Exam #2 Study Guide
Exam #2 Study Guide Rel - 1103-002
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Smith on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Rel - 1103-002 at Oklahoma State University taught by Stephanie Wheatley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to World Religions in Religious Studies at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
REL 1103 Study Guide for Test #2 Format: Same as Test 1—10 true/false, 40 multiple choice, big ideas Information from the test will come primarily from the following areas: 1. 5 pillars of Islam, 632, 1054, Oct. 31, 1517, and 1948 2. Ritual and sacrament—Sabbath, two main sacraments in Christianity 3. Hindu, Buddhist, and Jewish codes of ethics—lots of definitions here: the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism, marks of existence in Buddhism, Jewish law to name a few 4. Tibetan and Zen Buddhism—Several terms, practices, people 5. Muslim split, Great Schism, Protestant Reformation—reasons, people (don’t forget the English Reformation!) 6. Religious discrimination—Burma, antiSemitism, Islamophobia; definitions, events, groups 1. Dates a. 632 – Death of Muhammad i. Division within Islamic religion as individuals decided who is will be Muhammad’s predecessor: 1. Sunni a. Abu Baker, fatherinlaw b. Closest friend 2. Shia a. Ali, blood relative b. First male convert to Islam 3. Kahlith a. Meaning replacement/successor b. 1054 – The Great Schism i. Division of Christianity into East and West 1. Eastern Orthodoxy a. Political (Byzantine) b. Greek c. Priestly Marriage d. First Among Equals i. Recognizes Pope’s special spot; no more, no less than others 2. Western Catholicism a. Religious b. Latin c. Iconoclasm i. Representation of Jesus in paintings and artworks d. Papal primacy i. Pope is undisputed leader of the church c. Oct. 31st, 1517 – Martin Luther and 95 Theses i. 95 Theses nailed to the door of a church 1. mostly pertains to selling of indulgences a. Indulgences i. Payment for forgiveness of sin 1. Ex: Confession penance ii. If you haven’t gotten everything, you go to purgatory 1. Not Heaven or Hell ii. Kicked off the (Protestant) Reformation d. 1948 – Israeli Statehood i. Declared independence (minority) 2. 5 Pillars of Islam a. Shahada i. Profession of faith b. Salat i. Five daily prayers at set times in the direction of Mecca c. Sawm i. Fasting during the month of Ramadan 1. Is at a different time every year since Ramadan follows a lunar calendar d. Zakat i. Charity/Alms giving 1. Required to give 2.5% of everything e. Hajj i. Pilgrimage 1. Every Muslim must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life (given that their health and finances allow) 3. Ritual and Sacraments a. Judiasm i. Shabbat 1. The Sabbath a. 2 Commandments of Shabbat i. To remember (that God rested on the 7th day) ii. To rest 1. Melacha a. Work that is creative; man expresses control of his environment 2. 37 different types with exceptions a. i.e., emergencies ii. Shabbat Goy 1. “Sabbath Gentile” a. Saturday’s: Ask favors from the Goy b. Christianity i. Sacraments 1. 7 total a. Two prominent sacraments i. Baptism ii. Communion 1. Basis of Last Supper c. Hinduism i. Puja 1. Devotion/worship/sacrifice/offering 2. Take place at home a. Most homes have a shrine (sometimes a room) i. Food offering/incense/reflection 3. Pilgrimage a. Comparatively much more common 4. Kumbh Mela a. Largest in the world b. Every 12 years i. Ritual bathing in Ghangis River ii. 6 enthes 1. 