Sociology Midterm 2 Vocabulary
Sociology Midterm 2 Vocabulary SOC001
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Sociology Midterm 2 Vocabulary (Ch. 7, 8, 10, 11, 12) Deviance - behavior that is recognized as violating expected rules and norms 4 Identifying Characteristics of Deviance:1. Deviance emerges in a social context. Is seen in terms of group process and judgments. Can change overtime, or from one setting to another. 2. Group judge behaviors differently. What is deviant to one group may be normative to another. 3. Established rules and norms are socially created, not just morally decided or individually imposed.4. Deviance lies not just in behavior itself but also in the social responses to behavior and people engaged in the behavior. Formal Deviance - behavior that breaks laws or official rules Informal Deviance - behavior that violates customary norms Social Movement - networks of groups that organize to support or resist changes in society Medicalization of Deviance - attributes deviant behavior to a "sick" state of mind where the solution is to "cure" the deviance through therapy or other psychological treatment Emile Durkheim - (Study of Suicide) - central concern was how society maintains its coherence (or social order) - saw deviance as functional for society because it produces solidarity among society's members - was the 1st to argue that the causes of suicide were to be found in social factors, not individual personalities Anomie - the condition that exists when social regulations in a society break down: the controlling influences of society are no longer effective, and people exist in a sate of relative normlessness Anomic Suicide - when the disintegrating forces in the society make individuals feel lost or alone Altruistic Suicide - when there is excessive regulation of individuals by social forces Egoistic Suicide - when people feel totally detached from society Merton's Structural Strain Theory - traces the origins of deviance to the tensions caused by the gap between cultural goals and the means people have available to achieve those goals Conformity - when the goals are accepted and the means for attaining the goals are made available to the individual by the social structure Retreatism Deviance - when neither the goals nor the means are available Ritualistic Deviance - is illustrated in the case of a college women with eating disorders Rebellion - a form of deviance when new goals are subsituted for more traditional ones, and also news means are undertaken to replace older ones, as by force or armed combat Social Control Theory - a type of functionalist theory, suggests that deviance occurs when a person's (or group's) attachment to social bonds is weakened Macrostructural - both theories look at the structure of society as a whole in developing explanations of deviant behavior Corporate Crime - - is crime committed within the legitimate context of doing business - is wrongdoing that occurs within the context of a formal organization or bureaucracy that is actually sanctioned by the norms and operating principles of the bureaucracy Elite Deviance - refers to the wrongdoing of wealthy and powerful individuals and organizations Social Control - process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations Social Control Agents - those who regulate and administer the response to deviance, such as the police and mental health workers Symbolic Interaction Theory - holds that people behave as they do because of the meanings people attribute to situations W.I. Thomas - - was among the 1st to develop a sociological perspective on social deviance - explained deviance as a normal response to the social conditions in which people find themselves - one of the 1st to argue that delinquency was caused by the social disorganization brought on by slum life and urban industrialism - saw deviance as a problem of social conditions, less so of individual character or individual personality Differential Association Theory - a type of symbolic interaction theory, interprets deviance, including criminal behavior, as behavior one learns through interaction with others Labeling Theory - a branch of symbolic interaction theory that interprets the responses of others as the most significant factor in understanding how deviant behavior is both created and sustained Label - assignment of attachment of a deviant identity to a person by others, including by agents of social institutions Deviant Identity - is the definition a person has of himself or herself as a deviant Stigma - is an attribute that is socially devalued and discredited Master Status - a characteristic of a person that overrides all other features of the person's identity Deviant Career - a direct outgrowth of the labeling process -- is the sequence of movements people make through a particular subculture of deviance Deviant Communities - groups that are organized around particular forms of social deviance Crime - one form of deviance, specifically, behavior that violates particular criminal laws Criminology - study of crime from a scientific perspective Uniform Crime Reports - basis for official reports about the extent of crime and its rise and fall over time National Crime Victimization Survey - based on surveys in which national samples of people are periodically asked if they have been the victims of one or more criminal acts. Surveys clearly show that the likelihood of being a victim of crime is influenced by one's race, gender, and social class. Crime Index - includes the violent crimes of murder, manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault, plus property crimes of burglary, larceny theft, and motor vehicle theft. Includes both personal crimes and property crimes. Personal Crimes - violent or nonviolent crimes directed against people, including murder, aggravated assault, forcible rape, and robbery Property Crimes - those involving theft of property without threat of bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson Hate Crimes - a criminal offense that is motivated in whole or part by bias against a "race, religion, disability, ethnic origin, or sexual orientation" Human Trafficking - as compelling or coercing a person to engage in some form of labor, service, or commercial sex Gender-Based Violence - the term used to describe the various forms of violence that are associated with unequal power relationships between men and women. Ex: rape, domestic violence, sexual abuse and incest, and stalking. Acquaintance Rape - is that committed by an acquaintance or someone thew victim has just met Identity Theft - defined as the use of someone else's personal identifying information, usually for purposes of some kind of fraud Victimless Crimes - those that violate laws but