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ECU / Psychology / PSYC 3206 / What is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their nee

What is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their nee

What is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their nee

Description

School: East Carolina University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Gary stainback
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: PSYC, Psychology, developmental psychology, and PSYC 3206
Cost: 50
Name: Chapter 6-8 Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers everything that will be on our exam.
Uploaded: 02/23/2016
6 Pages 56 Views 3 Unlocks
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Chapter 6  


What is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their needs?



Infant Cries – Crying is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their  needs. There are four patterns of crying. The HUNGER cry is a rhythmic cry which is not always associated with hunger. The ANGRY cry is a variation of the rhythmic cry in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords. The PAIN cry is a sudden  

onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning. Sometimes followed by holding  the breath. The FRUSTRATION cry is two or three drawn out cries with no  prolonged breath-holding. By 5 months of age, babies have learned to monitor their  caregiver’s expressions and if ignored, will first cry harder in attempt to get  attention and then stop crying.


What are the four patterns of infant cries?



Colic – Severe, often fluctuating pain in the abdomen caused by intestinal gas or  obstruction in the intestines and makes the child cry excessively.  

Self-Awareness – A realization that one’s existence is separate from others.

Social Cognition – The ways in which we process information about other people.  The ability to understand that others have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions. Begins in the first year of life. Depends on having self-awareness.  Embarrassment and empathy.

Temperament – An early-appearing, biologically based tendency to respond to the  environment in predictable ways. Affects how children approach and react to the  outside world as well as how they regulate their mental, emotional, and behavioral  functioning. Closely linked to emotional responses to the environment and many  responses, such as smiles or cries, are emotional in nature. EASY- generally happy  and responds well to change and novelty. SLOW TO WARM UP- generally mild  reactions, hesitant about new experiences. DIFFICULT- irritable and intense  emotional responses.  


What is the meaning of colic in an infant?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the four types of zone of spill areas?

Erikson’s Stages of Development –

Developing Attachment – Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie  between an infant and a caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the  relationship. SECURE ATTACHMENT- pattern in which an infant cries or protests  when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on his or  her return. Babies are flexible and resilient in the face of stress. They are  comfortable with a stranger for a short period of time. AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver  and avoids contact on his or her return. They continue to play in the room and  frequently interact with the stranger. When the caregiver comes back, they ignore  or reject them. AMBIVALENT (RESISTANT) ATTACHMENT- Pattern in which an  infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset  during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return.  They are very difficult to settle and stay angry for a long time. DISORGANIZED DISORIENTED ATTACHMENT – Pattern in which an infant, after separation from  the primary caregiver, shows contradictory, repetitious, or misdirected behaviors on his or her return. They lack a cohesive strategy to deal with the stress of a strange  situation.  We also discuss several other topics like What does parallax error mean?

Maltreatment of Children – deliberate or avoidable endangerment of a child.  PHYISCAL ABUSE – injury to the body through punching, beating, kicking, or  burning. NEGLECT – failure to meet a child’s basic needs, such as food, clothing,  medical care, protection, and supervision. SEXUAL ABUSE – any sexual activity  involving a child and an older person. EMOTIONAL MALTREATMENT – including  rejection, terrorization, isolation, exploitation, degradation, ridicule, or failure to  provide emotional support, love and affection. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME- form of maltreatment found mainly in children under 2 years old. Shaking makes the brain  bounce back and forth and causes bruising, bleeding and swelling and permanent  and severe brain damage. Don't forget about the age old question of Does descartes believe that the mind is material or is it another substance all together?

Goodness of Fit – The key to healthy adjustment. The match between a child’s  temperament and the environmental demands and constraints the child must deal  with. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the quality of  parenting than infants with easy or slow-to-warm-up temperaments and many need  more emotional support.

Chapter 7

Meta-analysis or case study needs to be approved by him. Send link or pdf*****

Bodily growth and change – Children grow rapidly between the age of 3 and 6. At  around 3, children lose their roundish look and start looking more athletic.  Abdominal muscles develop and potbelly tightens. Trunk, arms, and legs grow  longer. Head is still large but the rest of the body starts to catch up. Boys are  typically taller and heavier because of muscle. Girls have more fatty tissue. 2-3  inches per year and 4-6 pounds annually on average. Cartilage turns to bone at a  faster rate than before and bones become harder.  We also discuss several other topics like What type of climate is in the northeast part of east asia?

