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Quiz 1 Class Notes

by: Raisa Notetaker

Quiz 1 Class Notes PSC 1001

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These are the class notes over the last 4 weeks of class. The notes will be on the exam
Introduction to Comparative Politics
Mark L. Croatti
Study Guide
comparative, Politcs, Croatti
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raisa Notetaker on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Mark L. Croatti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Comparative Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 02/22/16
August 29, 2016 Intro Class Notes:  The Articles of Confederation – regarded as the predecessor to the current constitution (in class the professor referred to it as U.S. 1.0) o It was unicameral (one body) and it had a single representative from all 13 states o Under this version, there were 14 presidents (meaning, there were 14 presidents before George Washington, who was the first president for the second constitution) o The leader of congress was the president o The Articles of Confederation is similar to the European Union of modern times:  Can’t have an army (they have to borrow them from surrounding countries – in America’s it was states)  Can’t tax (this was one of the reasons why the Articles were regarded as a failure)  Both are a union of different countries/states in order to achieve a higher purpose  The second constitution was created because the states refused to pay the war debts. So, the Articles aren’t really a failure, it was more like it wasn’t equipped to deal with this kind of issue because the drafters did not expect such an issue to arise. o This was the professor’s opinion: Perhaps a new constitution is needed if the current constitution is found lacking. o The constitution is created on the notion of working together. Yet, we have 2 parties who refuse to get along. If there is a structural issue, make a new contract or alter the current one  Politics is about solving problems to attain a more perfect union. This means politicians are constantly revising and perfecting the system we currently have. There is no perfect government o There are usually two main problems that a government has:  Structural – The ways to address this problem is to  Ignore the issue  Modify it  Replace it  Policy related – the ways to address this problem is to  Ignore the issue  Modify it  Replace it  On a national level, candidates have never talked about a structural issue because that means they must replace the constitution, which is sometimes regarded as a “holy” and a document above reproach. Politicians running for office on a national level would rather discuss policy issues rather than structural issues  The constitution was created on the concept of universal democracy, meaning it applies to everyone. This also means that while it does apply to everyone, it doesn’t mean everyone will be treated equally under it (a.k.a. the slave system)  There are many black spots on American history that is never discussed or is purposefully watered down: o The Native American Holocaust – this was never discussed  The Natives were sent to designated reservations whether they liked it or not. If they were found out of their “territory”, then they were hunted down  $200.00 (which was a lot of money back then) was given to the individual who brought back a Native American head – which were referred to as “red-skinned”  Essentially is Native American’s didn’t stay in their territory, they were hunted down like cattle o The treatment towards the “Loyalists” during the American Revolution  There were actually 20 British colonies. The 13 colonies that we refer to till present day were the ones who rebelled against the British crown.  Those who were loyal to the crown (a.k.a. the other 7 colonies) were driven out of their own country for not wanting independence. These people were either killed or driven north to what is present day Canada.  American’s often feel superior to Canadians because they achieved their independence before the Canadians. However, the Canadians differ in opinion because for them, even though it took them longer to achieve independence, what they did was better. The Canadians still have a good relationship to Britain and there was no bloodshed in their separation from their motherland  The professor compared this situation to America being the rebellious son who wanted to get away from home and Canada being the good son who parted on good terms.  Although American’s claim they “won” the war, to the British it wasn’t really a win because we were still surrounded by British colonies who didn’t rebel. The U.S. also went back to trading with the British. The only different between the situation before and the situation after was that America had a massive amount of debt and the colonists have a little more freedom September 1, 2016 Class 2 notes:  How to amend the constitution? o 2/3 of the house, 2/3 of the senate, ¾ of the states – this is how it usually occurs o ¾ of the states – this can also allow an amendment to pass, but this hasn’t occurred yet because it is difficult for the states to agree with each other on important matters  E.g. Maryland past a bill about allowing gambling back so that the state government can use the funding to fix the schools. The pro-casino people had a lot of propaganda commercials a few days before the voting, and as a result the law was passed, but the funding that was promised to the schools was not given.  