Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide 76884
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Onefater on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 76884 at George Washington University taught by Dr. George Howe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see PSYC4201W in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Midterm Study Guide Lecture 1: What is clinical psychology? → Applying a diagnostic system → Can be involved in research, but it is a practitionerscientist model where you are using your research to then apply it to treatment message for clients and patients and can be involved in both the research side and the intervention side. → A profession, grounded in compassion for others, based on the wish to: – Reduce the burden of physical, mental, and emotional distress and disorder – Promote well being and physical health. Clinical psychological science? • A set of empirical methods for answering questions that help us meet these practical goals. Why questions • Etiology (why questions): 1. What events, conditions, processes, mechanisms increase risk for distress, disorder, disease, illbeing? Ex: Prenatal stress that can affect the child and the Mother later in life 2. When risk is elevated, what events, conditions, processes,mechanismsprotect against such outcomes? Ex: If Mom is stressed out during pregnancy, are there things that can happen that reduce the risk for her child to have attention problems (i.e. dietary) 3. If distress, disorder, disease, illbeing manifest, what events, conditions, processes, mechanisms r educe or resolve those states? Ex: If suffering is already happening what are ways to resolve it? (i.e. treatment, what goes on, and how does it work) How questions • Intervention (how questions): – What can we do that will effectivelyinfluence risk or protective mechanisms in order to prevent such outcomes? ex: If you have parents engage in program, will that protect them and their families in the future ex: have to target the things that lead it there, because if you don’t know why, you cannot know what to treat/ the “how” – When such problems manifest, what can we do that will effectively treat or resolve them? What is the foundation of these methods? • A general stance of compassionate, open, careful, empirical inquiry. – Compassionate: the protection of human subjects (First assignment) – Open: allowing for alternative hypotheses – Careful: following procedures that minimize bias and error – Empirical: basing our conclusions on observation, not opinion Lecture 2: A quick walk through the science of stress response How is this Different than Stressing?An act or behavior, Complaining, Anxious/Nervous Working Yourself up about Certain things Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers is a discussion about the biology of Stress, and he focuses his metaphor on Zebras → Large part of this comes from primate research and other mammals, not just human research Environmental challenges • Lifethreatening conditions – Predators: Talks about the Zebra, and the Zebra being chased by a lion: these are lifethreatening stressors, and for a zebra having a lion appear could present a life threatening event – Entrapment: Another life threatening event it entrapment, or the idea that you can be entrapped in many things in your physical world(can’t move, eat etc.) Example: Cues are things that may come before the actual event itself (i.e. Zebra may have a cue of an animal running towards it). Preliminary ues are very important in the animal kingdom before the life threatening situation. Immediate response • Action to increase likelihood of survival – Freeze : Actually not moving, and may actually be helpful in saving a life i.e. camouflage – Flee – Fight Psychological mechanisms that shape actions 1. Attention • Orienting responsePartially automatic – Innate: orienting to novelty Amygdala is a very good process of novelty(i..e things that are novel and things that are not) Novelty: (def.) things that are new, sort of an abstract or psychological process – Learned: orienting to cues associated with prior challenge • Triggered through auditory, visual, tactile stimuli 2. Appraisal • Evaluating stimuli in terms of: “is it a threat, or isn’t if?” – Innate: • Looming (fruit flies: Carver & Dickinson, 2008) • Predator above (chicks) – Learned: associating cues with threat • Crude “presence/absence” distinction → We make meaning out of things, and animals evaluated in terms of the Question of threat! “Yes/No” response. → The flies world seems to be a stimulus world when it is sitting there, but the distinction is, is there something above it or not? Flies are very sensitive to luminous stimuli and have a built in reaction and involves a neurological connection that involves fast jumps. 3. Arousal • Peripheral nervous system response • Primitive emotional states (?) – Anger (i.e. I am being threatened, and I can get angry about it,) – Fear (i.e. something is going to happen to me) – Sadness, (i.e. I have lost something that I am not going to get back) • Becoming more differentiated in mammals and primates → Emotion is more complex in some ways because it requires a series of responses, but they also involve appraisal, particularly become more differentiated when we move into humanity → Expression can be in the body, but it is much stronger in the face! Brain/body • Coordinated systems that: – Slow the body down – Prepare the body for action – Support more extended demands on the body – Support clean up and repair, preparing for the next event • Tight integration of: – Central nervous system (brain) – Peripheral nervous system – Organs (heart, lungs, pancreas) – Fat cells (energy storage system) – Muscles Freezing Parasympathetic nervous system Neural architecture of parasympathetic system • Begins at the dorsal vagal nucleus of the brain • Direct nerve connections from brain to organs • Primarily to the heart, lungs, gut Function of the parasympathetic system • Calm, vegetative activities that promote growth, energy storage • Stimulates – Salivation – Digestion – Insulin production by the pancreas (which leads to storage of glucose in fat cells) • Slows – Heart beat – Blood flow to muscles → Stimulating the getting in o energy and the storing energy Parasympathetic response to severe life threat • Immobilizes: slows or shuts things down • Activation can lead to prolonged immobility or feigned death • Implicated in cases of survival