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Psychology Test 1 Study Guide

by: Shanna Beyer

Psychology Test 1 Study Guide PSYC 1030

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Psychlogy > PSYC 1030 > Psychology Test 1 Study Guide
Shanna Beyer
University of Memphis
GPA 3.9

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Study guide covering weeks 1-5
General Psychology
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1030 at University of Memphis taught by Freels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
PSYCHOLOGY TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE General Psychology Research Studies - claim without causation
 - Students who attend class everyday make the best grades.
 - I have proven that there are no trees with purple leaves
 - By having people on a high carb diet, I caused them to lose weight Research Methods - 1. scientific method
 - 2. experimental design
 - 3. ethical outcome/concerns *Scientific Method is a model for thinking about a research question that one wishes to answer*
 - question
 - define the problem - propose a hypothesis - building a theory
 - draw conclusions Independant Variable: the variable manipulated by the researcher
 Dependent Variable: the variable that has outcome measured in relation to the independent variable
 Internal Validity: how well the researcher has controlled for extraneous variables Extraneous Variables: the variable that the researcher has no control over Operational Definition: defined in a way that we can use it in terms of measurements Threats to Internal Validity - attrition
 - diffusion- rivalry
 - bias
 - history
 - maturation Confounding Variable: a variable outside of the experimenter’s control that actually affects the results obtained in an experiment    2 groups (at least): 1. control- serves as the baseline 2. experiment- receives intervention * To minimize threats, good research has to be generalized* Selection Bias: the selection of data or individuals that prevent randomization from occurring Sampling Bias: the bias that preludes the study population from properly representing that population at large
 *Is said to occur at any time when there was not an equal opportunity for every member of the population to participate*
 Self-Selection: the participants can enroll themselves
 Time-Interval Bias: when a study is not allowed to run through completion
 *Sometimes unavoidable...ethics play a roll. Researchers sometimes stop studies early for other reasons though they think that have significant results*
 Exposure: comes into play with clinical research
 Indication Bias: people at a high risk for a disease are treated for some conditions and it appears that treatment is causing it Clinical Susceptibility: involves treatment for one disease Data Bias: occurs after experimentation is done and can be a huge ethical concern 2 types: 1. specifically picking data that is intended to support your viewpoint
 2. researchers discard outliers or make up bad data on arbitrary grounds later on to make the experiment look better Data Attrition: researchers throw out data already collected from individuals who later chose to drop out Attrition: people drop out of the study
 History: events outside of the study that affect the participant to the point that it affects the reliability of the data
 Maturation: events internal within a participation that cause a change to the point that it affects that reliability of the data (ex. natural disaster, fatigue, etc)
 Instrumentation: any test, survey, system, report, etc used to gather data from individuals (ex. priming, embarrassment) Psychology week 2 Repeated Testing: practice makes perfect
 reliability: refers to the consistency of an assessment *3 types: 1)test-retest
 2) alternate forms 3) internal consistency *Should have similar averages* -Test-retest: give the 2 tests separated by a large amount of time
 -Alternate Forms: create slightly different forms of the same test
 -Internal Consistency: tests the reliability by giving the 2 halves of the teste separately -Validity: does the test do a good job of what it is supposed to test *3 types: 1)Construct 2)content 3) Criterion
 -construct validity: how well the test is measuring the single construct that it was designed to measure
 -content validity: how well a test captures all aspects of the information being tested - criterion validity: concurrent, predictable; a measure can be related to an outcome -predictive validity: refers to how well a test predicts a certain measure -diffusion: lines between the experiment and control groups get blurred
 -rivalry: the control group accidentally or purposefully alters their performance and fails to give an accurate baseline
 *2 types of blinding: 1)single-blind 2) double-blind -Experimenter Bias: experimenter influences the results
 *2 Types of Research: 1) Observational research: can’t prove cause and effect but can still be useful to establish associations between variables
 2) Experimental research: the more common of the 2 and is important to establish causal relationships Types of Observational Research - Case study: observing a small group or an individual; group is observed closely- obtain great details about specific behavior
 - useful to study rare conditions
 - not generalizable - expensive - persons are unique and can be too atypical
 - survey method: involves interviewing people or giving them questionnaires - research has to convert into data
 - close-ended: easiest to convert into useful data but limited to the amountopen-minded: present a lot of information but difficult to convert into data - archival method: looking through data that has been previously collected to describe a relationship between variables ▯ - doesn't involve subject matter *Correlation not causation* Types of Experimental Research - random assignment of people in different groups , quasi-experiment researches issues regarding differences in causes *Goal is to establish causation*
