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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Johnson on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miki KItchen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3298 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Psychology Exam 2 1. Scott suffers from metabolic insufficiency X (MIX) disorder. His mother also has MIX disorder, but his father does not. What can we conclude? The MIX gene must be recessive 2. Which early scientist described how species change in an orderly manner? Charles Darwin 3. Walter is applying to graduate programs in psychology and is curious about current trends in the field. What trend is occurring in many psychology graduate school programs? Students are trained in combined specialties. 4. A reaction to a given stimulus that requires no previous experience is referred to as a(n) ____. Unconditional response 5. Which scenario best illustrates the concept of migration? When the native americans moved across America 6. Sleep ________ is a sleep disorder in which the person stops breathing while asleep. Sleep apnea affects breathings 7. Your text discusses recovered memories of childhood abuse. In the absence of proof, the authors recommend ____. 8. Nadine’s 9-month-old son now knows to look for his teddy bear when she hides it behind the pillow. This appearance of object permanence in infants after the age of 8 months or so provides support for the importance of the ____ to working memory. Prefrontal cortex 9. How did early industrialization impact the male-female dynamic? The power shift of men and women has evolved over the years. 10. Jess is fast asleep, and her roommate Crystal is studying in the next room when their cat knocks a lamp off of the bookshelf. Crystal jumps up from her desk, but Jess remains asleep. What brain structure is responsible for raising or lowering the thresholds of conscious awareness, such that Crystal reacts to the stimulus while Jess does not? Recticular Formation 11. Manuel is teaching his 3-year-old son Joey the alphabet song. Joey sings “A B C D H K G.” This is an example of ____. The primary effect 12. Dora has no problem falling asleep each night, but she wakes up frequently in the middle of the night and often cannot fall back asleep. From what type of insomnia does Dora suffer? Maintenance Insomnia 13. What is the purpose of a sensory homunculus? To map 14. Callie has gathered extensive data regarding the working conditions and stress levels of domestic workers in five U.S. cities, including their annual income. She arranges the data from low to high and notes how many workers are in each category using a bar chart. This is called a ____. Frequency Distribution 15. Molly, whose eyes are brown, inherited a gene for blue eyes from her mother and a gene for brown eyes from her father. Molly’s brown eyes are part of her ____. Phenotype 16. Doris’s heart suddenly races as a speeding car nearly collides with hers on the highway. Which neurotransmitter is playing a role in this response? Epinephrine 17. Which of the following is least likely to be an example of classical conditioning? Child crying at siren 18. Although the bulk of psychology focuses on human behavior, studying animal behavior has been an essential part of the discipline that allows for ____. Make comparisons 19. Joan, a neuroscience graduate student, is asked by her laboratory mentor to study the communication of two neurons grown in a petri dish. She is asked to stimulate an action potential in the first neuron, which will send a depolarizing stimulus to the second, “receiving” neuron. However, her mentor would also like her to block the receiving neuron from generating an action potential. How can Joan accomplish this? Block the process of summation 20. New and innovative methods have allowed psychologists to observe brain activity and revisit questions of mental processes.What quality was introduced to psychological research through the use of these methods? Objectivity 21. Which statement regarding the role of genes on human behavior is accurate? 22. Which saying best reflects the concept of self-actualization? Be all that you can be 23. What is a disadvantage of continuous reinforcement? Not convenient 24. Simon has curly hair. If he is homozygous for the gene that determines curly hair, what is true of his parents? One, but not both, of his parents, have contributed an allele for curly hair 25. Some cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may include biological vulnerabilities in the function of which neurotransmitter? Serotonin 26. Stephen has just finished composing his first poem, entitled Clouded Memories, for his poetry slam class. He is slated to recite the first 10 lines during class tonight, and repeats them over and over to himself as he is walking there. This is called ____. 