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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Megan Alvarado

Exam 1 Study Guide KIN 310

Megan Alvarado
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

Including notes on Intro to Fitness, Training Principles, Energy Systems, Cardiorespiratory fitness, & Exercise Prescription Typed study guide with questions from in class
Physiology Basis of Conditioning
Phil Stanforth
Study Guide
Kinesiology, Fitness, kin310, kin
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Alvarado on Monday February 22, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 310 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Phil Stanforth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Physiology Basis of Conditioning in Kinesiology at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 02/22/16
Understanding Health Related Physical Fitness 1. What are 8 different health reasons to exercise given in the reading? Reduce risk of heart disease Reduce risk of diabetes Reduce risk of obesity Improve muscular strength & endurance Improve mood Reduce risk of Alzheimer’s Increase bone strength Reduce risk of cancers 2. In general, in the United States, who is more inactive a. Men or women b. Whites or African Americans 3. Approximately what % of Americans get at least 30 min of exercise 5 days/week?  ~75­80% 4. What are the 5 components of health related physical fitness?  Cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, musculoskeletal strength,  musculoskeletal endurance, musculoskeletal flexibility Training Principles 1. Why is it important to find the balance between training and recovery? Prevent injury or burn out 2. Define progressive overload. Gradual increase in work intense enough to challenge the systems you want  trained 3. What are the ways you can vary the overload applied? Vary the frequency, intensity, duration, and type of work 4. Which of the variables listed in #3 above has potentially the greatest impact in terms of  improvement of performance?   Intensity 5. Give an example of overload for each system: cardiovascular, muscular strength,  muscular endurance and flexibility. 6. What are the ACSM guidelines for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults?  Cardiovascular: 3x/week, 50% of max aerobic capacity, 20 min continuous  or 10 min bouts, large lower muscles Strength: 2x/week, 1 set, 8­12 reps, machines, free weights, calisthenics Flexibility: 2x/week, moderate intensity, hold 15­30 sec, static or dynamic 7. Define and give an example of the principle of specificity. Training for a specific system for a specific sport/activity by doing specific  exercises, ex: runners running as training rather than lifting weights 8. Will training the cardiovascular system improve muscular strength? No, principle of specificity 9. If two activities have a similar effect, how do you decide which activity is “better” for  improved performance? The activity that you will be performing in the sport 10. What might a workout look like that is designed to train the ATP­PC system in terms of  intensity and duration?   Powerlifting 11. How would a workout designed to train the lactic acid system differ from one targeting  the aerobic systems? Would be higher in intensity 12. What is the principle of reversibility? “Use it or lose it” 13. How soon will you see a measurable loss of fitness with detraining? After 2 weeks 14. What % loss of VO2max will you see after 4­12 weeks of detraining? 50% 15. When will you return to pre­training levels with detraining?  What affects how quickly  you detrain? 10 weeks­8 months depending on fitness level prior to stopping, routine  activity, and how long fit 16. Which will you lose faster if you stop training– muscular strength or muscular  endurance?   Muscular endurance Memorize 1.  Progressive overload 2.  FITT Principle for overload 3.  Specificity of Training 4.  Reversibility 5.  Individual Differences Energy Systems 1. What is energy? What types of energy are there? The ability to do work; mechanical, chemical, heat, light, nuclear, electrical 2. Human movement is performed by taking the chemical energy in food and transforming  it into                   m                   energy. 3. What chemical compound is made from the breakdown of food that allows the cells of  the body to work? ATP­ adenosine triphosphate 4. How does your body produce/manufacture ATP?    Limited supply is stored in muscle cells, breakdown of phosphocreatinine,  and food breakdown 5. What are the systems for ATP production in the body? By phosphagen system, anaerobic respiration, and aerobic respiration 6. How does anaerobic metabolism differ from aerobic metabolism? It doesn’t require oxygen whereas aerobic does 7. How much energy is produced by the ATP­PC system? A little 8. How many seconds of all out exercise will the ATP­PC system support? 3­5 seconds, up to 10­15 9. Give some examples of activities that will use predominately the ATP­PC system. The start of a spring, high jumpers, football players beginning a play 10. What ways can you enhance storage of creatine phosphate in the cells?  What happens if  you deplete those stores? Increase CP in diet, increase muscle mass, replenished stores after 2­5  minutes of recovery 11. How would you describe the ATP­PC system in terms of intensity and duration?  High intensity, short duration 12. What fuel is used to perform anaerobic glycolysis? Carbohydrates 13. What is the end product of anaerobic glycolysis?  Lactic acid 14. Where does your body store glucose? Glycogen? Glucose stored in fat, glycogen stored in liver 15. About how many minutes of high intensity work will anaerobic glycolysis support? Less than 3 minutes 16. What is the limiting factor for anaerobic glycolysis? Lactic acid production 17. What happens when lactic acid builds up in the muscles from high intensity work? Muscles can’t contract 18.  Explain the difference between anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis. Anaerobic doesn’t require oxygen, burns carbs, and produces lactic acid   whereas aerobic requires oxygen, uses carbs and fats, and has low lactate  level 19. What role does protein metabolism play in the production of energy? 5­15% of ATP production, needs oxygen 20. Where does fat enter into aerobic metabolism? Krebs cycle by beta oxidation 21. How much ATP energy is produced from the aerobic metabolism of one mole/unit of fat? Is this more or less than the amount produced by the breakdown of carbohydrate? ~130 ATP, much more than carbs (~38 ATP) 22. What does the statement “fat burns in the flame of carbohydrate” mean?  