where there is no complaint Ex: gambling, illegal use of drugs, and prostitution. White Collar Crime - criminal activities by people of high social status who commit crime in the context of their occupation Organized Crime - crime committed by structured groups typically involving the provision of illegal goods and services to others Terrorism - "the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" Police Brutality - excessive use of force by the police Racial Profiling - use of race alone as the criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of having committed a crime Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) - federal program by which grants are given to states to fund welfare Culture of Poverty - major causes of poverty due to the absence of work values and the irresponsibility of the poor Concentrated Poverty - means that there are areas of countries, cities, or states where larger percentages of people are poor Poverty Line - the amount of money needed to support the basic needs of a household, as determined by government; below this line, one is considered officially poor Feminization of Poverty - refers to the large proportion of the poor who are women and children Idealogy - refers to belief systems that support the status quo Class Consciousness - the perception that a class structure exists along with a feeling of shared identification with others in one's class -- that is, those with whom you share life chances False Consciousness - describes the class consciousness of subordinate classes who had internalized the view of the dominant class Social Mobility - a person's movement over time from one class to another Meritocracy - a system in which one's status is based on merit or accomplishments, not other social characteristics Urban Underclass - includes those who are likely to be permanently unemployed and without much means of economic support Working Poor - those who work at least twenty-seven hours a week but whose wages fall below the federal poverty level Lower Class - composed primarily of displaced and poor. people in this class tend to have little formal education and are more often unemployed or working in minimum-wage jobs Lower-Middle Class - workers in the skilled trades and low-income bureaucratic workers, some who may actually think of themselves as middle class. (Also known as working class). Middle Class - hard to define in part because being "middle class" is more than just economic position Upper-Middle Class - includes those with high incomes and high social prestige. They tend to be well educated professionals or business executives Upper Class - includes those who have held wealth for generations as well as those who have recently become rich Perstige - the value others assign to people and groups Occupational Prestige - the subjective evaluation people give jobs Educational Attainment - typically measured as the total years of formal education Median Income - for a society is a midpoint of all household incomes Socioeconomic Status (SES) - income, occupational prestige, and education are the three measures of socioeconomic status that have been found to be most significant in determining people's placement in the stratification system Status Attainment - the process by which people end up in a given position in the stratification system Net Worth - wealth is calculated by adding all financial assets and subtracting debts which results in one's net worth Wealth - the monetary value of everything one actually owns Income - the amount of money brought into a household from various sources during a given period Economic Restructuring - refers to the decline of manufacturing jobs in the United States, the transformation of the economy by technological change, and the process of globalization Conspicuous Consumption - the ostentatious display of goods to define one's social status Life Changes - the opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a particular class Social Class - the social structural positions that groups hold relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society Class Systems - stratification exists, but a person's placement in the class system can change according to personal achievements Achieved Status - defined as a status that is earned by the acquisition of resources and power, regardless of one's origins Caste System - one's place in the stratification system is an ascribed status meaning it is a quality given to an individual by circumstances of birth Estate System - the ownership of property and the exercise of power are monopolized by an elite class who have total control over societal resources Social Stratification - is a relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth Affirmative Action - a method for opening opportunities to women and minorities that specifically redresses past discrimination by taking positive measures to recruit and hire previously disadvantaged groups Anti-Semitism - the belief or behavior that defines Jewish people as inferior and that targets them for stereotyping, mistreatment, and acts of hatred Assimilation Theory - process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant society Aversive Racism - subtle, nonovert, and nonobvious racism Color-Blind Racism - ignoring legitimate racial, ethnic, and cultural differences between groups, thus denying the reality of such differences Contact Theory - the theory that prejudice will be reduced through social interaction with those of different race or ethnicity but of equal status Discrimination - overt negative and unequal treatment of the members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in that group or stratum Dominant Group - the group that assigns a racial or ethnic group to subordinate status in society Ethnic Group - a social category of people who share a common culture, such as a common language or dialect, a common religion, or common norms, practices, and customs Ethnocentrism - the belief that one's in-group is superior to all out-group Hyper Segregation - a pattern of extreme racial, ethnic, and/or social class residential segregation, such that nearly all individuals in an area are of one such group Implicit Bias - non consciousness form of racism where individuals unconsciously associate negative characteristics with racial--ethnic groups Institutional Racism - racism involving notions of racial or ethnic inferiority that have become ingrained into society's institutions Intersection Perspective - analytical framework that interprets race, class, and gender as simultaneously overlapping social factors Laissez-Faire Racism - maintaining the status quo of racial groups by persistent stereotyping and blaming of minorities for achievement and socioeconomic gaps