In 1994: There were a series of events which led to a man in Utah declaring a meeting of all the states representatives – this state convention was prevented because Congress promised that national law enforcement (a.k.a. FBI and CIA) will no longer interfere with the jobs of local law enforcement o One of the events that led to the attempt of a convention was the 1991 Desert Storm operation. People had many issues with this operation:  The United Nation asked for soldiers to be sent from the allied countries to build an army. People did not like this because the UN was never suppose to have an army and was built for peace  Thee was a militia movement in the 1990’s as a result of desert storm -> where people owned guns o April 1993 Waco Siege – ATF did a raid on a barn house that belonged to a religious group Branch Davidians to confiscate a certain type of gun that was made illegal to own recently. The issue is that the raid wasn’t needed because the religious group fell under the grandfather clause. The residence retreated to the barn after a shoot out occurred between them and the FBI. In order to flush them out, the FBI gassed the building with CS gas (which is highly toxic) and when the residence still wouldn’t come out they lit the barn on fire.  It turns out the residence were already dead because of the toxic gas, and when residence tried to get out of the barn they were shot at by the FBI  Another issue with this siege is that the FBI lied in court about what actually transpired that day, it wasn’t until video footage came in claiming the contrary that the truth was revealed o Highway of Death: The U.S. army fired at the Iraq soldiers despite them having already surrendered. The surviving members surrendered to the CNN news crew because surrendering to the U.S. army didn’t work o National Law Enforcement never interfered with local matters after the issue with Waco. This is situation was given as an example on how the local law enforcement handled matters in contrast to national law enforcement:  Texas was still an independent nation at the time because they didn’t sign the document that made them a state  so a certain political group brought an idea to separate from the U.S. because they were technically not a part of the country yet, and would hold rallies to fight for independence. However, this peaceful rallying changed when their kidnapped a local news reporter who criticized their movement.  The Texas rangers told the government that they would handle it and even though it took long negotiations (the political group did a long complicated march in dedication to their state), they talked the group down without bloodshed  The U.S. decision in Iraq was very controversial because after the U.N. got the Shia and Sunni to their respective sides in Iraq, the U.N. wanted to leave, but the U.S. wasn’t content with the current rule and egged one group on while promising air support (which they didn’t give) o The U.S. as a result of the war they instigated, left a base close to the hold place of Mecca and Medina despite understanding that non-believers aren’t allowed in or near the house of god o The leader, Bin Laden, made a comment on how if the U.S. stays then they will eventually live on reservations and have their holy land taken like the Native Americans  Mount Rushmore was the sacred black hills of the Native Americans and yet we carved permanent heads into their sacred place o 9/11 was a response from Isis after what the U.S. did in Iraq  The planes were suppose to hit the pentagon which is America’s control center (if all the plans had hit then our country would have been thrown into chaos)  There was then a discussion on the religion of Islam o Muslim means  “One who obeys” in Arabic o Islam means  “obedience” or “submission” o The professor believed Mohammad received 3 messages from god  Bring the Arabs back to monotheistic religion  Tell the Christians they overdid it  o Muslims are waiting for Jesus to set up the Kingdom of God September 6, 2016 Class 3 Notes:  Shah rule in Iran is secular  meaning it is separate from the state and that it doesn’t rule with Islamic value. Which means the government can’t fund one particular religion, and that all religions are allowed. o India, Turkey, and Israel have secular rule o If your mother is Jewish then once you step foot in Israel, you are eligible for citizenship  this is despite the fact that Israel is secular  Having an official religion  all religions are allowed but only one has state support o England’s official religion is Anglican o Pakistan and Iran (used to be secular) are officially Muslim  Fundamentalist  one official religion based on the code of law and believe in peaceful change o In the Middle East – secular means corrupt and