 all have random assignments as well as a control of some sorts - Randomized Control Trials: the standard experimental design. Participants are split into 2 groups - well controlled
 - easy to blind
 - may have a high dropout rate
 - may be unethical to deprive people of medicine - Pretest-Posttest:can be done without a control group because the pretest can serve as the baseline to compare to the interventions
 - pre/posttest allows us to see if the intervention worked
 - can be vulnerable with small groups - - practice could affect the outcome for the differences observed spacing the test apart helps Psychology Week 2 continued... Crossover Design: the participant will at some point be in the control and experimental group - variation of randomized control trials
 - very common
 - can use less participants - longer study Solomon four-group: a mixture of RCTs who want to cover the weaknesses of each type. - minimizes almost all threats to validity
 - complex
 - expensive and multiple participants Factorial Design: reserved for researches who wish to multitask, testing IVs simultaneously - 2-variable interactions - similar to Solomon four-group Reporting Results - researchers want to achieve specific results 
 - alpha<.05orp<.05 
 - .05x100%=5% 
 - p-value is the chance that the researcher just got lucky 
 Ethical Concerns 
 - IRB that evaluates experimental protocols for human beings 
 - IACUC does the same for animals 
 - Informed Consent: A critical concept when discussing research projects of any kind with 
 humans. It is a voluntary agreement signed by the participant to participate. The researcher ensures that the participant has the most complete information possible to make a decision - a process, not statistics
 - by continuing the study, consent continues 
 - can withdraw if they want
 - lengthy, lists test types, risks, etc
 - participants have the right to voluntary participation, confidentiality, and withdraw 
 Psychology Notes Week 3 Ethical concerns continued...
 - honesty is important
 - remain objective by declaring conflicts of interest animal vs. human research Critical Thinking: reflecting upon information being presented and assess it - What are the claims? Implications?
 - How are the claims stated? Do they make sense?
 - Is there another explanation? - What is the quality of the evidence? Interpretation: understanding the information to the level that you could pass it on to others Assessment: connecting the information to determine the main idea being communicated while also determining the veracity of the information
 Efficiency: not only understanding the information, but also knowing which portions of the information are important to determine the hypothesis Evaluation: Determine whether the intended message is a good one and strongly supported 1. Authority or claimed expertise DOES NOT make the idea true on its own
 2. There are very few ideas in this world that transcend the need for logical analysis and review
 3. Critical thinking requires an open mind Construct: concepts that we use to help explain and categorize things but aren’t real - can differ from person to person Learning: relatively permanent change that comes from experience
 2 types of conditioning: classical (pairs a reflex with a stimuli), operant (change consequence to change behavior)
 *Conditioning is a form of learning, it is also basis of all behavior (we reward behavior)* Spatial navigation: how we find our way around
 Cognitive Map: mental representation of an area that helps us choose the best path Latent Learning: learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement
 Rate learning: tales place through repetition and memorization
 Discovery Learning: based on insight and understanding
 Modeling: observational learning (copying someone), inherent in al humans ▯ Classical conditioning: Directs
 (The event Behavior Motivates Consequence (reward or not) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ before behavior)
 Acquisition: the period in conditioning during which a response is strengthened High order Conditioning: changing the conditioned stimulus fir another Extinction: the weakening of a learned response by uncoupling
 Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a response thought to be extinguished - Fears are a great example of human behaviors that have been conditioned - loud noises
 - falling Phobias? Do innate fears exist?
 Phobia: strong fear when there is no real danger
 Vicarious classical conditioning: classical conditioning that can be brought about just by observing others Operant Conditioning: behavior equals rewards and consequences. Rewards mean behavior is more likely. Consequence means behavior is less likely. - consequence driven
 - law of effect
 - voluntary actions, not reflexes Reinforcers: anything that makes it more likely for a behavior to be repeated Punishments: anything that makes it less likely for a behavior to be repeated - timing is a crucial issue to consider when discussing operant conditioning - reinforcers work much better when they are presented immediately after the behavior Shaping: gradually molding responses to a pattern - extinction is similar as well, uncoupling Positive and Negative reinforcement/ punishment Positive Reinforcement: providing a reward after the desirable behavior occurs Negative Reinforcement: removing a consequence after a desirable behavior occurs Positive Punishment: the response is followed by a negative consequence
 Negative Punishment: response is followed by the removal of a reward Psychology Notes Week 4 Primary Reinforcers: reinforcers that aren’t learned (basic needs)
 Secondary Reinforcers: (learned) they often become reinforcers by being paired with primary reinforcers
 Token Reinforcers: specialized secondary reinforcers