between groups Minority Group - any distinct group in society that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination Pluralism - pattern whereby groups maintain their distinctive culture and history Prejudice - the negative evaluation of a social group, and individuals within that group, based upon conceptions about that social group that are held despite facts that contradict it Race - a social category, or social construction, that we treat as distinct on the basis of certain characteristics, some biological, that have been assigned social importance in the society Racial Formation - process by which groups come to be defined as a "race" through social institutions such as the law and the schools Racial Profiling - the use of race alone as a criterion for deciding whether to stop and detain someone on suspicion of having committed a crime Radicalization - a process whereby some social category, such as social class or nationality, is assigned what are perceived to be race characteristics Racism - the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group, or member of that group, intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to one's own group Residential Segregation - the spatial separation of racial and ethnic groups in different residential areas Salience Principle – categorizing people on the basis of what initially appears prominent about them Segregation - the spatial and social separation of racial and ethnic groups Stereotype Interchangeability - the principle that negative stereotypes are often interchangeable from one racial group (or gender or social class) to another Stereotype Threat - the effect of a negative stereotype about one's self upon one's own test performance Urban Underclass - a grouping of people, largely minority and poor, who live at the absolute bottom of the socioeconomic ladder in urban areas White Privilege - the ability for Whites to maintain an elevated status in society that masks racial inequality Biological Determination - explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics Civil Rights Act of 1964 - federal law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, or sex. Discrimination - overt negative and unequal treatment of the members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in that group or stratum Doing Gender - a theoretical perspective that interprets gender as something accomplished through the ongoing social interactions people have with one another Dual Labor Market Theory - a theory that contends that the labor market is divided into two segments--the primary and secondary labor markets Equal Pay Act of 1963 - first legislation requiring equal pay for equal work Equal Rights Amendment - a constitutional principle, never passed, guaranteeing, that equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged on the basis of sex Feminism - a way of thinking and acting that advocates a more just society for women Feminist Theory - the process whereby a growing proportion of the poor are women and children Gender - socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex Gender Apartheid - the extreme segregation and exclusion of women from public life Gender Identity - one's definition of self as a women or man Gender Segregation - the distribution of men and women in different jobs in the labor force Gender Socialization - the process by which men and women learn the expectations associated with their sex Gender Stratification - the hierarchical distribution of social and economic resources according to gender Gendered Institution - the total patterns of gender relations that structure social institutions, including the stereotypical expectations, interpersonal relationships, and the different placement of men and women that are found in institution Homophobia - the fear and hatred of gays and lesbians Human Capital Theory - a theory that explains differences in wages as the result of differences in the individual characteristics of the workers Intersexed Person - a person born with the physical characteristics of both sexes Labor Force Participation Rate - the percentage of those in a given category who are employed Liberal Feminism - a feminists theoretical perspective asserting that the origin of women's inequality is in traditions of the past that pose barriers to women's advancement Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act - law stating the discrimination claims on the basis of sex, race, national origin, age, religion, and disability accrue with every paycheck Matriarchy - a society or group in which women have power over men Multiracial Feminism - form of feminist theory noting the exclusion of women of color from other forms of theory and centering its analysis in the experiences of all women Patriarchy - a society or group where men have power over women Queer Theory - a theoretical perspective that recognizes the socially constructed nature of sexual identity Radical Feminism - feminist theory that locates the source of women's inequality in the power the men hold in society Sex - used to refer to biological identity as male or female Title IX - legislation that prohibits schools that receive federal funds from discriminating based on gender Transgender - those who deviate from the binary (that is, male or female) system of gender Coming Out - the process of defining oneself as gay or lesbian Eugenics - a social movement in the early twentieth century that sought to apply scientific principles of genetic selection to "improve" the offspring of the human race Heterosexism - institutional structures that define heterosexuality as the only social legitimate sexual orientation Homophobia - the fear and hatred of gays and lesbians Sex Tourism - practice whereby people travel to engage in commercial sexual activity Sex Trafficking - refers to the practice whereby women, usually very young women, are forced by fraud or coercion into commercial sex acts Sexual Identity - the definition of oneself that is formed around one's sexual relationships Sexual Orientation - the attraction that people feel for people of the same of different sex Sexual Politics - the link feminists argue exists between sexuality and power, and between sexuality, and race, class, and gender oppression Sexual Revolution - the widespread changes in men's and women's roles and a greater public acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of social development Sexual Scripts - the ideas taught to us about what is appropriate sexual behavior for a person of our gender Social Construction Perspective - a theoretical perspective that explains identity and society as created and learned within a cultural, social, and historical context
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