70 million people participate a. Restores good karma 5. Diwali a. Religious festival i. 5day festival of lights ii. end of fall harvest season b. Recognition/Triumph of inner light 4. Code of Ethics a. Judaism i. Written Law (primary texts) 1. Torah a. First five books of the Hebrew bible/Christian (New) Testament b. 613 mitzvot i. rules ii. only can do so much 2. Talmud a. Interpretations of the Torah written as commentaries, descriptions, and explanations b. Provides central authority 3. Halakha a. Created by the combination of the Torah and Talmud b. Collectively known as the “whole” or Jewish law c. Means “right way” or “path” 4. Example: a. Torah – constitution b. Talmud – Supreme Court ii. Haggadah (secondary texts) 1. Separate body of literature 2. Sermons/antidotes/stories/ethical teaching a. Not above the law, but explains the law b. Hinduism c. Buddhism 5. Tibetan and Zen Buddhism a. Mahayana (big raft theory, everyone can get there) VS. Theravada (the way of the elders) b. Zen i. Ch’an 1. Developed in China ii. Offshoot fo Mahayana 1. Mysticism a. Deemphasizing of knowledge of Buddhists 2. Zezen a. Seated meditation 3. Koan a. Life riddles b. Solving said riddles leads too… 4. Satori a. Moments of awakening iii. Kung Fy 1. “Hard work” a. referred to any study, practice, discipline c. Tibetan Buddhism i. Vajrayama 1. “diamond vehicle” or “thunderbolt vehicle” because it cuts through the “crap” to reach enlightenment quickly ii. Mantra 1. Help get into meditative silence iii. Tantra 1. System of meditation that utilizes all the energies within the human body, in services of a spiritual quest iv. Mandala’s 1. Sand paintings a. Highly intricate, days to weeks to create 2. Impermanence of life a. Mix the sane and pour into water v. Lama 1. Refers to an enlightened Buddhist leader 2. Dalai Lama a. 14 reincarnations of the Dalai Lamas before him vi. Politics of Tibetan Buddhism 1. MauTse Tung (1940) 2. The Tibetan Uprising (1954) a. Dalai Lama i. Chinese leave Buddhists alone if they don’t up rise b. Obliterates Dalai Lama/Mao agreement i. Dalai Lama flees to India 1. Formally denounces Mao 3. Cultural Revolution a. Attempt by Chinese Government to destroy capitalist, culturalist, values in China b. Monasteries, artifacts, etc. of Buddhism, destroyed 4. Tibetan Independence Movement a. Tibetan Freedom Concert (1994) i. Adam Yauk 6. Schisms a. Islam i. After Muhammad dies in 632 there is debate as to who should become the next caliph (replacement/successor) 1. Sunni a. Abu Baker i. Close friend, fatherinlaw b. Majority (85% of population) 2. Shia a. Ali ? i. Blood relative b. Minority (15% of population) i. Persecuted throughout history b. The Great Schism i. Within the Roman Empire 1. East/West Divide a. East (Protestant) & West (Catholic) 2. Filoque Clause a. Nicene Creed i. “And the Son,” in Latin 1. Eastern Church has a fit b. Bishop of Constantinople excommunicates Pope c. Pope; vice versa 3. Great Schism of 1054 ii. Great Western Schism 1. i.e, Babylonian Captivity of the Church a. exploitation of Canaan Law leads to this 2. 1305 a. Clement V moves the papacy to France from the Vatican b. Next 6 Popes do the same thing i. Legitimate Avignon Papacy 3. 1376 a. Gregory XI i. Moving back to Rome ii. Pope Urban VI 1. Can’t agree with the college of Cardinals 2. Renegade French cardinals go back to France (Great W. Schism begins) iii. AntiPopes 1. 30 years 2. 3rd Line elsewhere in Italy 4. Gregory XII a. Convenes the Council of Constance i. Resigns in 1415 ii. (1417) Concludes business b. last pope to step down until 2013 i. Pope Benedict for Pope Francis c. The Protestant Reformation i. 1500 – Latin is Academic Language 1. Catholic Church conducting mass in Latin a. Priests can say whatever they want i. Promulgating nonbiblical stories ii. Guttenberg Printing Press 1. Possible to increase literacy rate 2. 1455 – First Bible Published (in German) a. People read the bible for the first time by themselves b. Catholic priests are being caught lying about stuff i. Specifically, indulgences c. Indulgences i. Payment for the forgiveness of sins iii. 1500 – Martin Luther 1. Catholic priest a. Doesn’t see selling indulgences as allowable 2. Oct. 31st, 1517 a. 95 Theses nailed to the door of a Catholic Church i. mostly pertaining to the sale of indulgences iv. 1521 – Luther is excommunicated (January) 1. May: Charles IV – Roman Empire a. Diet of Worms i. Luther an outlaw in the Roman Empire 1. People cannot own the things Luther has written, kill him on sight, “no questions asked” v. Henry VIII 1. Wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon a. Catholic Church does not let him 2. Breaks away; Church of England (Anglican Church) a. Mary I, becomes queen i. Revert England to Catholicism 1. Kills Anglicans, “Bloody Mary” b. Elizabeth I i. Anglican tradition ii. Tries to make peace 1. Anglican liturgy altered, AntiCatholic parts are removed iii. 1558: Act of Uniformity 1. British subjects attend Sunday service at Anglican church iv. Creates some issues 1. Puritans 7. Religious Discrimination a. Hinduism i. The British Raj 1. Until 1947, all of the Indian territory was British controlled ii. Hindutva 1. 1923 a. Reaction against British colonialism b. Reaction against Muslim activism in the British Raj 2. Hindu Nationalism a. Being in India = being Hindu 3. Ghandi & Hindutva a. Britain, WWII, and Partition b. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and Muslim League iii. Reasons behind Gandhi’s Assassination 1. AntiBritish conspiracy punishable by jail time a. Gandhi – fight for freedom i. Wants an India for everyone iv. 1946 – British Raj cut into pieces 1. War between India and Pakistan a. Gandhi – keep spirit of reconciliation alive i. Hindutva: India Hindu Nation 2. 1948 Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu nationalist v. Hindutva 1. Still present in society today a. Mainly in political aspects i. BJP (political party that is in favor of Hindutva) 1. Daring to emphasize Hindu India a. Tax on churches/monasteries b. Attempts to convert c. Beating of people suspected to be eating beef 2. Excuse to reemphasize that “you are not like us” b. Burma/Myanmar i. Part of the British Raj 1. Mostly Buddhist a. Muslim population along the border of Bangladesh/India 2. The Rohingya and 969 Movement a. The Rakhine Province (Western) i. Rohinga Muslim population 1. Muslims believe that they have been there before the British 2. Buddhists claim they’re interlopers, coming in an taking over ii. According to the UN, Rohinga Muslims are one of the most persecuted groups 3. 1982 – Citizenship Law a. Muslims from R. Province cannot travel without permission from government i. Need permission to come back b. Cannot own land c. Cannot have more than two kids 4. 969 Movement a. existential threat from Muslim population b. 9 futures of the Buddha, 6 Buddha practice, 9 characteristics of Buddhist community 5. Ashin Wirathu a. “The Buddhist Bin Laden” c. History of AntiSemitism i. Christian Thing ii. Defining it 1. First Usage a. First appeared in 1860’s Jewish propaganda b. It was a good thing iii. Types 1. Religious a. Primary Catholic 2. Economic a. Conspiracy theories to take of economy 3. Racial a. Jews as race being inferior (extermination – holocaust) iv. “Protocols of elders of Zion” propaganda used by Jewish elders – wanted to take over 1. Nazi’s v. Varieties of AntiSemitism 1. Reconquista a. Andulus/Cordoba = in Spain wanted to reconquer i. Gold Standard ii. Spanish took over Muslims and Jews 1. Convert or die iii. Most Muslims went back to Africa 2. Spanish Inquisition a. 1480 – Attempt to test insencanty (?) of conversion of Jews b. Converos i. Jews who converted publicly 1. Arrested and tortured 3. Pogroms a. Attempt to get rid of Jews by Russian government b. Aliyah (1st 3 of 6) i. Immigration/waves to the Holy Land by Jews who are trying to escape death 4. Dreyfus Affair a. 1894 FrenchAlfred officer selling military secrets i. Escapes b. Theodor Herzl i. Zionism 5. Holocaust a. 6 million Jews killed, 5 million disabled people, (and gypsies/homosexuals) b. Eugenics i. Manipulation of genes to create superior race c. Righteous Among the Nations i. NonJews who try to save some Jews 1. Everywhere and all different people ii. Named this from Isreali’s iii. Helped them escape to Turkey iv. Oscar Shindler 1. Shindler’s List d. AntiSemitism in the Arab World i. Jewish immigration ii. Israeli statehood (1948) = declares independence (minority) iii. Palestines iv. Political motivations 8.
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