oppressive due to the rule of Haddam Hussein (who’s rule was secular)  Extremists  violent and radical (e.g. Bin Laden) o An important distinction is that extremists are not Fundamentalist o E.g. The United States can be categorized as extremists because our independence was violent (in contrast to Canada, who received their independence peacefully and still have a relation to the Queen)  Many people dislike the U.S. overthrowing Haddam Hussein violently because Iraq become a country born into violence  Freemasonry  (vehicle among any religion)  the instinctive sympathy or fellow feelings between people with something in common  secular  Deist  (e.g. Thomas Jefferson – taught himself ancient Arabic to read the Qur’an) belief in one Supreme Being who does not intervene in the universe. The term was used mainly in the intellectual movement of the 17 and 18 century that accepted the existence of a creator on the basis of reason but rejected belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind  Old Testament: YHWH  The LORD (This does not refer to Jesus because Jesus is not god and is never referred to as god in the testaments)  New Testament: (Greek version) Jesus is referred to as Mar (means teacher, master, Rabbi)  In Greek, he is referred to as “the Lord” (not in capital letters)  Nicaea (325 A.D.)  Council created to make one Christian religion o Resulted in Trinitarian Christianity where God and Jesus had the same substance but are not considered the same people o Aria’s Unitarian were killed  476 A.D.: Decline of the Western Roman Empire  570 A.D. (610 A.D. believed to be the year in which Mohammad received his first revelation from Allah): The prophet Mohammad entered the scene (the professor has the opinion that he entered with the third position on the argument of religion)  1054 (the Great Schism  led to Catholics and Protestants (who split into several different types of Christianity) going to the west  the Muslims and Jews went East)  1096: the Crusades occurred (Muslims and Jews were killed – they lived peacefully beforehand)  There were three great tomb discoveries that shook the foundation of Christianity o 1947 discovery in Qumran: earliest version of the Old Testament writings and drafts that weren’t added into the Old Testament were found o 1945 Nag Hammadi: Found all the gospel’s that didn’t make the cut at the New Testament and is referred to as the “Nostic Gospel”  One particular gospel that was found (Philip’s Gospel) which hinted at a relationship between Mary Magdalene (who is referred to as a prostitute in the current version of the Bible) and Jesus o 1980 Talpiot Tomb: Tomb was found and put away in Israeli Museum  In the tomb, the names James, Jose (Yosa), Simon, Judah, Jesus of Nazareth  next to Jesus’s name was Mariamne e Mara (means Mary the Master) which is a huge contrast to the current belief that Mary was a prostitute September 8, 2016 Class 4 Notes:  Difference between comparative politics and international relations o Comparative Politics looks as:  Political Institutes  Economic systems  People  identity (gender, class, race, religion, geography, partisan)  People around the world is currently alarmed with haw American’s are dealing with the issue with Muslims  e.g., Trump’s wish to ban all Muslims or having them list their names with the government or building a wall o Islam is one of the fastest growing religions  Sunni Islam has already exceeded Catholicism  so there is a big problem in keeping Muslims out since a large majority of the world’s population is Muslim  During 9/11: there were 2 billion Christians and 1.1 billion Muslims  After 9/11: 2.2 billion Christians and 1.9 billion Muslims o The persecution toward Muslims right now is similar to what happened in 1942 with the Japanese after pearl harbor o ½ of Arabs are actually Christians  but all Arabs are believed to be Muslims and thus are all unjustly under suspicion o People around the world see matters in the U.S. getting worse in concern with Muslims Patriotism Nationalism Fascism Love for your country Belief that your country Inferior must go  e.g. We’ve combined religion is superior and had stopping them from and patriotism moral high ground coming in  Obama received a noble peace prize for removing troops from Iraq  If America hadn’t taken the troops out then the U.N. could have asked for troops from the other countries and threaten America to remove troops  Obama toured the world and said he’d remove the troops and he was elected allowing people around the world to breathe a sigh of relief  Marx: believed was can be presented with confrontation  inequality should ne resolved  reduce competition and instead focus on cooperation (winner and losers – loser’s are recycled and can be winners in the future) o If you want to eliminate war, you have to eliminate capitalism o This is based on the age old debate on joining society or joining non-society  Society demands currency (buying food instead of just picking an apple from a tree)  Non-society is based on necessity  through trading  E.g. The Arctic Circle Council  this council was formed when the ice caps melted and found a lot of oil