Sleep patterns/problems – By age 5, most kids sleep around 11 hours a night and  give up daytime naps. Problems include frequent night walking and talking while  asleep. 1 in 10 U.S. parents say that their child has sleep problems. Sleep

disturbances may be caused by accidental activation of the brain’s motor control  system, incomplete arousal from a deep sleep, or triggered by disordered breathing  or restless leg movements. These problems are often associated with separation  anxiety. In most cases, sleep disturbances are only occasional and are usually  outgrown. Persistent sleep problems might mean that the child has an emotional,  physiological, or neurological condition that needs to be examined. A child that has  a night terror usually wakes up abruptly in the night in a state of agitation. Sleep  terrors usually occur between ages 3 and 13 and affect boys more often than girls.  Sleep walking and night terrors are common and are best left alone while occurring.  ENURESIS- repeated, involuntary urination at night by children old enough to be  expected to have bladder control. 10-15 percent of 5 year olds wet the bed  regularly. Mainly boys. Most outgrow the condition by age 8.

Childhood Injuries – More than 7/10 deaths of children under age 5 occur in poor,  rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where nutrition is inadequate,  water is unsafe, and sanitary facilities are lacking. More than 800,000 children die  

from burns, drowning, car crashes, falls, poisonings, and other accidents worldwide.  Most deaths among preschoolers occur in the home. That includes: fires, drowning  in bath, suffocation, poisoning or falls.  Don't forget about the age old question of Who is karl benz?

Living in poverty – In the United States, around 1.35 million children experience  homelessness each year. Families now make up 33 percent of the homeless  population. It is higher in rural areas and is now 1 in every 45 children. Many  homeless families are headed by single mothers in their 20’s. Children that are  homeless have more of a chance of dying in infancy than poor families that have  homes. They tend to have depression, anxiety, academic and behavioral problems.  

 Medical Care -  

Egocentrism – Children assume everyone else thinks, perceives, and feels as they  do. EXAMPLE: Kara doesn’t realize that she needs to turn a book around so that her  father can see the picture she is asking him to explain to her. Instead, she holds the  book directly in front of her, where only she can see it.

Forming and retaining childhood memories – Young children do not remember as  well as older ones. Young children tend to focus on exact details of an event, which  are easily forgotten. Older children and adults focus on the gist of what happened.  Because younger children have lesser knowledge of the world, they fail to notice  important aspects of a situation; such as when and where it occurred. GENERIC  MEMORY: begins at about age 2, produces a script (general outline of a familiar,  repeated event). It helps a child know what to expect and how to act. EPISODIC  MEMORY: awareness of having experienced a particular event at a specific time  and place. These memories are temporary unless they recur several times.  AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY: a type of episodic memory, refers to memories of distinctive experiences that form a person’s life history. Only memories that have a  special, personal meaning to the child. Generally emerges between ages 3 and 4.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of polygamy in courtship and marriage?

Basic Processes and capabilities – ENCODING: like putting information into a folder  to be filed in memory; it attaches a “code” or “label” to the information so it will be  easier to find when needed. STORAGE: putting the folder away in the filing cabinet.

Where the information is kept. RETRIEVAL: Searching for the file and taking it out.  SENSORY MEMORY: a temporary storehouse for incoming sensory information.  Ex:// the light trail that is left when moving a sparkler quickly at night. WORKING  MEMORY: a short-term storehouse for information a person actively working on,  trying to understand, remember, or think about. It is located in the prefrontal cortex. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION: the conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions  to accomplish goals or to solve problems. It enables children to plan and carry out  goal-directed mental activity. LONG-TERM MEMORY: a storehouse of virtually  unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods of time. CENTRAL  EXECUTIVE: controls processing operations in working memory. It orders  information encoded for transfer to long-term memory. It also retrieves information  from long-term memory for further processing.

Traditional Psychometric Measures – 3 to 5 year old children are more proficient with language than younger children, so intelligence tests for this age group can include  more verbal items. These tests tend to be fairly reliable in predicting measured  intelligence and school success later in childhood. STANDFORD-BINET  INTELLIGENCE SCALES: used for ages 2 and up and take 45 to 60 min. Child is  asked to define words, string beads, build with blocks, identify the missing parts of a picture, trace mazes, and show an understanding of numbers. Their score is  supposed to measure fluid reasoning (the ability to solve abstract or novel  problems). WECHSLER PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE,  REVISED (WPPSI-IV): test taking about 30-60 minutes. Has separate levels for  ages 2.5 to 4 and 4 to 7 and yields verbal, performance, and combined scores.  Designed to measure both verbal and nonverbal fluid reasoning, receptive versus  expressive vocabulary, and processing speed.  

Private Speech – Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others. Is normal and common in childhood. Piaget saw it as a sign of cognitive immaturity.  

Emergent Literacy – The development of fundamental skills that eventually lead to  being able to read.  

Preschools-US vs Other Countries -  

Handedness – Preference for using one hand over the other. Usually evident at  about age 3. Because the left hemisphere of the brain is usually dominant, more  people favor their right side.  