after falling through ice and being under cold water for long periods of time → The brain cannot survive more than a few minute without oxygen, Fight or flight: Actually two systems • Fast system: sympathetic nervous system – A few seconds • Slower system: HPA axis – Minutes to hours Fast system: Sympathetic nervous systemNeural architecture of sympathetic system • Through neurons in the spinal cord • Nerves end on many target organs – Heart – Lungs– Pancreas – Adrenal gland • When activated “readies body for action” – Inhibits: • Salivation • GI tract – Activates: • Sweating • Accelerated breathing • Accelerated heartbeat • Increased blood pressure • More oxygenated blood to muscles → Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous systems acts in parallel to one another Activation of sympathetic systemNeural architecture of the HPA Axis • Includes both central nervous system and peripheral components • Composed of three structures: – Hypothalamus – Pituitary gland – Adrenal gland • Operates through release of glucocorticoids including cortisol → This transports via hormones, and can release into the bloodstream → Cortisol is a hormone that is release by the adrenal gland and has a lot of affect through the body Cortisol • Cortisol – A major glucocorticoid produced by adrenal gland – Released into the bloodstream • Functions to: – Back up the activity of the sympathetic system over longer periods of time (minutes to hours) – Release glucose from fat cells to provide energy for muscles → Cortisol flips a switch that stops insulin in the fat cells, and allows the fat cells to release more glucose, sypathetic sstem is the SWAT team, and this is the “clean up” team. – Help with the recovery from stress response – Prepare the system for the next stressor Four themes • The psychology becomes more complex • Greater possibility of becoming entrapped in chronic activation Ex: If you forget to study for an exam, the thought does not just go away, it persists! • Chronic activation increases risk of disease and early death • We have more voluntary control over parts of the stress response Psychology of human stress response→ Types of environmental challenges • Threat to a much broader set of goals (often social) – Survival – Physical comfort – Social inclusion – Caregiving: we care for others and we take care of others; this can be threatened (i.e. Parent has a child who develops a severe illness) – Sexuality : also involves the interaction with another person and also involves caregiving and care taking as well as the coupling parts of our lives – Achievement – Self valuing: How we can feel threatened if we feel that others are devaluing us, and/or we are devaluing ourselves...this is a THREAT! Attention/awareness • Orienting to wider range of challenge or threat cues • Partial voluntary control: we can deploy attention(i.e. in class can pay attention to a Prof. voice, to their own thoughts, and through noises from a heating system in the classroom). Appraisal • More complex distinctions – What goals of mine are being challenged? – Do I have the resources to meet that challenge? • More complex processing – Extended in time (apprehension about the future) i.e. Worried about taking Graduate school exams when you are in your first year of Undergraduate school – Sequential or cyclic (rumination) – Problem solving skills • Both involuntary and voluntary – Fast appraisal system (simpler like/dislike) – Slower and more methodical system Emotional arousal • Broader range of basic emotions – Surprise – Fear – Anger – Disgust – Sadness – Joy → Or can be contempt(for another human being), shame(should have some other involved), and guilt • More complex mixes that interdigitate with appraisal – Anxiety (i.e. worrying or thinking about what could happen) – Righteous anger (i.e. I am right and you are breaking values that I hold dear) – Selfblaming guilt Action • More basic: approach versus avoidance • More complex responses and skills – Highly tuned to specific context and goals (i.e. different approaches with people→ addressing someone in public vs. in private) – Often involving social interaction – Can target both the challenge and emotional reactions Does entrapment in chronic stress response affect your health?→ HUGE amount of evidence that says, YES! Entrapment in chronic activation • Brain/body allostasi:(def) If you do something enough, it does not go back – Various body “thermostats” get reset, systems stay on too much – Some “thermostat controls” stop working, system may fluctuate widely. Is chronic stress associated with heart attack? • Pereg et al (2011) • Compared heart attack patients to other hospitalized controls→ Hair stores cortisol • Assessed cortisol inair samples • Found strong association of cortisol with Myocardial Infarction (heart attack) Is chronic stress associated with stroke? • Egido et al (2012) • Studied 150 stroke patients, 300 matched controls • Collected data on stressors over prior year Caspi et al (2003): Stress and genetic diathesis together predict depression → the more life event you have, the more likely you are to have more reported depression, and those vary according to a particular gene Allostatic Load and Mortality in McArthur Study of Aging → People who only had 1 in 1988, and most people who had 9, almost 45% had died, and these are indexes of biological responses to stress, chronic and chronic activation of the stress response system is clearly tied with bad things that happen to both physical and mental health Lecture 3: Chronic activation and entrapment: → Ongoing emotional arousal when the system, if it's constantly plagues us, can turn into things called disorders of clinical depression. If it is a the brain/body system, having too much of that stress response, which helps us can lead to health problems, many of them associated with the chronic activation of cortisol in the system and the things that can lead to cardiac problems and cardiac disease and an increased risk for dying Chronic activation of stress response • Why does it occur? – Repeated triggering – Entrapment in selfmaintaining cycles → Rumination and negative affect lead to this kind of cycle Key questions for the psychological science of stress response • How are attention, appraisal, arousal, action involved in : – riggerin a full stress response? – Exacerbatin the stress response? –Maintaining the stress response? (keeping it going for longer) • How can we employ attention, appraisal, arousal, or