Anthropology 1006 midterm Study Guide
Anthropology 1006 midterm Study Guide Anthropology 1006
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Anthropology 1006.01 Study Guide, MidTerm Exam Spring, 2013 Chapter 1: What is Anthropology What is Anthropology The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors across time and space 2 dimensions academic & applied o applied application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to assess, and solve contemporary social problems adaptation, variation, and change Human diversity humans are among the world’s most creative, adaptable, and flexible animals Subdisciplines of Anthropology Physical Anthropology o Study of human biological variation (diversity) in time and space Human evolution Human genetics Human growth and development Are we still evolving? Yes and faster than ever b/c of mutations in genes and more natural selections from those mutations Ex: we drink milk; losing our wisdom teeth; resisting diseases; brains are shrinking; blue eyes Human biological plasticity (the body’s ability to change as it copes with stresses (heat, cold, and altitude) Primatology biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of monkeys and apes Archaeology o Studies material remains in order to describe, reconstruct and explain human behavior over time and space o Often applied to extinct cultures o Prehistoric archaeology many have no written records o Historical Archaeology study of material remains from past societies that also left behind some form of written documentation o Underwater archaeology maritime/nautical & submerged sites Linguistic Anthropology o Primate language signs, calls o Origin of language, when, why, how o Comparative/historical linguistics concerned with comparing languages in order to establish their historical relatedness and nature and direction of language change Cultural Anthropology o Study of human society and culture describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and culture differences and similarities Holistic studies the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture Ethnography provides a detailed account of a particular community, society or culture Ethnology examines, interprets, analyzes and compares the results of ethnography Chapter 2: Culture What is culture traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them Characteristics/aspects of culture (i.e. shared, learned, uses symbols, etc.) learned NOT biological process of learning culture is enculturation shared based on symbol o symbol is something that stands for something else o ex: language, money, art integrated holism, all aspects of a culture are related to one another and to truly understand a culture, one must learn about all of its parts dynamic cultures interact and change Enculturation gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture etc Cultural relativism the principle that an individual person’s beliefs and activities should be understood by others in terms of that individuals own culture Ethnocentrism judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture Mechanisms of culture change Diffusion, acculturation, independent invention Chapter 4 Studying the Past (Ethics: informed consent people’s agreements to take part in research after they have been fully informed about its purpose, nature, procedures, and potential impact; anthropologists should not exploit individuals, groups, animals, cultural or biological materials) Paleoanthropology study of hominid and human life through the fossil record Hominid: taxonomic family that includes humans and African apes and their immediate ancestors Paleontology Study of ancient life through fossil record Archaeology Artifact patterns reflect human behaviors Reconstruction of past life ways from material remains associated with past societies and culturesinfers human behaviors Physical Anthropology Explained above in chapter 1 Bone biology measurements and examination of human skeletal remains Paleopathology study of disease and injury in skeletons Geology Science comprising the study of solid earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which it evolves Stratigraphy rock layers and layering; oldest layers on bottom, youngest on top Palynology study of ancient plants and environments through extraction and analysis of pollen samples Survey and Excavation Chronology Relative Dating – stratigraphy Dating technique but you don’t have an exact date Stratigraphy is the layers of earth, how we determine how old things are Absolute Dating – radiometric techniques (radiocarbon, potassium argon, dendrochronology, thermoluinessence) Type of material that could be dated and the date ranges Radiocarbon test organic remains, 250bp40,000bp (before present) Potassium argon inorganic, volcanic layer 250,000bpbillion years Dendrochronology tree ring dating Ex: Found this volcanic rock that’s 1 billion years old, which dating technique is the best one? Potassium argon Taphonomy Study of the processes that affect the remains of dead animals Fossilization