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by: Courtney Small


Courtney Small

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All of the key points Professor Gonzenbach told us to remember for test 2
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Study Guide
Introduction, public relations, test
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Ellie Givhan

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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 02/23/16
APR  231  STUDY  GUIDE   TEST  2   CHAPTER  7-­‐11     Chapter  7     Gruning:    5  Possible  Objectives  (we  have  in  communications)   •   Message  exposure:    Controlled,  Uncontrolled   •   Accurate  dissemination  of  message   o   Ex.)  Many  people  thought  the  majority  of  the  university  is  greek,  inaccurate   •   Acceptance  of  message   •   Attitude  change   •   Change  in  overt  behavior   Hallahan:    Integrated  PR  model   •   Public  media:    Awareness,  credibility   •   Controlled  media:    Promotion;  detailed  info   •   Interactive  media:    Queries;  exchange  info;  engage   •   Events/Groups:    Motivate;  reinforce  existing  beliefs,  attitudes   •   One-­‐on-­‐one:    Obtain  commitments;  negotiation/resolution  of  problems   •   Table  7.1  (make  a  copy  of  the  chart  and  take  it  everywhere  the  rest  of  your  career;  IMPORTANT)       Therkelsen:    To  be  successful   •   Receiving  the  message   •   Paying  attention  to  the  message   •   Understanding  the  message   •   Believing  the  message   •   Remembering  the  message   •   Acting  on  the  message   Paying  Attention  to  the  Message   •   Exposure  not  =  attention,  memory,  understanding   •   Uses  and  gratification  theory:  surveillance,  entertain/diversion,  reinforcement,  decision  making   •   Passive:    attention  if  entertaining  or  diversion;  Need  style  and  creativity;  “IT  in  the  Toilet”   •   Active:    At  interest  stage;  search  for  more  sophisticated,  supplemental  info;  Search  illness   •   Multiple  messages,  multiple  channels  to  reach  all   •   Triggering  Event:    cause  to  act  on  latent  willingness  to  behave  in  a  certain  way  Ex.  H1N1;  Occupy  Wall   Street;  Open  House,  Boston  Tea  Party       Other  Attention  Concepts   •   Five  senses:    83%  learn  via  sight,  11%  hearing   •   Retain:    50%  retention  based  on  seeing  and  hearing   •   Multiple  tools:    IMC   •   Raise  need  level  upfront:    benefit:    Census  Bureau   •   Interest  at  beginning  of  message:    get  them;  tell  them;  summarize   •   Channeling:    reinforce  predispositions,  values   •   Prior  knowledge  and  interest,  pay  more  attention;  tap  current  events,  issues  of  concern       Understanding  the  Message   •   Communication:    transmit,  common  understanding  of  symbols: th  Ex.  Differences  in  countries,  classes   •   42%  Americans  lowest  literacy  level;  1  in  8  4  grade   •   Writing  for  clarity:       •   Flesch  readability:    Ex.  9th  grade  (most  magazines,  newspapers):    Random  100  words  4.2  sentences   and  142  syllables;  complex  sentences  >19  words;    wording  compensation  vs.  pay   •   Cloze  comprehension:    Fill  in  missing  words   •   Microsoft  program;    copy  test       Understanding  the  Message  (cont.)   •   Use  symbols,  acronyms,  slogans:  each  a  short-­‐hand  Branding  (Mercedes  Star),  Audio  (NFL  theme);   GASP,  NOW,  AIDS;  I’m  lovin’  it,  Death  Tax   •   Avoid  jargon:    Semantic  noise:    Ex.  attenuation  rates  (cell  phone)   •   Avoid  cliches,  hype  words:    world  class,  cutting  edge,110%   •   Avoid  euphemisms:    Ethnic  cleansing,  collateral  damage,  career  reassignment   •   Avoid  discriminatory  language:    Police  man  vs  officer       Believing  the  Message   •   Source  credibility:    knowledgeable,  expert  on  subject   •   Context:    Action  speak  louder  than  words:    Ex.  Buy  US  meeting  with  “Made  in  China”  cup   •   Involvement:    high,  what  is  said;  low,  who  says  it       Believing  the  Message  (cont.)   •   Predispositions:    Festinger’s  Cognitive  Dissonance   •   Won’t  believe  something  contrary  to  their  predispositions  unless   o   Situation  change:  gas  price  increase,  development  in  China,  India   o   New  information  about  new  developments:  Perception  of  China  toys  when  Mattel  admit   problems     o   Use  unexpected  communicator:    Chevron  use  conservationists   How  Decisions  Are  Influenced   •   Awareness:    Mass  media:    ads,  news,  features,  radio/TV  announcements;  support  with  eWOM,  web   •   Interest:    Mass  media,  more  detailed  info:    features,  web,  brochures;  meetings,  seminars   •   Evaluation,  Trial,  Adoption:    Personal  experience,  group  norms,  family/friend  opinions;  credible   sources,  experts  contact   •   WOM:    Word  of  Mouth    Ex.  P&G    Herbal  Essences  and  Old  Spice;  opinion  leaders:    influentials  or   catalysts    Chapter  8   Evaluation   •   Fourth  step  in  PR  process   •   The  systematic  assessment  of  a  program  and  its  results.    It  is  a  means  for  practitioners  to  offer   accountability  to  clients  and  to  themselves   •   Also,  way  to  improve  and  adopt  management  by  objectives   Objectives   •   Need  specific  objectives  to  measure  against   •   Evaluation  really  starts  in  planning   •   Iterative  process   •   Budget  for  evaluation  and  measurement;    1990s  about  1%;  now  about  4-­‐5%;  advocates  –  about  10%   •   Informational:  awareness,  info:  show  info  communicated   •   Motivational:  attitude,  behavior;  more  difficult   Lindenmann/Ketchum   •   Level  1:    Basic   •   Such  as  message  production,    distribution  and  placement   •   Doesn’t  tell  us  about  audience  processing   Measurement  of  Exposure   •   Compilation  of  clips,  radio/TV  time   •   Burelle/Luce:    monitor  numerous  media   •   Media  impressions:    Gross  impressions:    Article  in  150,000  circ  newspaper;  150,000  gross  impressions;   Issue  of  pass  along  (4X)   •   Basic  Web  Analytics:    Hits  on  Internet:    hits,  pages,  time   •   Advertising  equivalency  value/Dollar  value  (AVE);  declining  use   •   5  column  inchs  story,  $100  for  column  inch,  $500  AVE   •   Use  for  TV,  Radio    60  second  ad  cost  $2000;  AVE  $2000  for  60  sec  story   •   Issues  of  ad  equivalency:    PR  Value  3X   •   Weighted  media  cost:    Quality  of  media  neighborhood    Systematic  Tracking   •   Type  of  publication   •   Sources  quoted   •   Mention  of  key  copy  points:    content  analysis   •   Releases  sent/actually  published,  ROI   •   On-­‐line    Cost  per  person  or  cost  per  1000  (CPM)  and  Return  on  Investment  (ROI)   •   Per  person:    $5000  for  100,000,  5  cents  per  person   •   CPM:    5  cents  x  1,000=$50  per  1000   •   Compare  cost  of  advertising  vs.  PR   •   Return  on  Investment:    Spend  $500,000  get  $20  million  in  sales;  ROI  is  40  times  cost      Measurement  of  Awareness  (and  Information)   •   Higher  level  of  evaluation   •   Require  survey  tools   o   Ex.  Day-­‐after  recall   o   Change  from  benchmark  or  baseline   o   Pre-­‐Post  test   •   Measure  whether  message  received,  attended  to,  understood  and  retained    Measurement  of  Attitudes   •   Shift  in  valence  (+  or  -­‐)   •   Change  from  benchmark,  baseline   •   Pre-­‐Post  test         Measurement  of  Action  (Behavior)   •   Key  objective  usually  linked  to  behavior   •   Tracking  measurable  behaviors  such  as  orders,  calls,  800  numbers,  site  visits,  e-­‐mail   •   Sales   •   Attend:    Outside  factors,  Ex.  Symphony   Self-­‐reports  to  evaluate  (vote  intention)   Measurement  of  Supplemental  Activities   •   Communication  Audit:    12  months   •   Pilot  tests/Split  messages   •   Meetings/events;  evaluation  form   •   Newsletter  Readership   o   Content  analysis   o   Readership  interest  surveys   o   Article  recall   o   Advisory  boards   Chapter  9   Public  Opinion     •   Attitude  vs.  Opinion   •   Cross  Section  vs.  Social  Process     •   Self-­‐interest   •   Events   •   Opinion  leaders   •   Media       Life  Cycle  of  an  Issue   •   Definition  of  the  Issue   •   Involvement  of  Opinion  Leaders   •   Public  Awareness   •   Government/Regulatory  Involvement   •   Resolution       Early  Ideas   •   Magic  Bullet/Hypodermic   •   Payne  Fund  Study   •   War  of  the  Worlds   •   Hovland:    Psychology  based,  Individual  Difference  Theory   •   Lazarsfeld:    Sociology  based:    Social  Category  Theory,  Opinion  Leaders       Opinion  Leaders   •   10%-­‐12%  of  population   •   Highly  interested   •   Better  informed   •   Early  adopter   •   Good  organizer   •   Formal:    Power  leaders   •   Informal   •   2-­‐Step  Flow   •   Multiple-­‐step  Flow:    