action mechanisms effectively to: – Preven chronic stress response; – Resolve chronic stress response and associated burdens such as anxiety or depression? Timing • How long do these take? – Triggerin: seconds to minutes, if you want to study triggering, it is probably best to study it at that time scale, and it is important to stay within that focused period – Repeated or cyclic activa: days, weeks, months→ takes longer than triggering, and looking at a specific instance of triggering in the lab will not be helpful in this process. – ealth impac months, years, decades Implications for research • Study timing should match timing of what we study – Triggerin: laboratory studies with exposure to brief stimuli – Repeated or cyclic activa: longitudinal studies of challenge and response over weeks or months – Health impac: long term follow ups in longitudinal designs How do stressrelated cues capture our attention? Attention In stress is how do stress related cues capture our attention, we talked briefly about attention, and need to see our threat out there and separate that from its environment. How did you attention get pulled in a certain direction? What is it that gets us to orient? • Extreme physical threat focuses us: – Most organisms orient toward physical danger cues What about cues for other forms of threat? → Human are prone to threats that are much broader than the immediate physical threat • Social threat • Achievement threat: particularly if achievement goals are important to us, than those achievement goals are possible • More abstract threat: DATADEAD Lab studies of attention •Dotprobe task commonly used to evaluate effects of stimuli on attention.(Cheaper approach) • Four steps: – Fixate – Briefly show stimulus pair (one threatening) – Show cue (either one or two stars) in same location as one stimulus – Response: D key for one star, L key for two stars • Repeat many times Reaction time • Initial stimuli assumed to activate attention towards one location •Reaction time: how fast you respond after cue (one star or two) is presented •Differential reaction ti: Difference in reaction time to one type of stimulus compared to the other • Requires many trials, as effects are often very subtle Possible outcomes •Vigilance: faster response to threat cue Threat vigilan: then you have faster response of the threat stimulus •Avoidance: faster response to nonthreat cue → Something is pushing you to look away What could influence vigilance towards or avoidance of specific cues? • Being in a more threatening environment • Appraisals about that environment • Chronic sensitization: Is it poss. that part of what is going on that you are constantly being triggered to attend to certain cues with the potential for an associated threat response. Being in a more threatening environment • More threatening contexts can increasattentional avoidancof danger cues in humans who do not avoid cues in less threatening contexts (Shechner et al, 2012)– Veterans exposed to trauma reminders – Soldiers undergoing simulated combat – Civilians exposed to rocket attacks *NOTE: a lot of this has been done in Israel Studying the effects of threatening environment • Wald, I., Lubin, G., Holoshitz, Y., Muller, D., Fruchter, E., Pine, D. S., . . . BarHaim, Y. (2011). Battlefieldlike stress following simulated combat and suppression of attention bias • Studied Israeli paratroopers • Participated in dot probe task twice – T1: First week of basic training – T2: 23 weeks later • Assigned to one of two groups – Experimental: T2 assessment immediately following a 36 hour combat simulation exercise – Control: T2 assessment a few days before they were scheduled to participate in exercise Results • Threat bias score subtracts RT for nonthreat from RT for threat stimulihigher = more vigilance)> the more you are responding to threat cues faster • Control group showed increased vigilance over time • Experimental group showed increased a voidance over time. Why? • Could be adaptive: – In high threat situations, attending to mild threats is a waste of resources → Attending to mild threats is a waste of resources – In low threat situations, we have more leisure to attend to the minor things – However, change in control group suggests overall military training may increase chronic vigilance Critique of study • Could the effects be due to something other than being in a highthreat environment? Critique: Let’s dig into it and think about it carefully → All studies have limitations to it → Under certain circumstance, we can experience that in relative terms as opposed to the broader context as safe. *NOTE: They were on duty for 36 hours, so exhaustion can lower or increase threshold for perceiving threat! Can a person’s “mindset” have an impact on vigilance or avoidance? • Could recent thoughts or emotions influence attention bias? (Williams, M. O., Mathews, A., & Hirsch, C. R. (2014). Verbal worry facilitates attention to threat in highworriers. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45(1), 814. Williams et al (2014)/Matthews •Sample : 60 High worriers (using cutoff on worry questionnaire) → Used Penn State Worry Scale and it was used to measure high levels of ongoing worry •Conditions: instructions to engage in: – Verbal worry – Imagebased worry • How to be sure participants did have relevant thoughts and feelings? A: They asked them to rate(in 2 min. block) what percentage of the time they actually used verbal or imaginative worryManipulation Check • Evaluated worry content and worry style with self ratings – Proportion of thoughts that were negative – Proportion of thoughts in the correct style People who got kicked out, got kicked out in a biased way(towards the hypothesis) → Nonrandom because they are thrown out for systematic reasons • Random assignment to condition, but lost some people after assignment: – Couldn’t do task (based on ratings) – Dropped below cutoff on worry scale • Problems with this? • Used data to check whether groups were equivalent on(random assignment): – Gender → If they thrown women out because women are better at verbal worrying, and they were put in the imagery group, then they would be gender biased by kicking them out! – Age – Anxiety scores • Results: • The ABI score for the Verbal group was significantlylargerthan zero, M = 7.39, SD = 17.87. • The ABI score of the Imagery group didnot significantly differ from zero, M = 2.69, SD = 13.17 • The ABI score of the Verbal group was significantly