in the area. However, the Inuit’s have lived their for hundreds of years and yet they don’t have a say on what happens to their environment o Factories will be build there, which will lead to pollution, which will destroy the ecosystem o The Arctic Circle offered the Inuit’s jobs in their factories  which is unfavorable for their future September 13, 2016 Class 5 Notes:  Words that can’t be interchanged: o England – region in the United Kingdom o Britain – the name of the island o Great Britain – Scotland, Wales, England o United Kingdom – Ireland, Scotland, Wales, England  1066: William the Conqueror formed the England we know  1603: King James (Scotland King) becomes king of England o Well known for creating and mass producing the English bible  King James was succeeded by his brother King Charles  who was overthrown by Oliver Cromwell (known as the English Civil War 1642 to 1659)  who was succeeded by Charles II  which led to the 1688 to 1689 “Glorious Civil War”  This led to the parliament importing Kings (from the Netherlands) on the agreement that the King listens to them (Parliament is supreme)  1702: What was prevented that created a huge affect on history  France was prevented from merging with Spain  1707: England copies this model later  England combined with Scotland and Wales  became Great Britain, which became a super power of its time  then Ireland joined, creating the United Kingdoms  England had colonies: o United States  independence was gained in 1776  The U.S. tried to expand in 1812 by invading Canada to “regain our lost colonies”. This proved to be a failure leading to America calling it a “tie” and Canada calling it a victory.  U.S. was born in violence with the government often seen as the enemy o Canada  received their official independence in 1982, however, they slowly become more and more independent since 1867 through laws (e.g. west minister act)  The Queen of England is still considered the Queen of Canada  After WW2, the U.N. commanded all countries to de- colonize which led to Canada officially be independent  1.0 Unicameral Constitution (Articles): state legislatures  Congress  President o The people have always elected the representatives for the House of Representatives, while the electoral method of the Senate changed. It used to represent the states as a whole, but it was changed to being elected by the people o Now the system is redundant because the only difference between the House and the Senate is the number of years in office. The previous system was to make sure the states as a whole were okay with legislations past o The founders took the old system with the Senate from the Articles purposefully. The fact that this was changed makes it redundant.  England’s government structure – unitary structure with two houses: o House of Commons: have a 5 year window in office  They pass legislation  There are 650 people total o House of Lords: stays in office for life and have an advisory role  They review the laws and if they find it lacking they send it back to be revised  There are 815 people total o Has universal health care since 1945 o The government had to have more than half of the votes in order to pass legislations (326 people for England). If you don’t have the required amount of votes, then the government rules by coalition  Canada’s government structure – has two houses o House of Commons  Contains 305 people total o Senate  Contain 105 people total  Age of retiring is 75  They can introduce bills but not appropriation o Has had universal healthcare since 1963 o The government had to have more than half of the votes in order to pass legislations (155 people for Canada). If you don’t have the required amount of votes, then the government rules by coalition  In order to be efficient, we must stop thinking the government is the enemy  revise the government structure or policy so it is no longer the enemy  U.S. lacks an advisory role in our government structure and we do not have permanent government officials. Due to this structure, the politicians elected are not longer governing, but rather spending all of their time fundraising for the next elections o The staff of the politician in office are the one’s who read the bills that go through  Partisanship isn’t working anymore  we have to fix the structure o Observe o Analyze o Explain o Prediction o Implement  There is an issue with Universal Healthcare in the U.S. o Food became industrialized in the 1900’s. The first documented heart attack did not occur until 1920 September 15, 2016 Class 6 Notes:  Canada  wrote constitution in 1982 o Canadian’s vote for the party and the party votes for the person  United Kingdom  their constitution is just made of laws o Some people want a constitution (e.g. Gillian Peele) because they are afraid the E.U. could strike down British law (England entered E.U. with this rule set)  America  the constitution is what a person can’t do. We can’t just pass laws  U.K. is 1/5 the population of U.S. and has a debt of $9 trillion dollars  which is equivalent to $ 45 trillion to U.S. o The previous prime minister entered with the concept of Austerity (meaning tighten the budget to reduce debt) o Ireland wants to leave the U.K. and have a vote to decide, but the Catholics want to vote later in order to get their numbers up:  Northern Ireland Conflict: The conflict began between the Protestants and Catholics in the late 1960’s and was deemed as ended with the Belfast “Good Friday” Agreement of 1998. The conflicts that occurred were usually political and nationalistic, fuelled by historical events. The unionists, who are primarily Protestants, want Northern Ireland to remain within the U.K., while Irish nationalists, who are mostly Catholics, want to leave the United Kingdoms and join a United Ireland.  