State A & B o A wants B to do something they wouldn’t normally do otherwise o EITHER; B overestimates/underestimates importance of the ‘thing’ to A, and therefore arms or doesn’t arm depending on believability of threat. o Really not that important to A and B arms anyways because they believe the threat, A perceives B as being violent and vice versa. 2. Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) (pg. 251): term coined to describe the strategic balance between the US and Soviet Union after the Cuban Missile Crisis.  Both sides could survive a first strive with WMDs and launch a devastating retaliation attack  Based on Counter-Value Tactic; targets people  Initiating nuclear war is not a rational choice because it leads to MAD 3. Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUTs): The possibility for a nuclear exchange in which a first strike would destroy the adversary, leaving them without the possibility to retaliate.  You have a chance to win at war, try to destroy the enemy all in one strike.  Based on Counter-Force Tactic, targets military  Very costly attack, never guaranteed success because of the possibility for rapid retaliation by the adversary. 4. Balance of Power (pg. 259): equilibrating process that maintains peace by counterbalancing any state that seeks military superiority, distributing global power evenly through alignments by nonaligned states to one or the other opposed coalitions.  In conditions of Anarchy, states try to fight off changes in distributions that would negatively affect them.  Additional security is enhanced when military capabilities are distributed so that no single state is strong enough to dominate all others.  Founded on the realist premise that weakness invites attack and countervailing power must be used to deter potential aggressors. o Ex. WWI & WWII were balance of power wars 5. Nuclear Winter (pg. 250): the expected freeze that would occur in the Earth’s climate from the fallout of smoke and dust in the even nuclear weapons were used, blocking out sunlight and destroying the life that survived the original blast itself.  Devastating consequence of any great power using its nuclear arsenal  Would make the planet uninhabitable, resulting in the sun being at least partially blocked by large dense patches of smoke that would move around the world.  Even if you kill your adversary/ deliver a successful attack, you will die because of the effects of a nuclear winter. 6. Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs): is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometers primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery.  Part of the Cold War triad of delivery systems 7. Alliance (pg. 256-258): coalitions of two or more states that combined their military capabilities and promise to coordinate their policies to increase mutual security.  Can be explained by liberal theory; states form an alliance even if their immediate interest is not realized in order to maximize their long term collective interests.  More commonly explained by realist theory; o Temporary, opportunistic agreements to cooperate when two or more parties face a common security threat. o Formal or informal commitment for security cooperation intended to augment each member’s power, security, and influence o Method for states to protect themselves from threats posed by predatory common enemies o Mechanism by which a balance of power can be maintained o Advantages of an alliance outweigh the disadvantages, members see a means to increase deterrence and defense.  5 fundamental flaws: o Enable aggressive states to combine military capabilities o Threaten enemies and provoke the creation of counter alliances which reduces security of both coalitions o May draw otherwise neutral parties into opposed coalitions o Forces states to control the behavior of allies to discourage reckless aggression, which would undermine the security of alliance’s other members o Today’s allies could be tomorrow’s enemies 8. State: Legal entity enforced by a government. A state is defined by its: 1. Government 2. People 3. Territory  #1 concern of the state is to protect sovereignty; guarantees freedom from others.  State system originates in Europe 9. Nation-State: A state in which the majority or all citizens have the same cultural identity and connect by some means of ethnicity, culture, or language. o Not easy to mold a national identity o State must be compatible with national identity 10. Nation: group of people who all connect by some means of ethnicity culture or language. People often identify with their nation than with state if they do not have their own state. o May cause conflict, civil war, or terrorism because of struggle for independence o 11. Antipersonnel Landmines (APLs) (pg. 277): weapons buried below the surface of the soil that explode on contact when anyone steps on them. Dangerous and counterproductive because they cannot discriminate between soldiers and civilians. 12. Conventional Weapons: Weapons that are not of extraordinary scale. Basic war weapons such as guns, tanks, missiles. 13. Economic Sanctions (pg. 357): deliberate actions against a target country to deprive it of the benefits of economic relations. The most common way that trade can be used to retaliate for objectionable behavior and as a tool of coercive diplomacy. o Used frequently because they are viewed to be largely cost free by the sender country o Politically, sanctions are an expedient tool because they are easy to enact 14. Third World (pg. 237): troubling armament trends have been seen in recent years as the third world increases in arms purchases. o More and more global south countries participating in the business and manufacturing of arms. o Most imports are to countries who struggle with political violence o Overall, the major recipients of all global arms shipments are third world countries o Stream of weapons to insecure and eager third world buyers is not likely to end soon 15. Democratic Peace (pg. 200): less likely for democratic states to choose war as a solutions. o Democracies resolve their differences with bargaining rather than battling o Democracies are more likely to with wars than on democracies o Democracies are unlikely to engage in militarized disputes with each other o Democracies are more likely to employ democratic means of peaceful conflict resolution 16. Counter-value Strategy: targeting people (MAD) leaving themselves vulnerable would mean if attacked, cities would be decimated and thousands of people would die. Can’t replace people but you can replace tanks, people are more valuable. 17. Counter-force Strategy: targeting military (NUTs) targeting their ability to attack you, decreasing their military armaments and capabilities. 18. Arms trade (pg. 237-239): arms trade climbed during the arms race and peaked during 1987, however post-cold war arms transfers grow each year. o Troubling trends in the global arms markets in recent years o Arms sales continue in the era of terrorism post 9/11 o Proliferation of arms across borders has sometimes had the unintended effect of war because of political violence o The inability of arms suppliers to control the uses of their military hardware is troubling—blowback o Selling such huge arsenals of weapons contradicts original foreign policy goals 19. Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) (pg. 273): Signed in 1968 by 190 countries, prohibited the transfer of nuclear weapons and production technologies to nonnuclear weapons states. o Allowed countries to get nuclear power, not nuclear weapons. o Was an agreement that agreed not to build nuclear weapons, allowed proliferation of nuclear energy under heavily scrutinized conditions and inspections o “Saved the world” o Most symbolic multilateral arms control agreement, great success promoting nuclear nonproliferation o Lately, states have been taking their own measures to enhance their nuclear arsenals o India & Pakistan broke NPT barriers and N. Korea violated NPT secretly developing nuclear weapons o Five major powers agreed to eventually give up nuclear weapons—hasn’t happened 20. Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI): aka Star Wars: Supposed to be a satellite based method to shoot down incoming ICBMs. Put into play by Ronal Regan o Direct challenge to MAD philosophy behind arms control because it was about shooting down missiles and not retaliating o It provoked Russians because they knew they wouldn’t be able to match this technology o Suggests that the Soviets feared US first strike capacity because of SDI 21. Disarmament (pg. 271): aims to reduce or eliminate armaments completely, usually by negotiated reciprocal agreements by rivals o Effort to prevent use of arms in warfare o Reduces or destroy means of attack 22. Arms control (pg. 271): management of weapons, designed to regulate arms levels by limiting growth or restricting how they can be used. Agreements by potential enemies to reduce probability of future conflicts erupting into warfare. o Used to reduce the scope of violence o Can include tactics like disarmament, but not limited to 23. Anarchy (pg. 202): the absence of institutions for global governance o May promote outbreak of war o Not entirely the explanation for changes in levels of war o Uncertainty occurs under anarchy which causes states to think about security


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