larger than the ABI score of the Imagery group. This reflected significantly more speeded responses to threat words in the Verbal group relativeto the Imagery group. Chronic sensitization • Is it possible that attention can become chronically sensitized to threat? • Might that help explain conditions such as: – Severe social anxiety – Post traumatic stress disorder But... • Hypervigilance (heightened attention toward threat) is found in those with anxiety disorders – Patients with PTSD selectively attend to traumarelated words – Patients with social anxiety disorder respond most strongly to words of social judgment • Yet selective attentioaway from threat also found – High trait anxious individuals avoid attention to threatening pictures – Maltreated children with PTSD show attentional avoidance of angry or threatening faces Vigilance Avoidance Hypothesis • Matthews (1990) • Attention bias follows time course: – Elevated anxiety results in Involuntary, automatic response to orient towardthreat =FAST! – Followed quickly by attentional avoidance • Evidence in lab studies: – Orientation toward threat tends to be foundearly (100ms) – Avoidance tends to show a bit later (5001500ms) • Suggests this is maladaptive because response can never habituate, perpetuating PTSD, anxiety → If you look for threat cues, and if you are to avoid the and you don’t get a chance to engage them, you cannot habituate your reponse to avoid them! Evidence from the paratrooper study: • Wald et al. also measured PTSD symptoms • Those higher in PTSD symptoms showed more suppression just after the combat exercise, but somewhat greater vigilance before it. Summary: Stress and attention • Orientation to threat cues can involve both vigilance and avoidance • Context, thoughts, and emotions can sensitize people to threat cues • Chronic sensitization is associated with severe anxiety conditions: involves both vigilance and avoidance! → Attention processes involving risk and also involved in how they are maintained Lecture 4: Causation and Psychological Science: Causal: What things that happen are likely to increase risk later on?What factors can we do to resolve the stress?Do our interventions help prevent or resolve? Causal Reasoning ● We can infer(warrant→ may or may not be correct) that A influence B: ● When changes in A are followed by changes in B, given that the absence of change in A would have been followed by absence of change in B, all other plausible causes are equal 1. Changes in A a. In the example from today’s reading: “A” occurs as a specific event at a particular time and place, but in Psychology, we are interested in general kinds of types of “A’s” i. Example: A particular angry face in a pictures is one of a set of socially threatening events. We think about blame, rejection, shunning in society/in their culture, verbal attack. → So are we intered in change in more abstract conditions such as threat referred to as CONSTRUCTS *IMPORTANT: The cause will depend on what we are interested in. 2. bserving Change in A Two Methods a. Create the change by doing something (manipulation) b. Observe naturally occurring instances of change Two Elements of research design a. Experiments that manipulate stimuli, contexts b. Longitudinal studies that observe context over time and identify new events or patterns of change 1. Observing Changes in B Two Methods → Observing something more than once, and calculating some index of change over that time period a. Did some type of event occurs(e.g. Person responded correctly or not) b. Did some characteristic change? (e.g person became more anxious by some amount) → Observing Something later difference between groups who started out the same place (e.g. Williams study from Tuesday) ● Changes in A are Followed by Changes in B ○ Causation is asymmetric effect follows cause ○ We need to observe change in B that occur after changes in A → Observing for temporal priority Experiments: 1. Builtin we always observe effects after the manipulation 2. Timing of Observation depends on how long we think the effects last a. Lab studies: seconds to minutes b. Treatment or prevention trials: months to years to decades Longitudinal observation studies: 1. Often requires a minimum of three observation occasions a. Cause changes from T1 to T2 b. Effect changes from T2 to T3 Contiguity? (def.) Close to each other in space and time → So the two events have to be close to each other in space and time? Not necessarily: we can allow for causal chains, omediation Repeatedly Conjoined Events → A Stable association between A and B ver multiple instances → In psychological science, what kind of instances? a. Multiple occasions for the same person? b. The same type of occasion for multiple people? WithinPerson Association: → Example: in the dot probe task, you are exposed to a threat stimulus 50 times. We divide your response into fast or not fast a. Which of the following patterns would reflect a stable association? BetweenPerson Association: → Example: 70 people participated the dot probe task after going through the verbal worry instructions We use each person's average speed to determine whether they are fast or not fast with the threat cues,. a. Which of the following patterns would reflect a stable association between worry and speed. Adding a “What if” i.e. If “A” had not happened , then “B “ Would not have happened → more recent work(Paul Holland, Don Rubin, Judea Pearl) adds another condition: a. “When, if X had not occurred, Y would not have occurred” b. Called the counterfactual:what would have happened if things had been different. c. Many instances in literature: “what would have happened if the South had won the Civil War?” The central problem of inferring causation from observational: We cannot observe both X and notX at exactly the same time. → But we can come up with a way to estimate the counterfactual? a. Find an appropriate conditions: “counterfactual carpentry” In exp. studies, the substituted counter actual condition is often called control or comparison group. Both experimental and control conditions need to be chosen carefully to allow causal reference Experimental condition→ presence of threatening stimulus (i.e. ANGRY FACE) Control Condition→ absence of threatening stimulus: which one? (i.e. NONANGRY FACE) 1. Experimental condition: involvement in yogabased stress management program 2. Control Condition: not being involved in stress management program: Which one? Observing Over Multiple