Biochemistry Xam 2 Notes Pt.1 + problems explained
Biochemistry Xam 2 Notes Pt.1 + problems explained 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by joseph Garand on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 85034 - BCHM 3050 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Srikripa Chandrasekaran in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Exam 2 Study Guide CH7: DNA Overview 1. Nucleic Acids Contain: Nitrogenous base, pentose sugar, and phosphate Purines -fused 6 member and 5 member rings -A and G Pyrimidine’s -T and C -Thymine is the only one with a methyl group 2. Nucleosides Nitrogenous base attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) Forms a -glycocitic bond Ribonucleotides -Have 2 OH group at the bottom of pentose sugar Adenosine Inhibitory neurotransmitter that has opposite effect of caffeine (drowsiness) Cordycepin (3’ – Deoxy Adenosineee) -OH group is removed from cordycepin (next to other OH on bottom) -Deoxyadenosinee -inhibits the final step of RNA biosynthesis by termination of the ribo nuke chain. Cytokinins (Plant Hormones derived from adenineee) -promote cell division in plants -modification of adenosineee 3. Nucleotides -A nucleosideee with one or more phosphate groups added RiboNucleotides Deoxyribonucleotides 4. Exothermic/ Endothermic Reactions Exothermic : ΔG = - ; spontaneous ; energy is released Endothermic: ΔG = + ; unfavorable; requires energy ΔG = Products – Reactants 5. Types of bonds 1. Glycocytic bond: connects Nitrogenous base with sugar 2. Phosphoester bond : C-O-P 3. Phosphoanhydride bonds: Connect phosphate groups 4. Phosphodiester bonds: connect different nucleotides -First nucleotideee has 3 phosphate gropus present at the 5’ position -OH group attacks the triphosphate groups, causing two phosphate bonds to break -Causes DNAaa to grow in the 5’-3’ Direction Scientists Griffith : Some molecule can be exchanged between organisms, but didn’t know what molecule did this Avery-Macleod-McCarty: DNA is the molecule that transforms R Strain, DNA IS THE TRANSFORMING AGENT Hershey and Chase: DNA is genetic material -labeld phosphorous in DNA (P32) with marker and labeled sulfur marker in protein CHARGAFFS RULE % of A = % of T and % of G = %of C So if A is 40%, T is also 40% meaning there is 10% G and 10% C Euchromatin, Heterochromatin, Beads on a string model Total length of DNA in Adenovirus tRNA, mRNA, and rRNA Beta (B-DNA spatial dimensions) -Most Common type of DNA -Isolated from aqueous solutions as partly hydrated sodium salt DIMENSIONS **2.4 nm in diameter ** Every TURN has 1 major groove and 1 minor groove ** Distance between each turn is 3.4 nm and can fit 10.4 bases **SO, every 0.34 NM there is 1 Base Pair Major groove is 2nm across and 1nm deep, this easily accommodates a 0.5nm Alpha helix of protein. The Major groove -Serves as a recognition site for several transcription initiation factors. -Specific domains of initiation factors lie in the major groove -Promote separation of DNA strands -MOTIFS bind to major groove of DNA, deal with transcription proteins Types of DNA - B- form - A Form: when RNA and DNA are together, form duplexes and are due to low hydration - Z Form aka zigzag conformation Types of RNA 1. tRNA (transfer) – helps in translation of proteins -tRNAs attatched to amino acid are called AMINOACYL tRNA’s - Transfer amino acids to ribosome for assembly into polypeptides - At least 1 tRNA molecule for each of 20 different amino acids - tRNA can pair with mRNA via anticodon group 2. rRNA (ribosomal) - Structural elements of ribosomes - Divided into large subunit SU and small subunit SU - Secondary “road kill structure” 3. mRNA (messenger) GENE STRUCTURE TERMINOLOGY Operon: a group of linked genes that are regulated as a unit Plasmid: a small circular, self replicating extra-chromosomal molecule of bacterial DNA. Plasmids are not notmally required for host cell growth but often confer unique metabolicqualities such as antibiotic resistance, virulence genes, nitrogen fixation genes. Introns: Non coding DNA sequences in eukaryotic genes Exons: Coding (Expressed) DNA sequences in eukaryotic genes Psuedogenes: a non functional sequence of DNA similar to a gene. Likely remnants of a once fuctional gene that accumulated mutations Transposons: DNA sequences that excise, replicate and inster themselves randomly elswere in the geneome. Often referred to as jumping genes.
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