Conditions under which fossils are found Scavenging, butchering, processing Chapter 5: Evolution & Genetics Cultural adaptation humans manipulate our artifacts and behavior in response to environmental conditions Evolution species arise from others through a long and gradual process of transformation or descent with modification (speciation) (macroevolution) individuals do NOT evolve, populations do gene pool all alleles, genes, chromosomes within a breeding population Catastrophism catastrophes that happened, ex: noahs ark, a lot of these animals were dead so god created new ones Creationism before we had idea of evolution people turned to the bible. Genisis world started 6,000 years ago and god made humans how they are today. Uniformitarianism understanding the past based on how we know things happen in the present Speciation descent with modification Punctuated Equilibrium long time where species stay the same, then all of a sudden theres a big leap in the evolutionary change. Maybe because of a big environmental shift Natural Selection survival of the fitness (reproductive advantage) Operates when there is competition for food, space, and mates Differential reproductive success must be variation within population Directional Natural Selection adaptation through natural selection Descent with Modification (microevolution) small changes that happen over time. Ex: bird beaks, color of the moths changing Evolution organisms evolving, natural selection over time Adaptation is key to evolution Phenotype physical display of one’s genotype. Ex: brown hair, blue eyes natural selection only acts on phenotypes Genotype organisms hereditary makeup alleles a variant of a particular gene (locus on chromosome that determines a particular trait) environment works on genotype to build phenotype Mechanisms of genetic evolution (natural selection, gene flow, genetic drift) Gene flow flow of genetic material between a population of the same species o Tends to prevent speciation Genetic drift change in allele frequency based on chance, not natural selection o Founder effect new and isolated environment is invaded by only a few members of a species o Population bottleneck o Sharp loss of genetic variation compared to parent population Macroevolution (speciation) enough small changes happen that it ends up diverging into 2 different species when gene flow stops you get a new species Punctuated Equilibrium long periods of stasis may be interrupted by evolutionary leaps Reproductive isolation when gene flow is interrupted and reproductive isolation occurs speciation occurs species group of related organisms whose members can interbreed to produce offspring that live and reproduce geographic boundaries dividing a population so they can’t reproduce, eventually they will become different species. Can be behavioral reproductive isolation Sources of genetic variation Mutation most important o Any change in the genes chemical organization or in the chromosome o random sexual reproduction recombination of genetic traits of parents crossing over chromosomes exchange segments of DNA IMPORTANT POINTS: changing environments play a crucial role in triggering new adaptations o physical (bipedalism) o behavioral (stone tools, hunting) new adaptation genetic isolation genetic isolation speciation Chapter 7: The Primates Primate Primatology study of primates fossil and living apes, monkey, and prosimians including their behavior and social life prosimians lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers o very primitive, nocturnal, insectivores monkeys: o old world baboons, macaques o new world prehensile tail Anthropoids (monkeys, apes, humans) grasping smell to sight sight is more important nose to hand brain complexity memory, thought, and association parental investment sociality primates tend to be more social animals Taxonomy assignment to categories according to their relationship and resemblance similaties used to assign organisms to the same taxon are called homologies similar traits that arise if species experience similar adaptive forces and adapt to them in different ways are analogies (analogies are produced form convergent evolution) Hominoids ( Great Apes & Humans) gorillas, chimpanzees Primate characteristics Increase reliance on sight Decrease reliance on smell A long infant dependency Primitive body plan 22.214.171.124 dental pattern grasping hands and feet manipulation, locomotion, nails not claws, sensory pads on fingers, length & grasping ability vary Human Primates terrestrial (ground dwelling) anatomy and physiology reflect arboreal heritage, evolutionary relationships differences in degree rather than kind Ape characteristics More closely related to humans Larger body size Larger brain Longer life span Bigger birth intervals Upright posture, bipedal Shorter muzzle Don’t have a tail Brachiation “hand over hand” Behavioral primate traits Behavior is essential to understanding primate complex Social organisms o More access to mates, more eyes to find food, more eyes to spot predators, more