APR 231 TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE
APR 231 TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE APR 231
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 221 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
APR 231 STUDY GUIDE TEST 2 CHAPTER 7-‐11 Chapter 7 Gruning: 5 Possible Objectives (we have in communications) • Message exposure: Controlled, Uncontrolled • Accurate dissemination of message o Ex.) Many people thought the majority of the university is greek, inaccurate • Acceptance of message • Attitude change • Change in overt behavior Hallahan: Integrated PR model • Public media: Awareness, credibility • Controlled media: Promotion; detailed info • Interactive media: Queries; exchange info; engage • Events/Groups: Motivate; reinforce existing beliefs, attitudes • One-‐on-‐one: Obtain commitments; negotiation/resolution of problems • Table 7.1 (make a copy of the chart and take it everywhere the rest of your career; IMPORTANT) Therkelsen: To be successful • Receiving the message • Paying attention to the message • Understanding the message • Believing the message • Remembering the message • Acting on the message Paying Attention to the Message • Exposure not = attention, memory, understanding • Uses and gratification theory: surveillance, entertain/diversion, reinforcement, decision making • Passive: attention if entertaining or diversion; Need style and creativity; “IT in the Toilet” • Active: At interest stage; search for more sophisticated, supplemental info; Search illness • Multiple messages, multiple channels to reach all • Triggering Event: cause to act on latent willingness to behave in a certain way Ex. H1N1; Occupy Wall Street; Open House, Boston Tea Party Other Attention Concepts • Five senses: 83% learn via sight, 11% hearing • Retain: 50% retention based on seeing and hearing • Multiple tools: IMC • Raise need level upfront: benefit: Census Bureau • Interest at beginning of message: get them; tell them; summarize • Channeling: reinforce predispositions, values • Prior knowledge and interest, pay more attention; tap current events, issues of concern Understanding the Message • Communication: transmit, common understanding of symbols: th Ex. Differences in countries, classes • 42% Americans lowest literacy level; 1 in 8 4 grade • Writing for clarity: • Flesch readability: Ex. 9th grade (most magazines, newspapers): Random 100 words 4.2 sentences and 142 syllables; complex sentences >19 words; wording compensation vs. pay • Cloze comprehension: Fill in missing words • Microsoft program; copy test Understanding the Message (cont.) • Use symbols, acronyms, slogans: each a short-‐hand Branding (Mercedes Star), Audio (NFL theme); GASP, NOW, AIDS; I’m lovin’ it, Death Tax • Avoid jargon: Semantic noise: Ex. attenuation rates (cell phone) • Avoid cliches, hype words: world class, cutting edge,110% • Avoid euphemisms: Ethnic cleansing, collateral damage, career reassignment • Avoid discriminatory language: Police man vs officer Believing the Message • Source credibility: knowledgeable, expert on subject • Context: Action speak louder than words: Ex. Buy US meeting with “Made in China” cup • Involvement: high, what is said; low, who says it Believing the Message (cont.) • Predispositions: Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance • Won’t believe something contrary to their predispositions unless o Situation change: gas price increase, development in China, India o New information about new developments: Perception of China toys when Mattel admit problems o Use unexpected communicator: Chevron use conservationists How Decisions Are Influenced • Awareness: Mass media: ads, news, features, radio/TV announcements; support with eWOM, web • Interest: Mass media, more detailed info: features, web, brochures; meetings, seminars • Evaluation, Trial, Adoption: Personal experience, group norms, family/friend opinions; credible sources, experts contact • WOM: Word of Mouth Ex. P&G Herbal Essences and Old Spice; opinion leaders: influentials or catalysts Chapter 8 Evaluation • Fourth step in PR process • The systematic assessment of a program and its results. It is a means for practitioners to offer accountability to clients and to themselves • Also, way to improve and adopt management by objectives Objectives • Need specific objectives to measure against • Evaluation really starts in planning • Iterative process • Budget for evaluation and measurement; 1990s about 1%; now about 4-‐5%; advocates – about 10% • Informational: awareness, info: show info communicated • Motivational: attitude, behavior; more difficult Lindenmann/Ketchum • Level 1: Basic • Such as message production, distribution and placement • Doesn’t tell us about audience processing Measurement of Exposure • Compilation of clips, radio/TV time • Burelle/Luce: monitor numerous media • Media impressions: Gross impressions: Article in 150,000 circ newspaper; 150,000 gross impressions; Issue of pass along (4X) • Basic Web Analytics: Hits on Internet: hits, pages, time • Advertising equivalency value/Dollar value (AVE); declining use • 5 column inchs story, $100 for column inch, $500 AVE • Use for TV, Radio 60 second ad cost $2000; AVE $2000 for 60 sec story • Issues of ad equivalency: PR Value 3X • Weighted media cost: Quality of media neighborhood Systematic Tracking • Type of publication • Sources quoted • Mention of key copy points: content analysis • Releases sent/actually published, ROI • On-‐line Cost per person or cost per 1000 (CPM) and Return on Investment (ROI) • Per person: $5000 for 100,000, 5 cents per person • CPM: 5 cents x 1,000=$50 per 1000 • Compare cost of advertising vs. PR • Return on Investment: Spend $500,000 get $20 million in sales; ROI is 40 times cost Measurement of Awareness (and Information) • Higher level of evaluation • Require survey tools o Ex. Day-‐after recall o Change from benchmark or baseline o Pre-‐Post test • Measure whether message received, attended to, understood and retained Measurement of Attitudes • Shift in valence (+ or -‐) • Change from benchmark, baseline • Pre-‐Post test Measurement of Action (Behavior) • Key objective usually linked to behavior • Tracking measurable behaviors such as orders, calls, 800 numbers, site visits, e-‐mail • Sales • Attend: Outside factors, Ex. Symphony Self-‐reports to evaluate (vote intention) Measurement of Supplemental Activities • Communication Audit: 12 months • Pilot tests/Split messages • Meetings/events; evaluation form • Newsletter Readership o Content analysis o Readership interest surveys o Article recall o Advisory boards Chapter 9 Public Opinion • Attitude vs. Opinion • Cross Section vs. Social Process • Self-‐interest • Events • Opinion leaders • Media Life Cycle of an Issue • Definition of the Issue • Involvement of Opinion Leaders • Public Awareness • Government/Regulatory Involvement • Resolution Early Ideas • Magic Bullet/Hypodermic • Payne Fund Study • War of the Worlds • Hovland: Psychology based, Individual Difference Theory • Lazarsfeld: Sociology based: Social Category Theory, Opinion Leaders Opinion Leaders • 10%-‐12% of population • Highly interested • Better informed • Early adopter • Good organizer • Formal: Power leaders • Informal • 2-‐Step Flow • Multiple-‐step Flow: Media>OL>Attentive?Inattentive Role of Mass Media • PR role: Gandy, 50% media from PR • Klapper: Limited Effects • Agenda-‐Setting: Mass media not good at telling us what to think, very good at telling us what to think about: Cohen • Second level agenda setting: set agenda and set of attributes • Media Dependency Theory: More powerful media: no prior info, cannot verify • Framing Theory: How facts, themes, treatment frame story • Media framing; PR framing • How audience frames • Iyengar and Kinder: Prime: How audience is primed to think • Romney vs. Obama Example • Conflict Theory: Controversy can build consensus Six Principles of Persuasion (p. 233): Robert Cialdini • Liking: Like those who like them: Tupperware • Reciprocity: People repay in kind: Disabled American Vets • Social Proof: People follow the lead of others: Lost wallet • Consistency: People fulfill written, public and voluntary commitments: Sign, follow-‐up on pledge • Authority: People defer to experts who provide shortcuts requiring specialized information: NY Times expert, 4% shift • Scarcity: People value what’s scarce: Beef shortage, order jump 600% Factors in Persuasive Comm. • Audience Analysis: Know audience; demos and psychographics; VALS Ex. Turkey • Survivors/Sustainers; Belongers; Achievers • Channeling: match media to audience Ex. Achievers/Gourmet magazine • Source Credibility: Ethos Nat. Cattlemans: 3 Factors Expertise Sincerity Charisma Problems with celebrities: too many; overexposure; actions undercut product; speak out, conflict • Appeal to self-‐interest: Get in return: • Self-‐esteem • Contribution to society • Recognition from peers, community • Sense of belonging • Ego gratification • Tax deduction Persuasion and Manipulation: Limitations of Persuasion • Lack of message penetration • Competing messages • Self selection • Self Perception Chapter 10 Role of PR in CM • CM often occurs when a business or industry contends with government regulators or activist groups • Outside groups use PR to make case against company/industry • Try to catch early and reduce damages; many times smolder and grow • Usually not clear cut in solution • PR has to advocate for company/industry It Depends: Contingency Theory’s 2 Basic Principles • Two principles form the basis of what is called Contingency Theory • First: many factors determine the stance or position of an organization when it comes to dealing with conflict and perceived threats • Second: The PR stance for dealing