instance: → Allows us to observe both conditions (factual and substitute and counterfactual) Causal inference depends on whether outcomes differ across conditions. Ex: in the dot probe task, you are exposed to a threat stimulus and a nonthreat stimbut , most causes have only partial effects, so we then compare probability: 68% vs. 58% This leads to s light change in our causal reasoning: We can infer that A influence B: → When changes in A are followed by change in B, given that absence of change in A would have been followed by absence of or different pattern of change in B, all other plausible options being equal. Observing other multiple instances: → Another reason to include multiple observations (or participants) in studies: → For example Under certain circumstance , comparing groups can be reflected in causation → Counterfactual Assumption: Groups equivalent on all other plausible causes a. Make sure the groups do not differ from each other Lecture 5: Causal Reasoning We can infer that A influences B: • When changes in A are followed by changes in B, • given that absence of or differences in the pattern of change in A would have been followed by absence of change in B, • all other plausible causes being equal. → In the chapter, Howe talks about “all other things being equal” is quite IMPOSSIBLE. Ex: giving you a medication to see how your heart respondand at exactly the same time, he does not give you medication to see how your heart responds→ Does not happen in reality → We can infer that something causes or influences something else. What do we mean by “being equal”? • Operating in the same way in both the factual and the counterfactual condition • In experiments: – There can be other things influencing B, but thecan’t diffe for the experimental and control groups → Ex: saw car accident, ended a relationship, comes from an abusive household ro a volatile household, someone has some sort of mental condition i.e. Asperger's Syndrome, inherent sensitivity to stimuli Selection? • What if people had been allowed tochoose their condition (verbal or imagery)? → Would suggest that there are things we experience/something about who we are that could influence that choice! • What factors (personality, recent experiences) might influence their choice? Answer : For young kids, boys tend to develop more slowly verbally than girls do, vision problems might make imagery harder for that individual. Selection effects • Could any of the factors we just came up with also influence sensitivity to threat? Answer : Sensitivity to contact, some people may be more sensitive to threat cues, verbal threat cues may be more pushed away from the verbal condition, so you get more people from the imagery from the imagery condition, and they become more sensitive to threat cues. → Personality style pushes someone to select a certain style(imagery/verbal), and then affects how they respond to threat cues. Selection effects • If yes, our groups are not meet the “all other plausible causes being equal” requirement → People in them(groups), share the same set of causes! Confounding • Confounding occurs when some third factor: – Is associated with my supposed cause – Influences the supposed effect • When confounding occurs, any observed association between supposed cause and effect could be purious(def.) wrong → Faster in the verbal condition, and slower in the imagery condition, and by allowing people to select in, experimenter has created a confounding study. Any association between the two variables could be incorrect, but there could be no way of knowing if you are wrong/right! What if a person gets both conditions? • Personality, recent conditions are all the same, and they can’t be confounds – “A person acting as their own control” • BUT: The problem of spillover – If I first use verbal worry, could it change the effects of later imagery worry? *NOTE: When you are in the second condition, your history is no longer the same because you were in the first condition first! (withinsubject study). • Example: Trials comparing two medications – If someone gets both meds, need washout period to be sure first med is out of the system, and then have them come back after a time when you know it has washed out of the system → need to have prior theory, understanding, and studies, and may mean no longer detectable levels in the blood stream, or other ways). → Anesthetics have an effect up to a few months later, so this can be a complicated method! Can one person be the control for another? • Juan does verbal worry(happy person), Jenny does imagery worry(angry person) • Personality, recent conditions are very likely to be differeAnswer : No! Not useful at all Can one group be the control for another? • Personality, recent conditions are more likely to be equivalenon average → When you get larger groups, the average attitude, shifts toward the middle, and average attitudes are going to be similar under certain conditions! What research conditions support this assumption? • Various research methods available for getting closer to equivalence on confounds • Depends on type of confounding Types of confounding • Selection effects – Some third factor influences selection into our supposed causal conditions, and also influences our outcome → Have been a very important for trials of intervention/programs • Induced confounding – We think our conditions vary only on the feature of interest, but they also vary on some other feature that influences the outcome. How to eliminate selection effects? • Use a selection method that can’t be biased (by either your participants or you) → MAKE it completely chance! –Random assignment (each person has equal probability of being in one group or the other) – When random assignment is used, groups will be closer to equivalent even on unknown or unobserved factors Can groups differ on confounds by chance? • Yes, even when using random assignment – More likely with smaller samples – Ways to improve on simple randomization • Therefore, good to measure potential confounds and test whether groups are equivalent or not – Can adjust statistically if differences are found What is Plausible? • How do we determine what is plausible? – Common sense – Prior research – Theory Induced confounds • In experiments, we create both factual(experimental) and counterfactual (control) conditionsdesign materials that you expose people to. •Withinsubject example: using dot probe task to test whether threat words lead to faster response