27. According to the Müller-Lyer illusion, we tend to see lines with outward- pointing arrowheads as ____. Being farther away from us 28. Accordingo a study individuals from which nation are most likely to show the lowest amount of emotional suppression? 29. The word psychology is a combination of two Greek words: psyche (or psuche), meaning “the soul,” and logos, meaning “the ____.” The study of 30. Which structure of the eye is responsible for detecting light? Retina 31. Over the summer break, Jed earns extra cash working as a salesman at Sensational Sound Systems. As one of the most knowledgeable salesmen on staff, Jed tells a young couple shopping for a sound system that the more expensive models are worth the money because they ____. 32. Kevin is a participant in a taste-off as part of his campus’s Greek Week. He is blindfolded and his nose is pinched off with a clothespin. He is asked to taste a slice of apple and a slice of raw potato. Kevin is likely to ____. Think that the apple and the potato are the same 33. Information about touch travels from the skin directly to the ____. Spinal cord 34. In Garcia and Koelling’s taste aversion study, why were the rats unable to associate a brightnoisy stimulus with feeling ill? The rats relied more on taste and smell rather than vision and hearing for identifying food. 35. Juliet is only 2 days old. She is shown several different pictures. Which would she be most likely to stare at for the longest? 36. Peter’s mother normally arrives home from work in a terrible mood, causing Peter extreme anxiety. However, when Peter sees that his mother is wearing sweat pants, Peter feels at ease, knowing that she has been home from work for a while. Peter’s recognition that the sweatpants indicate no reason to feel anxious illustrates ____. Inhibition 37. The binge-purge cycling of bulimia nervosa involves processes similar to those of ____. Addiction 38. Steve and Allie, who work at the same research institute, are competing to be the first scientist to isolate novel protein X from cancer cells. They run into one another while signing up for the same lab microscope and discuss their research progress. The end result is that Steve's research project benefited from the interaction but Allie's did not. Which set of interactional styles could have occurred between Steve and Allie? Selfish or altruistic 39. Maslow’s view of motivation is best described as a ____. Pyramid of needs 40. The probability that two people share the same allele from a common ancestor is referred to as ____. Relatedness 41. The existence of varying states of awareness benefits animals by facilitating ____. Body repair and energy conservation 42. Which of the following behavioral changes best illustrates the process of learning? Claire 43. Following cardiac arrest, Teresa’s father Ike is in a coma. Ike’s doctor explains to Teresa that his brain activity shows ____. Only alpha that differentiates from a normal sleeping pattern 44. A limitation of the experimental method is that ____. participants know that they are in a research study and may vary their behavior accordingly 45. A(n) ____ is a neuron that carries commands from the central nervous system to muscles or glands. Motor neuron 46. The psychological perspective that investigates how physical structure and behavior have been shaped by their contributions to survival and reproduction is called ____ psychology. Evolutionary 47. Kendyl is born with a congenital disorder that prevents her eyes from sensing light; her fraternal twin brother Gabe is born with normal vision. Compared to Gabe, Kendyl will likely have ____. A longer circadian cycle 48. Which of the following is an example of nonassociative learning? Andrea 49. As Angel speeds down Elm Avenue, he suddenly slams on his brakes to avoid a collision with another car. Angel’s response is an example of a(n) ____. Learned behavior 50. Jonah is playing on his tablet one evening, when his father asks him to finish up and get ready to take a bath. Jonah nods but completely ignores the request. After a few minutes his father repeats the request with a slightly sterner voice. Jonah says, “Okay, let me just finish this game.” Ten minute later, when Jonah has clearly played several more games, his father repeats the request but with a very firm voice. Jonah, knowing that his father is getting angry, puts down the tablet and goes to take a bath. Jonah’s different responding to different “voices” from his father illustrates _____. 