What are the  implications for nutrition? Carbs are burned before fats are, therefore fats should be decreased in diet 23. Are you producing energy primarily aerobically or anaerobically at rest?  What percent of your calories come from fat?  What percent from carbohydrate? How much lactic acid do you produce? Aerobic, 20­35% of total calories should come from fat, 45­65% from carbs,  low lactate 24. What determines how energy is produced during exercise? Intensity and duration 25. Which of the potential fuel stores in your body have the greatest potential energy? Fat 26. What is the primary fuel during very low intensity exercise?  What happens as you  increase exercise intensity? Fat, increased intensity increases use of carbs as fuel 27. Describe the “crossover” concept in terms of exercise intensity. As intensity increases, your use of carbs increase and your use of fats  decrease 28. Describe the “crossover” concept in terms of exercise duration. As duration increases, your use of fats increase and your use of carbs  decrease 29. What is the energy system continuum?  Describe when each system tends to predominate  from a time standpoint. Generally you use more than one energy system during exercise, but ATP­PC & anaerobic predominate up until about 2 minutes, all three until about 9  minutes, then aerobic until about 135 minutes 30. Are most activities aerobic or anaerobic? Anaerobic Memorize 1.  Adenosine Triphosphate 2.  Anaerobic/Aerobic 3.  Creatine phosphate/phosphocreatine 4.  Anaerobic glycolysis 5.  Aerobic glycolysis 6.  Lactic acid 7.  Beta oxidation 8.  Cross­over concept: intensity 9.  Cross­over concept: duration Cardiorespiratory System 1. What are the components of the cardiovascular system? Heart and blood vessels 2. The purposes of the cardiovascular system are to: a. Deliver __oxygen_____ and __nutrients___ to the muscles and organs b. Remove ___carbon dioxide_____ and other waster products from the muscles  and organs. 3. The heart consists of 4 _chambers___. It is a ___muscle___ which pumps blood. It has  an __electrical______ system which stimulates it to beat. The heart muscle receives its  own blood supply through the __coronary_____ arteries. 4. The upper chambers of the heart are called the __atria___. The lower chambers of the  heart are called the _ventricles______. 5. When blood is pumped out of the lower chambers to the lungs and the rest of the body,  why doesn’t the blood go back up into the atria? Valves make it so there’s a one­way flow 6. The right _ventricle__ pumps blood to the __pulmonary_____ circulation and the left  __ventricle___ pumps blood to the __systemic______ circulation. 7. Blood flows through the heart from the right _atrium__ to the right __ventricle___ to  the _lungs__ to the left __atrium__ to the left _ventricle_ and out the aorta to the  _body__. 8. The sequence of electrical activity in the heart beat is that the _SA (sinoatrial)__ node  fires and the electrical activity spreads through the _atria__ causing the _atria__ to  contract. The electrical activity reach the _AV (atrioventricular)___ node where it rests  briefly, then it passes through the Bundle of His, the right and left bundle branches, and  the Purkinje fibers and to the remainder of the left and right _ventricles___ causing the  left and right __ventricles____ to contract. 9. _Systole________ is the contraction phase of the heart and __diastole__________ is the  relaxation phase of the heart. 10. The __arterial______ system carries oxygen and nutrients to the muscles and organs  while the __venous____ system carries carbon dioxide and waste materials away from  the muscle and organs. 11. The ___arterial__________ system is a high pressure system while the venous system is a __low_________ pressure system. 12. When the left ventricle pumps blood out to the systemic circulation, the blood flows  through large  _arteries________ to smaller  __arterioles_______ to  ___capillaries____  which is where the blood passes through the muscles and gas and  nutrient exchange takes place. The blood then flows through _venules________ to  ___veins__________ and back to the right atria. 13. No _gas______ exchange takes place in the arteries and they are _elastic________ so  they can expand and contract. 14. Blood flows through the capillaries much slower than through the arteries. Capillaries are __thin_______ and porous which allows gases, nutrients, and waste products to  __diffuse______. 15. At rest, most capillaries to the muscles are __closed___________, but during exercise  most capillaries to the muscles are __open________. 16. Define stroke volume. 17. Define cardiac output. 18. Define oxygen uptake. 19. Stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac output all __increase______ during exercise. 20. Systolic blood pressure is the _highest____ pressure obtained during the  _contraction____ phase of the cardiac cycle while diastolic blood press is the  _lowest____ pressure obtained during the __relaxation__ phase of the cardiac cycle. 21. The primary purpose of the respiratory system is to bring __oxygen_____ in from outside the body and to get rid of or exhale _carbon dioxide__. 22. The capacity of the lungs is usually __4___ to __6___ liters and it contains over  __300______ million alveoli. 23. The alveoli are elastic, __thin________, membranous sacs. 24. The alveoli have a very large _capillary___ supply. 25. During gas exchange with the blood, ___oxygen_______ diffuses from the alveoli to the  blood and _carbon dioxide_______ diffuses from the blood to the alveoli. 26. During gas exchange in the capillaries of muscle, _oxygen____ diffuses from the blood  into the muscle and _carbon dioxide____ diffuses from muscle into the blood. 27. As blood enters the lungs, it has a high concentration of __carbon dioxide____ and a  low concentration of __oxygen______. As blood leaves the lungs, it has a high  concentration of _oxygen_____ and a low concentration of _carbon dioxide_____. 28. During inspiration or inhalation, air rushes into the lungs because the atmospheric air  __pressure____ is greater than the __pressure____ inside the lungs. 29. The space in the chest cavity increases during inspiration because the  _diaphragm________ is lowered and the __ribs________ are raised.


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