with a particular audience or public can change as events unfold 5 External Variables • Example: McDonald’s and Transfats • External Threats: New competition, condition • Industry-‐specific environment: New industry standards • General political-‐social environment: Political change, social change • External public characteristics: Audience change, ex. move liberal to conservative • Issue under consideration: nature of issues change 6 Internal Variables • Example: Toyota • General corporate/organizational characteristics: Company posture • Characteristics of the PR department: Authority level • Top management characteristics: Aggressive, comply • Internal threats: weak financial position • Personality characteristics of internal, involved persons • Relationship characteristics: Relationship of key players Issues Management • Proactive and systematic approach • Predict problems • Anticipate threats • Minimize surprises • Resolve issues • Prevent crises Issue Life Cycle: Ex. Drug Issue • Problem definition: Ex. Len Bias • Involvement of Opinion Leaders: Ex. Jessie Jackson • Public Awareness: 2/3 MIP • Government Policy/Regulation: Ex. Drug testing, tougher laws • Resolution: Say solved, move to other issue Public Opinion Chase and Jones: Issues Management Process • Issue identification • Issue analysis • Strategy options • Action plan • Evaluation Contingency Continuum • Pure Advocacy • Competing Litigation • Public Relations • Arguing • Competition • Contending • Compromising • Avoiding • Cooperation • Collaborating • Negotiation • Compromise • Capitulation • Apology and Restitution • Pure Accommodation Risk Communication: Verbal or written exchange that attempts to communicate information regarding risk to public health and safety and the environment Crisis Management • Ex. Amtrak, Batman Shootings • Situation characterized by o Surprise o High threat to important values o Short decision time Crisis Figures • 39% unexpected; 16% smoldering • Management causes 50% of crises; employees 32% • Triggers: financial irregularities; unethical behavior; executive misconduct • 89% of Fortune 500 CEOs: crisis inevitable • 50% admit they have no plan How to communicate in crisis • Put public first • Take responsibility for solving • Be honest • Never “no comment” • Single spokesperson • Central info center • Constant flow of info • Media needs and deadlines • Be accessible • Monitor coverage • Communicate with key publics Reputation Quotient: Reputation Institute and Harris Interactive Media Reputation Index (MRI); Delahaye Medialink Chapter 11 • ID with computer • Aggregate: census, stat. Abstracts • Individual: mortgage, Winn Dixie, online, cookie • Controlled media, including Internet • Lists, Zip Codes • Claritas: 62 Lifestyle clusters • Key: Age, Gender, Race Ethnic • 2010 • Anglo: 64% • Hispanic: 16% • Black: 13% • Asian: 5% • Native: 2.0% • 2050 • Anglo: 45.5% • Hispanic: 29.5% • Black: 14.5% • Asian: 9% • Native: 1.5% Age: Youth and Young Adults • Generation Y (GY): Born 1980-‐1995 • Generation X (GX): Born between 1965 and 1980 • Generation Y • 20% of US Population • Parent influence • Trust in info from relationships • Savy about unfiltered info • 15-‐24: $350 billion purchasing power • Spend 1/3 of life on Internet Age: Boomers • Born between 1946 and 1964 • 78 million, 24% of US population • $3 trillion purchasing power, 2015 control 60% of US net worth • Concern about health, aging • Active, socially conscious Age: Seniors • 65 and older • 36.3 million 65 and older; 12% of US population • Avoid old stereotypes • 65-‐74 More discretionary income than any group; 70% of assets • Own homes, strong assets • 80% of commercial vacation travel • Compared to average adult, 30% TV time, 25% more newspaper time • 55+ Facebook’s fastest growth area Women • Make 80% of household purchase decisions • Stronger users of social media than men • 25-‐54: super consumers, new media • Supermoms: 5% of moms, Opinion Leaders, WOM, Bloggers • All adult women: 50% of US workforce Gay/Lesbian • 9-‐16 million in US, very conservative • Higher incomes, education, $750 million purchasing power • Targeted media: Out, Advocate • Mainstream: Modern Family, Brokeback Mountain • Integrating into advertising US Religious Groups • Catholics: 70 million, 21%; 4th largest Catholic nation in the world • Southern Baptist: 16 million, 5% • Methodists: 8 million, 2.5% • Jewish: 6.5 million, 2% • Muslim: 6 million, 2% • Evangelical Christian Right: hard to measure: conservative, family values, school prayer, anti-‐abortion • Disabled: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Disability Community • 60 million people in US • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Language: Physically disabled, R word • Services: large point size, ASL available, ADA accommodations (ramp, doors)
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