 Social Reinforcers: embarrassment/humor
 Partial Reinforcers: doesn’t always present the reward - scheduling is important -FR: fixed ratio -VR: variable ratio
 -FI: fixed interval
 -VI: variable ratio Interval is based on time Chapter 8: Cognition, Learning, Creativity, Intelligence Cognition: psychological term for thinking. How we process information 2 types of processing: . experiential: passive and automatic, reflex 
 2. reflective: active and controlled, effort 
 Images: picture-like representations
 Concepts: generalized ideas concerning related objects
 Language: words or symbols and rules for combining them that help with communication 3 types of concepts: . conjunctive: defined by at least 2 features 
 2. relational: defined by the relationship between the features of the object 
 3. disjunctive: have one of several possible features 
 4. prototype: idea model of a concept 
 - social stereotypes: every example of a concept acts the same - all-or-nothing thinking 
 3 types of languages: . semantics: study of meanings in words and languages 
 2. denotative: dictionary meaning 
 3. connotative: feeling 
 - language and thought are tightly linked 
 Problem Solving:
 1.Heuristic: any strategy or technique that helps solve a problem 2.Insight: reorganization of the problem hat helps you solve it Selective Encoding: use only what is necessary
 Selective Combination: bringing together seemingly unrelated information Selective Comparison: comparing new problems with previous information Fixation: tendency to repeat incorrect solutions
 Functional Fixation: inability of people to consider new uses of familiar things ▯ - Inductive vs. Deductive: inductive is going from specific to general, deductive is from general to specific - Logical vs. Illogical: logical is making conclusions based on explicit rules, illogical is intuitive, 
 emotional, or personal 
 - Divergent vs. Convergent: divergent develops many possibilities from one starting point, 
 convergent is the opposite 
 Fluency: the number of suggestions made
 Flexibility: the number of times you shift from a type of use to another Originality: how uncommon your ideas are 
 5 stages of creative thought:
 1. orientation: defining the problem
 2. preparation: gathering all information possible
 3. incubation: no solutions but started the thinking process 4. illumination: sudden insight
 5. verification: test insight to ensure it works 
 Intuition: impulsive, instinctive thoughts
 Flaws: representativeness, underlying odds, framing, emotions 
 Representativeness: an outcome is more likely than it really is Underlying Odds: ignore the underlying probability of events Framing: stating the problem in slightly different ways Emotions: think differently when emotional 
 Intelligence: capacity to act purposefully or think rationally - How do we measure intelligence? 
 IQ Tests: mental age
 -SB5 IQ= actual age X 100 -Wechsler 
 SB5- based on the 5 area of intelligence: . 1 fluid reasoning: problem solving 
 2. knowledge: basic information 
 3. quantitative reasoning: basic math, numbers 
 4. visuospatial processing: puzzles 
 5. working memory: short-term memory 
 Wechsler- based on 4 factors 
 ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 1. 2. 3. 4. - - - working memory: short-term memory
 verbal comprehension: relationship between words perceptual reasoning: puzzles
 processing speed: time spent on the test mentally gifted = IQ of 140 (less than .5%)
 intellectual disability generally begins to be diagnosed at IQ below 70 causes of intellectual disability: - genetic abnormalities
 - teratogens
 - birth injuries - postnatal problems Chapter 7: Memory Memory: mental system for retrieving information and past experiences Encoding: manipulating information into a form that can be remembered Storage: holding information
 Retrieval: recalling the information Short-term Memory: holds a small amount of specific information in awareness for about 12 seconds - working memory is more specific
 Long-term Memory: permanent storage of information - encoding differences = STM uses sound. LTM uses meaning - limit of 7 pieces (plus, minus 2)
 - chunking helps, can extend your limitations - Maintenance rehearsal
 - Rote Rehearsal
 - Elaborative Processing LTM: - easy to plant false information 
 - minds like to fill in gaps 
 - advertisements play into this
 - comes up too often in police work 
 Memory Models:
 - current thought in everything is linked
 - speed depends on how tight the linkage is
 - Redintegration: flashbacks
 - elaborative processing is best bet to involve LTM 
 Psychology Week 5 LTM types: procedural- skill declarative- facts declarative is split into semantic and episodic - episodic: memories - semantic: useful building blocks for society Recall vs. Recognition Recall: term for retrieving information or facts Recognition: identify previously learned information serial position effect recognition is superior to recall can be more similar to distractions false eyewitness identification if distractions are too similar or too different, it can affect recognition Relearning: learn something quicker than before most sensitive test of memory Explicit vs. Implicit Explicit Memory: memories that we are aware of and consciously retrieve Implicit Memory: memories that we don’t remember Priming: makes memory retrieval with cues cue-dependent forgetting State-Dependent Learning: influenced by physical state Interference: new memories interfere with the retrieval of old ones Proactive Interference: old learning interferes with new Suppression vs. Repression Suppression: actively trying to put things out of your mind Repression: mind’s attempt to protect itself from bad memories Amnesia retrograde: can’t remember who they are, events, etc anterograde: can’t convert memories into long-term


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