51. A schedule of partial reinforcement in which the first response after a specified period of time will be reinforced is called a ____ schedule. Fixed interval 52. Memory aids that link new information to well-known information are called ____. Mnemonics 53. A newspaper headline reads, “Are intellectual pursuits the key to preventing Alzheimer’s disease?” The researchers scanned the brains of healthy seniors with no memory loss and asked the seniors to recall how much reading, writing, and game-playing they did in childhood. Those who reported doing daily brain activities from a young age had very low levels of amyloid plaques, which are associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Which of the following best describes this study’s findings? Negative correlation 54. Seven-year-old Sangram is not allowed to touch the television remote. Nevertheless, he uses the remote to change the volume from level 15 to 17. His parents, who are in the next room, seem unaware. The next day, Sangram becomes bold and turns the volume from level 15 to 30. His father yells at him, “Stop playing with the remote!” What prevented Sangram’s father from noticing the volume change on the previous day? Difference threshold 55. In most cases, information moves from shortterm or working memory to longterm memory through ____. Rehearsal 56. Junko’s grandmother survived a stroke but is paralyzed on her left side. She has likely suffered damage to her ____. Right hemisphere 57. Following a spinal cord injury, formation of the ____ prevents neuronal regeneration in the ____. Glia scar, central nervous system 58. Which of the following statements is an example of humanistic influence? I hear what you’re saying 59. What is the evidence to suggest that abrupt changes to one’s daily schedule are detrimental to human behavior? Changing over to daylight savings time 60. The gene for nerve deterioration X (NDX) disorder is located on the X chromosome. What can we conclude? It is more prevalent in males. 61. The psychological perspective that examines the effects of one’s environment on the behavior of individuals is called ____ psychology. Social 62. Ginger examines a painting of a stone path extending into the horizon of a field. Two sticks lie horizontally across the path: one in the beginning of the path and the other near the horizon. Each stick measures 10 cm in length, but the stick near the horizon appears much larger than the stick at the beginning of the path. Which illusion explains this phenomenon? Ponzo illusion 63.Sarah is having a tip-of-the tongue experience with the name of an Indian restaurant that recently received a great review. She suspects that it may start with a “K” sound and consist of two syllables, but all that comes to mind is Canton or Colorado. Which of the following choices would be the most likely name of the restaurant? Kashmir 64.What is the psychological perspective that focuses on the relationships between mind, behavior, and their underlying biological processes, including genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology? Biological psychology 65.Molly, a second year neuroscience graduate student, treats neurons grown in a petri dish with drugs that “block” the function of neuronal receptors. What is a consequence of the drug treatment? The synaptic vesicles will be void of neurotransmitters, blocking neuronal communication. 66.As Ronnie hears a song on the radio, she feels stressed: her heart races, her hands become clammy, and her breathing becomes rapid. The song is familiar because it was very popular at a time when her parents were going through a divorce that caused Ronnie intense anxiety. In this scenario, identify the following in the same respective order: the conditioned stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response, and the unconditioned response. song; parents fighting; anxiety toward song; anxiety toward parents fighting 67.Donatella participates in a study and is asked to view a series of images that are likely to provoke strong emotion: a father caressing his newborn baby; a child crying at his mother’s funeral; and a shark ferociously attacking a seal. While she views these images, a PET scan monitors her brain activity. What is the PET scan likely to show? Distinct patterns of activity will be observed for each of her emotions. 68.Contrary to popular belief during his time, Hermann von Helmholtz’s work on nerve conduction showed that ____. behavior is not instantaneous 69.Enclosed within axons are ____, which are hollow spheres containing ____. vesicles; chemical messengers 70.A reinforcer that gains value from being associated with other things that are valued is called a(n) ____ reinforcer. Conditioned 71.Who is likely to discontinue his or her behavior first if reinforcement completely stops? Sam who receives $20 72. Which of the following statements would be most difficult to falsify? All men are mortal 73. Which of the following is true A message cannot be valid without being reliable 74.If genes play no part in producing phenotypical differences between individuals, heritability is ____. .0 75. Memory aids that link new information to well-known information are called ____. Mnemonics
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