SPP 101 chapters 5-8
SPP 101 chapters 5-8 SPP 101
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley hughes on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPP 101 at West Chester University of Pennsylvania taught by Supraja Anand in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders in Language at West Chester University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter 5: Definitions Dementia- problems with memory Right hemiplegia- left side damage causing right side paralysis Spontaneous recovery- tendency for aphasic damages to decline in severity during the st 1 6 months post trauma Hemianopia- vision loss in 1 eye Prosopagnosia- failure to recognize familiar faces due to damage to the right hemisphere. Anosognosia- denial of illness. Demonstrated by some people who have damage to the right cerebral hemisphere. Chapter 5: Concepts Functions of brain lobes: Frontal lobe- facilitates cognitive functioning and motor speech Temporal lobe- facilitates speech comprehension Parietal lobe- left parietal lobe facilitates one’s ability to repeat Occipital lobe- facilitates visual functioning Causes of aphasia- stroke, tumor, TBI Know major features of aphasia subtypes: Broca’s Aphasia: speech production impairment. (Motor speech, expressive aphasia) Frontal lobe. Wernicke’s Aphasia: problems with comprehending speech. (Receptive aphasia) Temporal lobe. Anomic Aphasia: word finding difficulty. Temporal- parietal region. Conduction Aphasia: problem with repetition, sequencing. Damage to the group of fibers connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s. Transcortical Aphasia: sensory- can’t understand, good repetition motor: expressive language. Chapter 6: Definitions Resonate- amplification of sounds Indirect laryngoscopy- looking at vocal folds (larynx) with a mirror Laryngectomy- removal of the larynx Ventricular folds- false vocal folds Chapter 6: Concepts Inhalation: Air is drawn into the lunExhalation : Air is expelled from the lungs. Pyramidal system : responsible for controlling voluntary motor movement Extrapyramidal system: responsible for the refinement of movement patterns. Upper Motor Neurons: neurons in the CNS that control the lower motor neurons in the PNS Lower Motor Neurons: conduct electrical signals to muscles Know parts of the larynx: trachea, arytenoid cartridges, thyroid cartilage, epiglottis, and hyroid bone. Abduction: to separate/ ope. Adduction: to bring together/ close/ approxima.ion Vocal abuse behaviors: yelling, excessive talking, clearing throat, coughing, ect. Esophageal speech: speech used by persons who have had a laryngectomy that requires air to be injected into the esophagus Tracheoesophageal speech: speech used by persons who have had a laryngectomy in which air passes from the lungs into the esophagus through a small opening in the wall that separates the trachea from the esophagus Myasthenia gravis: neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness Muscular dystrophy: neuromuscular disorder of genetic origin in which muscle weakness results from muscle abnormality. Chapter 7: Definitions Anoxia: oxygen deprivation resulting in destruction of brain cells. Prosody: variations in stress, pitch, and rhythms of speech that carry meaning. Myofunctional therapy: therapy intended to eliminate tongue thrusting. Multiple sclerosis: neurological disorder that affects the auditory nerves and motor and sensory abilities. Bolus: the rounded mass of food formed through chewing and saliva prior to swallowing. Aspiration : food or liquid entering the a.rway Dysarthria: neuromuscular disorders that prevent structures within the vocal tract, particularly the oral cavity, from moving properly to produce speech sounds. Chapter 7: Concepts Spasticity : muscles are continuously contracted due to a lesion in the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems. Flaccidity: paralysis or weakness of muscle contraction resulting from damage to muscle fibers, myoneural junctions, or lower motor neurons. Three phases of swallowing: Oral phase- chewing prepares the food for swallowing Pharyngeal phase- tongue pushes the bolus to the back of the mouth. This triggers the swallowing reflex to cause the food to pass through the pharyngeal cavity to the entrance of the esophagus. Then, the epiglottis closes tightly to prevent aspiration. Esophageal phase- the bolus enters the esophagus and flows through it to the stomach. Chapter 8: Definitions Place of articulation Bilabials: sound produced with closure of the lips. Labio-dentals: sound produced with the upper teeth placed on the lower lip. Lingua-dentals: sound produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth. Lingua-alveolars: sound produced with the tongue against the alveolar ridge. Palatals: sound produced with the tongue against the hard palate. Velars: sound produced with the tongue against the velum. Glottals: sound made with an open glottis. Manner of articulation Plosive: a consonant sound that cannot be sustained. Continuant: a speech sounds that can be sustained. /s/, /f/, /a/. All vowel sounds are continuants. Nasal: sounds are produced by opening the velopharyngeal port to allow some air to resonate in the nasal cavity. Liquid: sounds are produced by air passing along one or both sides of the tongue such as /l/ in line and /r/ in rain. Fricative: sounds produced by forcing air through a narrow opening in a comparatively prolonged way (/s/ in sun) Affricates: produced by narrowing an opening for the air to pass through, in a short burst (/tf/ in chair) Glides: semi-vowels that include the /j/ sound in yes and /w/ in well. Phonological processes: ways children below the age of 3.5 years sometimes simplify their production of words. Glossectomy: surgical removal of a portion of the tongue. Cleft palate: congenital disorder in which there is an opening in the hard palate, soft palate, or both. Biofeedback: process in which a device is used to give clients feedback about whether they are making movements (ex. producing speech sounds) correctly Chapter 8: Concepts Phonological disorders : language disorder in which sound substitutions and omissions result from lack of awareness of the phonemes that words contain. Articulation disorders: speech sound errors such as omitting or substituting speech sounds, or producing a speech sound in a distorted manner. Management: the long-term goal for a client who has an articulation or phonological disorder. To correct the clients phonological disorder or articulation error(s) To increase the intelligibility of the client’s speech To augment the clients ability to communicate
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