than nonthreat words – Suppose we show someone 24 threat words and 24 nonthreat words – They respond with either the left or right hand, depending on the cue (one star or two) → It is likely that a person is faster with one finger than the other finger(more often than not, this is true). – Words appear at the top and bottom of the screen • Creating conditions that differ on factors other than the ones we are interested in → Words can differ in threat meaning, length, and how difficult they are Ex: Hate and Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious, should not be compared to one another • When those factors have some impact on the outcome of interest How to reduce or eliminate induced confounding? • Creating conditions that differ on factors other than the ones we are interested in • When those factors have some impact on the outcome of interest How to reduce or eliminate induced confounding? • Design experimental and control conditions so they differ on your construct of interest, but not on other factors that couldplausibly influence the outcome • Lab 2: you will be design both experimental and control conditions for a study: – How your conditions vary – How your conditions need to be similar How do we keep plausible causes equal? • Experimental studies: – Random assignment at various levels – Constrain the stimuli or contexts we manipulate → Cortisol a stress hormone, but your body produces it all the time, and produces on a daily fluctuation and as you wake up, system up, your cortisol pops up pretty fast! Depends on the time of day you do somethinglevel of cortisol changes at different points during the day for different people. Lecture 6: Thought suppression • Just don’t think about it! The white bear story • “Try to pose for yourself this task: not to think of a polar bear, and you will see that the cursed thing will come to mind every minute.” Dostoevsky, Winter Notes on Summer Impressions (1863) Paradoxical effects of thought suppression • Daniel Wegnerpsychologist who became very interested in the idea of thought suppression → was one of the earlier people that used the Sampling method in social psychology(def.) would just have people talk and then record them! Studying the white bear • Wegner et al. (1987) – People asked to talk for 5 minutes into a recorder “everything that comes to mind.” – Group 1 (suppress, then express): • Second five minutes: continue to verbaliztry not t think about a white bear, but if you do ring a bell, • Third five minutes: same task, but try to think of a white bear – Group 2: (express, then suppress) Results • Dostoevsky was right (if we suppress first) Wegner et al. (1987) → Group1: We look at the people how were asked in the second 5 minutes to suppress, and then later to express, and they did a pretty good job of it! Thenm when they were asked to express after suppression, they expressed a lot about seeing the white bear! → Group 2: People who suppressed after expression, but they faded out and they got tired of it, and they were not driven to continue expressing. People who are asked to express after suppression cannot stop thinking about it! Bounceback effect(def.)if you try to push something out of our minds, it will pop back up in our minds! Stress and the white bear? •Cognitive load (demanding mental tasks) increases the effects of thought suppression even more Example: Remember number, “97382561” while you are taking notes, and if you don’t bad things will happen to you. If you put people in this cognitive load situation/demanding situation, this increases the rebound! → Deployment of attention(def.) have the capacity to move your attention to different object, and thought suppression is an attempt to deploy your attention away from something! • Trait anxiety anrumination are associated with more attempts at thought suppression. → This suggests that people who have chronic activation in terms of anxiety, are actually people who will try to suppress thoughts more! Rumination • What if the attention is to internal thoughts? • Susan NolensHoeksma introduced idea of negative ruminationconstantly chew over and think about our world in a negative way, and have negative thoughts about self” and the world. • Constant recycling of negative thoughts about self and world Can we train people to use attention to reduce stress? :Attention bias modification (ABM) • Problem: Biased attention to negative stimuli → biased towards tracking a particular type of stimulus • Possible protective mechanism: Biased attention to positive stimuli • ABM: Training to modify attention bias Study of attention bias modification • Elaine Fox and colleagues (2011)can we do it, and does it work the same way for everybody, or does it work for some people more than others? → She was interested in genetics and said that there is a serotonin transporter gene that influences the mechanism that cleans serotonin out of the synapse. → And they wanted to see who had the short versions(not as efficient with what they do) compared to the long versions and then let's put them in two groups and then randomly assign people within the two groups in the two different conditions •Stratified random assignment , based on genetic prescreening, to: • ABM for positive bias • ABM for negative bias Training shows impact, but that differs depending on serotonin transporter gene → If you do the negative bias you have to modify the negative bias much more strongly for those who have the short gene, people who are more responsive to the positive bias also have the low efficiency gene(short gene). → Modification of negative bias Modification of positive bias From Fox et al (2011) What about ABM as a treatment? • Amir, N., Beard, C., Taylor, C. T., Klumpp, H., Elias, J., Burns, M., & Chen, X. (2009). Attention training in individuals with generalized social phobia: A randomized controlled trial. – Testing whether ABM interventions can help people with severe social anxiety RCT design RCT (def.): Randomized Clinical Trial • Sampling: consort diagram Assessed eligibility, and put people through a diagnostic work up, and only admitted people who fit into a certain criteria, and put those people into groups, one called AMP and once called ACC Sample: some limits → Two groups are equivalent(relatively) in gender, but does not meet statistical significance levels, but in education them mean is 15 years(i.e. College Juniors) 2530% is the States who graduate College. a. Group is probably more highly