Unionists: 56 | Protestants: 2/3  Austerity: 46 | Catholics: 1/3  How the United States National Debt increased to 19 trillion o Ronald Reagan premised to cut taxes and double defense spending, which lead to the debt increasing from:  1980: I trillion  1984: 2 trillion by the end of his first term  This increased again in Reagan’s second term 1988: 3 trillion  1992: 4 trillion  In 1994  the republicans got the house by signing a contract of America which promised austerity and general promises to create good  the budget was balanced using the contract of America  1996: 5 trillion  2000: 5.5 trillion  this is the year in which George Bush becomes president  2004: 7.4 trillion  this is a result from a rise in defense spending and going to war  2008: 11.5 trillion  this is when Obama came into office promising to decrease the national debt  2012: 15.5 trillion  2016: 20 trillion  this is how much the U.S. will owe by the time Obama leaves office  Those who receive United States government healthcare are over 65, in the military, are federal employees, are under 18, and are poor. The tax payers money pays for these people’s insurance o There was a bill brought in that would extend the government insurance to all people. However 59 out of the 60 votes required for the bill to pass into law. This one senator who voted “no” resulted in there being no national healthcare  the person was Scott Brown (this senator received a very nice check from insurance companies for voting no) o It is popular for private sections to not offer insurance because there is a general belief that there is another person who will take the job for no insurance if there is a demand for healthcare  The UK has had national health insurance since 1945  In Canada, it is up to the states to provide statewide healthcare to the people. Their constitution is about what the provinces should do.  Our taxes are used to fund the food that had additives  subsidizing the wrong type of food  No one is against free trade  they are against free trade agreements  Mexico joined NAPTA in 1994 o President has one 6 year term o They have one dominant party (PRI) who are a part of the deputies and senate o Mexico is thinking of changing their structure to unicameral legislatures and are thinking of proportional legislation September 20 , 2016 Class 7 Notes:  Top level of Democracy is “Universal” Democracy  everyone is equal and no one has a different status o This cannot be emphasized enough: America was founded on democracy NOT Universal Democracy o “Universal Democracy”  self-determination  everyone have the right to decide to join or not Citizens of Representat Full Voting Pays federal US? ion in Rights in Taxes? Congress? Congress? States Yes  1917 Yes Yes Yes Territories Yes  1924 Yes No No (Puerto Rico) Indian Yes  1924 No No Yes reservation District of Yes Yes No Yes Columbia  Hawaii invaded by the U.S. in 1893 and was annexed by the U.S. in 1898 o Hawaiians make up 2% of the population in Hawaii and they are the poorest o When the U.N. forced all countries to give up their colonize  The U.S. decided to have a statehood vote in 1959 for Hawaii  Puerto Ricans used violence because they didn’t want to end up like Hawaii and rebelled in 1950 and in 1954 the Puerto Ricans attacked the government o They were rounded up by Eisenhower and put in jail o This moment was considered the 9/11 of the 1950’s  There were two bills that were passed through the house and killed in the republican controlled senate because 90% of the D.C. residence are democratic o Some people speculate that a primary reason why D.C. isn’t given statehood is because 50% of the population is black, meaning this district is the only state with the majority being black o D.C. has passed many bills through the house and senate in order to fix the numerous problems in D.C. and they don’t pass because D.C. can’t vote for their own legislation since D.C. doesn’t have full voting rights o D.C. can’t vote for legislation and yet they pay taxes  they don’t have a say on the funds o They’re planning to have a referendum on statehood later on this year for D.C. o If you don’t want external conflict, fix internal conflict  Per capita 9,000 in income  if you make universal democracy permanent and don’t fight, then you have a formula for peace  Palestinians pay Israeli tax but receive no voting rights because they are a majority which will result in the Hews no longer having a say in Israeli politics  as a result this current state has occurred