Media>OL>Attentive?Inattentive         Role  of  Mass  Media   •   PR  role:    Gandy,  50%  media  from  PR   •   Klapper:    Limited  Effects   •   Agenda-­‐Setting:    Mass  media  not  good  at  telling  us  what  to  think,  very  good  at  telling  us  what  to  think   about:    Cohen   •   Second  level  agenda  setting:  set  agenda  and    set  of  attributes   •   Media  Dependency  Theory:    More  powerful  media:  no    prior  info,  cannot  verify   •   Framing  Theory:    How  facts,  themes,  treatment  frame  story   •   Media  framing;  PR  framing   •   How  audience  frames   •   Iyengar  and  Kinder:    Prime:    How  audience  is  primed  to  think   •   Romney  vs.  Obama  Example   •   Conflict  Theory:  Controversy  can  build  consensus        Six  Principles  of  Persuasion  (p.  233):    Robert  Cialdini   •   Liking:    Like  those  who  like  them:    Tupperware   •   Reciprocity:    People  repay  in  kind:    Disabled  American  Vets   •   Social  Proof:    People  follow  the  lead  of  others:    Lost  wallet   •   Consistency:    People  fulfill  written,  public  and  voluntary  commitments:    Sign,  follow-­‐up  on  pledge   •   Authority:    People  defer  to  experts  who  provide  shortcuts  requiring  specialized  information:    NY  Times   expert,  4%  shift   •   Scarcity:    People  value  what’s  scarce:    Beef  shortage,  order  jump  600%       Factors  in  Persuasive  Comm.   •   Audience  Analysis:    Know  audience;  demos  and  psychographics;  VALS  Ex.  Turkey   •   Survivors/Sustainers;  Belongers;  Achievers   •   Channeling:    match  media  to  audience  Ex.  Achievers/Gourmet  magazine   •   Source  Credibility:  Ethos    Nat.  Cattlemans:    3  Factors   Expertise   Sincerity   Charisma   Problems  with  celebrities:    too  many;  overexposure;  actions  undercut  product;  speak  out,  conflict     •   Appeal  to  self-­‐interest:    Get  in  return:       •   Self-­‐esteem   •   Contribution  to  society   •   Recognition  from  peers,  community   •   Sense  of  belonging   •   Ego  gratification   •   Tax  deduction   Persuasion  and  Manipulation:  Limitations  of  Persuasion   •   Lack  of  message  penetration   •   Competing  messages   •   Self  selection   •   Self  Perception             Chapter  10    Role  of  PR  in  CM   •   CM  often  occurs  when  a  business  or  industry  contends  with  government  regulators  or  activist  groups     •   Outside  groups  use  PR  to  make  case  against  company/industry   •   Try  to  catch  early  and  reduce  damages;  many  times  smolder  and  grow   •   Usually  not  clear  cut  in  solution   •   PR  has  to  advocate  for  company/industry    It  Depends:  Contingency  Theory’s    2  Basic  Principles   •   Two  principles  form  the  basis  of  what  is  called  Contingency  Theory   •   First:    many  factors  determine  the  stance  or  position  of  an  organization  when  it  comes  to  dealing  with   conflict  and  perceived  threats   •   Second:    The  PR  stance  for  dealing  with  a  particular  audience  or  public  can  change  as  events  unfold   5  External  Variables   •   Example:    McDonald’s  and  Transfats   •   External  Threats:    New  competition,  condition   •   Industry-­‐specific  environment:    New  industry  standards   •   General  political-­‐social  environment:    Political  change,  social  change   •   External  public  characteristics:    Audience  change,  ex.  move  liberal  to  conservative   •   Issue  under  consideration:    nature  of  issues  change       6  Internal  Variables   •   Example:    Toyota   •   General  corporate/organizational  characteristics:    Company  posture   •   Characteristics  of  the  PR  department:    Authority  level   •   Top  management  characteristics:    Aggressive,  comply   •   Internal  threats:    weak  financial  position   •   Personality  characteristics  of  internal,  involved  persons   •   Relationship  characteristics:    Relationship  of  key  players Issues  Management   •   Proactive  and  systematic  approach   •   Predict  problems   •   Anticipate  threats   •   Minimize  surprises   •   Resolve  issues   •   Prevent  crises   Issue  Life  Cycle:    Ex.  Drug  Issue   •   Problem  definition:    Ex.  Len  Bias   •   Involvement  of  Opinion  Leaders:    Ex.  Jessie  Jackson   •   Public  Awareness:    2/3  MIP   •   Government  Policy/Regulation:    Ex.  