educated than other studies done with other groups of people in this country → Ethnicity: groups do not differ on ethnicity, but there are a low percentage of people of color in this study(i.e. AfricanAmerican or Hispanic origin) → Other Disorders: Half of the people had another diagnosis at the same time, not just social anxiety disorder, so it is not specific to social anxiety, but is representative of comorbidity with mental illnesses Experimental condition • Attention modification program (AMP) – 8 20minute sessions over 4 weeks – Very similar to dot probe with faces (disgust, neutral) – But probe always went to neutral face Control condition (counterfactual) • Attention Control Condition (ACC) • All assessment procedures identical • Intervention:one difference:probe went to disgust face 50% of the time • Methods used to insure that no one (investigator, research assistants, participants) knew which condition was considered treatment, and which placebo – Very similar numbers guessed they were in the active treatment group (21% in AMP, 28% in ACC). → more likely to believe they were in the actual group than the people in the experimental group! Results • Both groups show changes over time in anxiety measures, dropped in 4 weeks for both groups! → Is there statistical significance in the change between the two groups? A: Group by time→ Did the groups changed differently by time? difference in the amount of change For all the anxiety measures, everybody got better! → Did diagnose the groups with a social phobia, and this went down in the study as well! • The AMP group shows greater changes over 4 weeks • Also, lower rates of diagnosed social phobia (50% vs 14% remitted) Differences in symptom change PRETEST POSTTEST Effects of attention training on anxiety symptoms AMP ACC Longterm effects? • AMP followed for four months, but ACC not • AMP gains maintained, but we don’t know if ACC would have gotten better as well Meditation as attention training a. controlledfocused on an object of attention b. mindfulness: not a focus persay and rather a way to be open and have an acceptance • Focused meditation (such as TM) • Mindfulness meditation, and think about this in two approaches: Training in TM – Transcendental Meditation techniques (Charles Alexander)→ 1970’s – 1980’s • Focus on specific target (sound, image, sensation) • Continually return to that target as mind wanders • Methods for “calming the mind”, from Indian Vedic tradition • Programs involve training in meditation, establishing daily practice • Evidence for reduction in biological indexes of stress response • Much of the work here by proponents of TM, with few attempts to replicate in independent labs Training in mindfulness • Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR: Jon KabatZinn) – Borrowing from Buddhist Vipassana meditation tradition • Uses concentration forms of meditation as initial stage to develop stable base for awareness (often the breath) • Second stage: rather than suppressing awareness of anything but focus, emphasizes awareness of sensations, thoughts, feelings • New goal: an attitude of “friendly curiosity, interest, and acceptance toward all observed phenomena • Emphasizes intention to refrain from evaluation and selfjudgment, and to observe nonjudgmentally when these occur MBSR Program • KabatZinn developed MBSR for patients with chronic pain and stressrelated conditions – 8 week class, 23 hours per week, plus a oneday intensive – Components involve • Body scan: exercise to increase awareness of body sensations • Hatha yoga: again, emphasizing awareness of sensation • Sitting meditation, practicing both concentration and awareness • Walking meditation MBSR Effectiveness • Evidence from controlled trials – Williams et al (2001): trained university staff in MBSR • MBSR group reported reductions in daily hassles, distress, and medical symptoms as compared to controls – Davidson et al (2003) trained biotech company employees in MBSR • Using electroencephalography (EEG), found greater activation in left anterior brain, and less asymmetry between left and right activation (associated in other studies with positive emotions or reduced depression) • Found stronger antibody response to administration of flu vaccine Summary • Stressful circumstances can shape attention – Severity of challenge, cognitive load • Attempts to suppress thoughts can make them worse • Expression/acceptance strategies seem to work better • Attention training methods (ABM, meditation) can be useful for stress reduction Lecture 7: Statistics for description and inference Statistics: a language for describing groups, collections, samples • Quantitative description on one or more dimensions Words in that language • Frequency Distribution → Frequency (def.) how often/how many → distribution(def.) How does that lay out across some metric/what we are testin: – The number (or percent) of people having the same score, distributed across all scores → Describes some sort of pattern when testing something. • Location of that distribution on a dimension: Words that you use when you describe sets of people – Range (056) – Midpoint of range (28.5) A.K.A Mode – Median (12) – Mean: μ = Σ(x)/n: (15.4) a. Average(def.) descriptor for a set or group, not for an individual's • How variable the scores are: – Pick a point of reference (the mean μ ) – Calculate how far away every other score is – Calculate the average distance from the mean → variance N:(def.) how many different trials we had, in Autosum, this is “Count Number” From description to inference • We describe something about a sample (mean, SD, difference in means) • How do we know whether that description fits the larger group or population? • A question ofinference (def.) taking information that is limited and expanding it to make conclusion more broadly Example : Do a study of GW students and generalize to all college students in the country • We need to take into account “fuzziness” introduced by using only a part of the population • More formally,sampling error (def.) fuzziness Measuring “fuzziness” in a mean • Standard deviation tells us something about this • Used to calculate the standard error of the mean How do we interpret this? • If we know the shape of the frequency distribution, we can use this to estimate the effects of fuzziness on our confidence that the sample mean is close to the population mean • Usually we assume a normal distribution: → we usually assume that the distribution of