competition Learned behavior o Protocultural Not culture Adaptive Radiation Rapid increase in the number of related species following a change in their environment Miocene first true apes Expansion into Europe, asia, east Africa 235 mya no tail Evolution of Apes Asian/African split Asia retained unbroken forests organutans, gibbons Africa o Island or residual forests chimps, gorillas o Plains or savannas hominins Chapter 8: Early Hominins Hominin human What makes us human? o Ability to walk upright o Thicker molar enamel, reduced canines, larger molars in relation to other teeth Adaptation to savanna tough, gritty, and fibrous vegetation Ape vs humans U shape vs Parabola Thin vs thick enamel Overall reduction in size of teeth o Long period of child dependency o Large brains in relation to body size Larger brains demand larger birth canal, but bipedalism limits size of canal (solution is birth of immature brain growth and more dependent children) o Depend on culture, through spoken languge Hominid includes fossil and living humans Gorilla Chimp human Bipedalism Theories: o Feeding adaptation posture, HIGH POSSIBILITY o Thermoregulation maintenance of body temperature, HIGH POSSIBILITY o Freeing of hands tools, NO o East side story adaptation to life amid tall grasses, NO o Carrying food to share with group, NO Major changes in pelvis, knee, foot Secondary curve of spine Foramen magnum Relative length of limbs Adaptative advantages of bipedalism Feeding adaptation: posture allows efficient harvesting of fruit from small trees Erect posture allowed hominins to keep cool Bipedal locomotion leaves hands free to carry things Hominins – know dates, adaptation/environment and why they are important for understanding human evolution o A lot found in africa o Ardipithecus 5.84.4 million years ago, oldest one discovered so far, first known hominin, very ape like o Australopithecines Genus: 4.2 – 2.0 mya small bodied smaller canines, thick enamel long arms compared to legs bipedal but still climbing curved phalanges Hominin community diverges 4.0 mya Adaptive radiation to savanna environments Over next 2 mya 57 species of relatively small brained bipedal hominins lived in east and south Africa o Australopithecis anamensis 4.2 mya in Kenya lower jaw is ape like reduced canines, large molars no stone tools bipedalism well developed may be ancestral to A. Afarensis o Australopithecus afarensis Ethiopia and Tanzania “Lucy” 3.0 – 3.8 mya small about 3ft small brain bipedal consider ancestral to all later australopithecines (and humans) Many fossils Better picture Variation through the population sexual dimorphism “first family” living in groups o Australopithecus africanus 1 hominin fossil discovered in Africa (dr. Raymond dart) 1925 south Africa 3.5 years at death foramen magnum under skull 3.02.0 mya bipedal, ground dweller, time in trees to feed and avoid predators no stone tools Genus Paranthropus (robust) o Early 2.5 mya o Lasts until 1.2 mya o Chewing machine huge molars, very small canines, eating tough foods o Possibly used digging tools o East Africa Australopithecus robustus/bosei o Homo habilis o Homo Erectus Morphological and adaptive differences between gracile and robust forms Oldowan tools First evidence of tool use 2.6 mya Chapter 9: The Genus Homo Homo habilis/rudolfensis (for purposes of the exam consider them the same) H. Habilis o 2.3 – 1.8 mya o small size and primitive proportions H. Rudolfensis o 1.9 mya o large brain o large back teeth Adaptive strategies of H. erectus/ergaster (for purposes of this question consider them the same) that allowed them to expand beyond Africa gathering and hunting endurance running? Tall, narrow body, box ankle, high arches, large joint surfaces Evolution and expansion of H. Erectus (Out of Africa I) 1.8 mya Differences in morphology and adaptation between H. habilis & H. erectus/ergaster (for purposes of this question consider erectus and ergaster the same) Acheulian stone tool technology/tradition – associated with H. Herectus/ergaster (for the purpose of this question n consider them the same) Stone tools at Dmanisi o Flakes o Cores o NO handaxes o Migrated before they were invented? MultiRegional evolution theory vs. replacement theory Anatomically Modern Humans (AMHs) Multiregional evolution: o Proposes human evolutionary advances were more widespread o H. Erectus always maintained relations with neighbors interbreeding o Linked by gene flow humans in every region would share beneficial mutations o Fossil evidence indicates certain regional features dating back 500 kya shared by living populations Out of Africa o Based on molecular, fossil, and archaeological evidence o Small group arose recently in one place Africa o Replaced the native and more archaic populations of all other regions Archaic Home Sapiens Neanderthals Discovered 1856 Germany Inhabited Europe from 13030 kya Very large browridge Thick walled skull Homo neanderthalensis o Heavy, chinless jaw o Large brain o Long low cranium no forehead
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