Vertebrate Biology 3030 Final exam review Part 2
Vertebrate Biology 3030 Final exam review Part 2 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by joseph Garand on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 81463 - BIOL 3030 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Richard W. Blob in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Lecture 24 Earliest primates- adapiformes o Most diverse primates o Long snout, herbivore teeth o Primates distinguished by Opposable thumb for grasping, nails, more arm mobility Increased brain and vision capacity (frontal eyes overlapping for 3D view) Primate phylogeny Human evolution o Lemurs, lories, tariers, basal prosimians o Lemurs Long snout and tail Slit snaped nostril Long middle finger for digging o Lories Branch walker Slit nostril Stubby tail o Tarsiers Small body, long tail Long hind legs, vertical clinger and leaper Nose not damp Glandular, round nostril Sister taxa to anthropoids o Anthropoids Features related to dealing with grinding fiber in plants Broader cheek teeth Platyrrhines New world monkey Cebids (tamarins, marmosets)- small, eat fruit and gum, no prehensile tail Atelids (spider and howler monkey)- prehensile tail Catarrhines Old world monkeys, apes, humans rd Nostrils close, large in size, lose 3 premolar Old world monkeys, drills, baboons, macaque- short, not prehensile tail Homonoids- apes and us Homonoids o No external tail o Sinuses o Chest flatter and broader, shoulder blade shifts to back (balance when upright) o Gibbon brachiators- swings with arms o Orangutan- arboreal, solitary, big o Gorilla- eats leaves, terrestrial, knuckle walk, social o Chimpanzee- knuckle walk, omnivore o Hominins- terrestrial, social o Hominins vs apes Hominins are bipedal Changes in jaws and teeth Hominins have bigger brain o Hominin skeleton Longer, more slender femur Foot flat platform, no opposable big toe Pelvis short, bowl shaped to support gut Spine s- shaped and short Arms shortened Foramen magnun points down not backwards so skull on top of head o Bipedalism in fossil hominins Tibia broader across than chimps (tips curve toward shaft) Spongy bone to absorb shock Big cavity in humerous lost (don’t lock elbow when knuckle walking) Toe articulation cants up (chimp cants down for curled grasping) Groove for obturator externus on femur neck (pressure from bipedalism) Evolved to free hands for other tasks o Hominin jaws and teeth changes Small tetth Reduction in face prjection o Hominin diversity Australopithecines Features for diet o Large molars, premolars, skull crests for jaw muscles Homo Brain size increase o Limited by baby head size o Rapid brain growth after birth Young very altrical After move from arboreal habitats Monogony and long postreproductive life Tool making due to brain size enlagement Homo neanderthalensis o Larger brain than sapiens o Stockier for cold climate o 50yr life o Strong brow, little chin o Englarged hypoglossal nerve to tongue o Evidence of culture (dead, pendants) o Extinction Suffered when glaciers melted and climate changed H. sapiens drove out Hybridization and intermixing Homo sapiens o African origin o Big chin, weak brow o Englarde hypoglossal nerve to tongue and shift in larynx position for speech o culture hominin evolution o tool use predates increase in brain size (natural selection) o control use of fire (increase food, digestion, reduce infection, warmth and gathering) o clothing Lecture 25 vertebrate evolution patterns o diversity in form, function, and species o complexity in organ systems and organizational heirarchy o organized complexity common structural and developmental groundplan all have vertebrae all structures from particular germ layers heirachy of relationships (inherited traits from ancestors) o matches between form and function Features often represent adaptions to demands Convergent evolution- environment poses some of strongest selection pressures o Functional consequences of body size Size afects almost all aspects of biology Verts generally nig animals so work differently than others (closed circulation) More robust skeleton in larger mammals Less vigorous activity in larger verts o Limits to body plan and adaption consequences Adaptions impose limits as well as new opportunities Pouch and altrical young in marsupials Endotherm body shapes minimize surface area Ectotherms can be long tubular or flat o Verts have evolved thru time Fossil records of remarkable changes through evolution Birds from theropods Whales from limbed ungulates Mammilian middle ear bones from jaw bones Tetrapod evolution o Evolution can act on trait development as well as traits themselves Polydactyl fossils (5 digits no ancestral) Truncation of development for 5 digits o Weird stuff in past for range of form Horns, neural spines o Major extinctions shape diversity Survival not necissarily tied to local adaption (big stuff die regardless) Extinctions of some may be opportunities for others Dinos at end of permian, mammals at end of crestaceous Pleistocene extinctions Last cycle of warming and cooling ended 11,000 YBP Between 12,000 and 10,000 YBP massive death of large mammals (small increase diversity) Extinctions geographically (N/S amer and australia hit hard) Possible factors (most likely in concert with each other) o Overkill by early humans Large anmals good food Europe few extinctions- if climate, should have been hit hard o Climate change (glaciers lost) American extinctions wrong geographic order for hunting Move N to S, extinctions S to N o Role and impact of humans on diversity Humans primates with long fossil record and clear evolution relationships Knowledge as tool to understand bodies and life Hunting and overharvestinf Habitat destrution and pollution Most extinctions in past 500 years 26% of mammals, 14% of birds endangered Behavior can help stem tide of extinctions Works Cited Blob, Richard. "Vertebrate Biology (BIOL 3030)." Lecture Powerpoints. Brackett Hall 100, Clemson. 03 Dec. 2015. Lecture.
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