these errors is going to be normally distributed. • A common metric for this range: plus or minus 1.96 times the standard error (also known as 95% confidence interval) Measuring “fuzziness” in the differences between two means • Standard error of the difference between two means • Need to include information from the variances of both • We can calculate how large the mean difference is in comparison to that index of fuzziness • In this case, is the mean difference outside of the range of zero? • Calculate the t statistic by dividing the mean difference by the standard error • Use the ttest function to determine its probability =T.TEST(neut, threat,2,2) Summary • Means, mean differences, standard deviations describe aspects of a sample → in control, Dr. Howe is more likely to experience threat than nonthreat conditions • Standard errors and ttests are inferential statistics that tell us whether our findings hold even after we take into account the fuzziness of using only some out of the total population → tool for making statements, but cause can be helped by statistics, but not determined by statistics Lecture 8: The role of emotion What is emotion? • Wikipedia: – “Emotion is, in everyday speech, a person's state of feeling in the sense of an affect.” – “Affect is the experience of feeling or emotion.” • Psychological science: – A general state of the organism that includes: • Experiences (what we feel from the inside) • Behavioral display • Specific motivations • Physiological arousal • Appraisal??? Forms of emotional experience • Valence of the experience: – Subjective evaluation of world as positive or negative: whether event is attractive or aversive Basis for Study of Attitudes Emotion as affective display • Display: specific patterns of – Facial expression – Body language – Voice tone • Emotion displays have powerful impact on conspecifics (those of same species) Evidence that: • Several basic emotional expressions are universal: – Anger – Fear– Sadness– Excitement – Joy – Disgust From simpler to more complex • Simple preference (pleasant vs unpleasant) • Basic emotions • Social emotions (not just our species!) – Shame– Pride– Jealousy – Embarrassment • Complex mixes that may be more culturespecific Harris & Provoust (2013) Jealousy in dogs Human emotion • Multiple components – Facial expression that communicates internal state – Experience of pleasant/unpleasant – General arousal or relaxation – Physical sensations that are somewhat specific to particular emotion – Thoughts consistent with emotion • Different elements emerge at different rates Mood induction study • Bradley et al (1997) • Sad mood Induction: – Recall unhappy memories from your past – While listening to Russian music at half speed • Neutral mood induction: – Recall journeys of the past – While listening to “modern music” Findings “both induced and naturally occurring dysphoria are assoc. with negative attention bias...in depression, the selective bias for neg. information does not operate through all aspects of selective attention.” *people with G.A.D show existing attention bias to neg. words* → Used various selfreport questionnaires to make sure that the S’s were experiencing emotions he was trying to induce(i.e. Beck Depression Inventory, Depression Proneness Questionnaire) Mood and rumination • LeMoult et al (2013) • Several stages – Calm nature movie (10 min) – Stressful task – Calm nature movie (30 minutes) • Periodically assessed mood, state rumination • Findings: – Higher state rumination was related to slower recovery from initial sadness – Rumination also related to attention bias to negative faces, but only those with higher levels of depressive symptoms Chronic activation of emotion Environments Challenges Cues Health Physical Mental Emotional Appraisal Attention Arousal Brain/Body Action SR Summary • Stronger emotional reactions can lead to attention bias • Biased attention can lead to emotional reactions • This may lead to a cycle of reaction, tied to rumination • Such selfmaintaining cycles may contribute to chronic activation of emotions including sadness and anxiety Lecture 9:Preventing or treating emotional components of stress response Emotion selfregulation (def.)Ability to respond to ongoing demandsto be able to be expressive and experience those emotional experiences! • With a range of emotions that are – Socially tolerabl(def.) expressions of emotion which are considered a norm in societynot distressing and uncomfortable for people. – Within some range of comfort → whatever works for you, not so much that it hurts you or gets in the way of your relationships with others. – Flexible • Flexibility entails: – Spontaneous expression – Ability to delay expression as needed (or EXPERIENCE)> to move into a better space. How do we regulate emotion? or Can we train children in emotion selfregulation? → Ability to do better in social worlds should be enhanced Experiment: Talk about these sorts of things, and use some visual cues a. Declarative(requires verbal descriptionsmore ambiguous for children) b. Procedural Knowledge (is Can you do itrequires some practice and reminders) • Wyman et al (2010) • Third graders(8/9 years old) from 59 classrooms→ School sample is strongly African American and Hispanic populations • Rated by teachers as higher (top 30%) on: – Aggressive/disruptive: (def.)very socially laden categories, this depends on the teacher, but you have to take this with a grain of salt (esp. certain gender biases) Has to do with controlling anger – Shy/anxious and moody: (def.) go very much together with the Aggressive/Disruptive type, it is just an internalization of the above behaviors and are actually VERY likely to be aggressive as well! – Behavior that disrupts learning • Not diagnosed or in special ed → Not acting in ways that are so far out of the norm that they have been “tagged for further services”. Random assignment • To either immediate intervention or waitlist for later intervention • Balanced: – within classroom : equal numbers of kids in each group, and in each classroom( maybe it is the teacherfirm/lax that this determination depends on) – by gender – by baseline aggression Intervention: training in selfregulation skills • 14 weekly individual sessions of 25 minutes • Monitoring emotions – Learning emotion words – Learning cues for emotional reactions in self and others – “Feelings checkin” • Self control and reducing escalation – F
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