Drug  testing,  tougher  laws   •   Resolution:    Say  solved,  move  to  other  issue   Public  Opinion     Chase  and  Jones:    Issues  Management  Process   •   Issue  identification   •   Issue  analysis   •   Strategy  options   •   Action  plan   •   Evaluation               Contingency  Continuum   •   Pure  Advocacy   •   Competing  Litigation   •   Public  Relations   •   Arguing   •   Competition   •   Contending   •   Compromising   •   Avoiding   •   Cooperation   •   Collaborating   •   Negotiation   •   Compromise   •   Capitulation   •   Apology  and  Restitution   •   Pure  Accommodation   Risk  Communication:    Verbal  or  written  exchange  that  attempts  to  communicate  information  regarding   risk  to  public  health  and  safety  and  the  environment     Crisis  Management   •   Ex.  Amtrak,  Batman  Shootings   •   Situation  characterized  by     o   Surprise   o   High  threat  to  important  values   o   Short  decision  time   Crisis  Figures   •   39%    unexpected;  16%  smoldering   •   Management  causes  50%  of  crises;  employees  32%   •   Triggers:  financial  irregularities;  unethical  behavior;  executive  misconduct   •   89%  of  Fortune  500  CEOs:    crisis  inevitable   •   50%  admit  they  have  no  plan       How  to  communicate  in  crisis   •   Put  public  first   •   Take  responsibility  for  solving   •   Be  honest   •   Never  “no  comment”   •   Single  spokesperson   •   Central  info  center   •   Constant  flow  of  info   •   Media  needs  and  deadlines   •   Be  accessible   •   Monitor  coverage   •   Communicate  with  key  publics   Reputation  Quotient:    Reputation  Institute  and  Harris  Interactive   Media  Reputation  Index  (MRI);    Delahaye  Medialink   Chapter  11   •   ID  with  computer   •   Aggregate:    census,  stat.  Abstracts   •   Individual:    mortgage,  Winn  Dixie,  online,  cookie   •   Controlled  media,  including  Internet   •   Lists,  Zip  Codes   •   Claritas:    62  Lifestyle  clusters   •   Key:  Age,  Gender,  Race       Ethnic   •   2010   •   Anglo:    64%   •   Hispanic:    16%   •   Black:    13%   •   Asian:    5%   •   Native:    2.0%   •   2050   •   Anglo:    45.5%   •   Hispanic:    29.5%   •   Black:    14.5%   •   Asian:    9%   •   Native:    1.5%   Age:    Youth  and  Young  Adults   •   Generation  Y  (GY):    Born  1980-­‐1995   •   Generation  X  (GX):    Born  between  1965  and  1980   •   Generation  Y   •   20%  of  US  Population   •   Parent  influence   •   Trust  in  info  from  relationships   •   Savy  about  unfiltered  info   •   15-­‐24:    $350  billion  purchasing  power   •   Spend  1/3  of  life  on  Internet       Age:    Boomers   •   Born  between  1946  and  1964   •   78  million,  24%  of  US  population   •   $3  trillion  purchasing  power,  2015  control  60%  of  US  net  worth   •   Concern  about  health,  aging   •   Active,  socially  conscious       Age:    Seniors   •   65  and  older   •   36.3  million  65  and  older;  12%  of  US  population   •   Avoid  old  stereotypes   •   65-­‐74  More  discretionary  income  than  any  group;  70%  of  assets   •   Own  homes,  strong  assets   •   80%  of  commercial  vacation  travel   •   Compared  to  average  adult,  30%  TV  time,  25%  more  newspaper  time   •   55+    Facebook’s  fastest  growth  area   Women   •   Make  80%  of  household  purchase  decisions   •   Stronger  users  of  social  media  than  men   •   25-­‐54:    super  consumers,  new  media   •   Supermoms:    5%  of  moms,  Opinion  Leaders,  WOM,  Bloggers   •   All  adult  women:    50%  of  US  workforce           Gay/Lesbian   •   9-­‐16  million  in  US,  very  conservative   •   Higher  incomes,  education,  $750  million  purchasing  power   •   Targeted  media:    Out,  Advocate   •   Mainstream:    Modern  Family,  Brokeback  Mountain   •   Integrating  into  advertising       US  Religious  Groups   •   Catholics:  70  million,  21%;  4th  largest  Catholic  nation  in  the  world   •   Southern  Baptist:  16  million,  5%   •   Methodists:    8  million,  2.5%   •   Jewish:    6.5  million,  2%   •   Muslim:    6  million,  2%   •   Evangelical  Christian  Right:    hard  to  measure:  conservative,  family  values,  school  prayer,  anti-­‐abortion   •   Disabled:    Americans  with  Disabilities  Act  (ADA)       Disability  Community   •   60  million  people  in  US   •   Americans  with  Disabilities  Act  (ADA)   •   Language:      Physically  disabled,  R  word   •   Services:    large  point  size,  ASL  available,  ADA  accommodations  (ramp,  doors)    


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