because if Palestinians become a separate state  people are worried they will declare war on Israel o Best solution is letting the Palestinian’s determine what they want  The Arab league offers instant recognition to Israel if they resolve the 2 state issue  however, Israel doesn’t want to give up their safety o The Arab, Palestinian, and Israel issue is similar to what happened to France and Germany in the past o Leviticus 24:22  same standard for native-born and foreigners  In Islam: 90% of the people are Sunni and 10% are Shiite (three countries have Shiite majority: Iran, Iraq, and Bahrain) o The Sunni’s who participated in the Ba’ath party were banned from participation politically  which led to the formation of the Isis  Origin of Shiite o Mohammad  Abu Baker  Omar  Uthman  Ali (Assassinated)  When Ali (who was Mohammad’s son in law) took control there was a split: Shia believed the leadership should stay within the Prophets family, while the Sunni’s believed that the leadership should fall to the person who was deemed by the elite of the community to the best abled to lead the community  Hussein (Ali’s son) disagreed with his dad becoming the next leader, and split to become the leader of the Shiite’s  But he was eventually assassinated  Reza Shah was the Shah of Iran (Persia) at 1925 until he was abdicated  In 1935 Persia’s name was changed to Iran  Mohammad Reza Shah (son of Reza Shah) took control 1941 – Shah I  1952 Shah dismissed Mossedegh with Ahmad Qavam leading to the 1953 Iranian coup d’état – Shah II September 22, 2016 Class 8 Notes:  Iran’s government structure o President is head of government  Has to be elected by 51% majority or there will be a runoff o Ayatollah is head of state  Not elected and serves for life  Can strike down decisions by elected president  Similar to the U.S. supreme court who can strike down laws o Legislative Branch  Directly selected and there are seats reserved for other representatives from other religions and cultures (e.g. Jews)  this is despite Iran being a Muslim state  Iran is technically a democracy (a “low level” of democracy)  narrow in our perspective which is similar to how Iran may view our government  With a per capita income of 17,900, Iran is a permanent democracy o How to solve the Iran issue?  Ignore  Engage  no restrictions  Engage  guiding reforms  Levels of democracy is determined by what occurs in the government around the world and what is working  2 kinds of power o Real  codified (based on created codes/laws) o Perceived  power that is not codified (e.g. mafia)  France government structure o Constitution was written in 1958 o President must be directly elected with absolute majority in 2 rounds if needed o Prime Minister is head of government and is elected by President  But the Prime Minister elects cabinet members o Legislature  Upper  senate with 348 seats  electoral college determines senators  Lower  National Assembly with 577 seats  directly elected (Single Member District)  German government structure o Constitution was written in 1949 by others (the U.S. wrote it mostly) o President is a figure head  indirectly elected by state parliamentary o Chancellor (basically Prime Minister)  has more power  indirectly elected by absolute majority of Federal general elections o Legislature  Upper  Federal Council with 69 seats  must vote collectively  Lower  Federal Diet with 631 seats  ½ directly elected (Single Member District) and ½ proportional o German ballot is vote for a person and vote for party  1870: Prussia and France vote  Prussia won  1957  Treaty of Rome  6 countries created free trade organization: European Economic Community  The point was to rebuild and restore their economy o Luxemburg, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands o Led to the creation of the European Union o Free trade and open borders  you can move if you are eligible but it wouldn’t work well unless you have a job or are attending graduate school o The goal is no to ruin their partners but provide competition, which is hugely successful leading to other countries wanting to join o Some saw the treaty as an economic version of NAFTA  Certain countries started a competing Free Trade Agreement called EFTA (7 countries joined)  contained neutral states o Switzerland, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Austria o In 1973  U.K., Ireland, and Denmark joined o Greece joined in 1980 and Spain joined in 1986, then Portugal joined, which led to 12 countries in total o Created a central European government  Judicial (European court of justice and have jurisdiction over all EU members), Legislative, and Executive  European Union Membership  this was a great deal and European countries changed their government structure in order to join the EU to have access to the market o Stable institution, stable institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; o A functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competition and market forces in the EU o The ability to take on and implement effectively the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.


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