Decentering – Being able to think about several aspects of a situation at one time.  Preschoolers come to illogical conclusions because they cannot decenter.

Conservation – The fact that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away. Children usually make errors  in choosing the correct answer when faced with this situation. Tests include:  number, length, liquid, matter, weight, area, and volume.

Chapter 8

Understanding and Regulating Emotions – The ability to understand and regulate, or control, one’s feelings is one of the key advances of early childhood. Children who  understand their emotions are better able to control the way they show them and to be sensitive to how others feel. Emotional self-regulation helps children guide their  behavior. They begin to understand emotions in a more sophisticated manner over  time.  

Gender Differences – Psychological or behavioral differences between males and  females. Differences before the age of 3 remain more alike than different.  

Perspectives on Gender Development – GENDER ROLES: the behaviors, interests,  attitudes, skills, and personality traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or females. GENDER TYPING: the acquisition of a gender role, takes place early in  

childhood, but children vary greatly in the degree to which they become gender  typed. GENDER STEREOTYPES: Preconceived generalizations about male or  female behavior: “All females are passive and dependent and all males are  aggressive and independent.” BIOLOGICAL APPROACH: Many or most behavioral  differences between the sexes can be traced to biological differences. (Genetic,  neurological, and hormonal activity) EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH: Charles Darwin: Child develops gender roles in preparation for adult mating and reproductive  behavior. (Natural and sexual selection). PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH: Sigmund  Freud: Gender identity occurs when the child identifies with the same-sex parent.  (Resolution of unconscious emotional conflict). COGNITIVE APPROACH: Lawrence  Kohlberg: Once the child learns that he or she is a boy or girl, they act accordingly.  (Self-categorization). GENDER-SCHEMA THEORY: Sandra Bem, Carol Lynn Martin,  Charles F. Halverson: Child learns what culture sees appropriate for a boy or girl  and acts accordingly. SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH SOCIAL COGNITIVE  THEORY: Albert Bandura: Child mentally combines observations of gendered  behavior and creates own behavioral variations.  

Kohlberg’s View on Gender Development - Cognitive approach: Once a child learns  she is a girl or he is a boy, the child sorts information about behavior by gender and  acts accordingly.  

Cognitive Levels of Play – FUNCTIONAL PLAY: occurs during infancy. It consists of  repeated practice in large muscular movements, such as rolling a ball.  CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY: the use of objects or materials to make something such as  a house of blocks or drawing. DRAMATIC PLAY: involves imaginary objects, actions or roles; it rests on the symbolic function, which emerges during the last part of the  second year.  

Gender Influences and Play – Boys tend to be more physically aggressive and girls  are more nurturing in play. Boys play spontaneously on sidewalks and roads while  girls like to have more structured play that is adult supervised.  

Aggression in Young Children (Boys vs Girls) – Boys engage in more direct  aggression and tend to openly direct aggressive acts at a target. Girls tend to  engage in relational aggression. They tease, manipulate, ostracize, and try to  control. Such as spreading rumors, name calling, put downs, or excluding someone  from a group.

Sibling Relationships – The earliest, most intense disputes are over property. Sibling  rivalry is not the main pattern between brothers and sisters early in life. Affection,  interest, companionship, and influence are also prevalent. The older they get, the  less physical they get and more verbal in showing aggression. Same sex siblings  play more peaceably than boy-girl pairs.  

Only Child (Singletons) – They tend to preform higher and be more motivated than  children with siblings are. These children do better because the parents spends  more time with just them. There are no significant differences between only children and children with siblings. They tend to do better and have higher self-esteem  because the love that the parents shower over them when they know that that child will be their first and their last.  

Playmates and Friends- What’s Important – Children begin to have friends at age 3.  They learn how to get along with others. They learn how to solve problems in  relationships and how to put themselves in another person’s place and they see  models of various kinds of behavior. Preschool children prefer prosocial playmates  and do not like aggressive or demanding ones. Children that cope well with anger  and generally more liked.  

Self-Descriptions – Young children tend to describe themselves by what they do,  what they look like, things they own, and people and animals in their lives. They  speak in general abilities rather than general ones. At about age 7 they will describe themselves in more general terms.  

Baumrind’s Parenting Styles – AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING: emphasizes control  and unquestioning obedience. These parents try to make their children conform to a set of standard of conduct and punish them forcefully for violating it. PERMISSIVE  

PARENTING: Emphasizes self-expression and self-regulation. They make few  demands and rarely punish. They are warm, non-controlling, and undemanding.  Their children tend to be immature. AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING: emphasizes a  child’s individuality but also stresses social constraints. They are loving and  accepting but also demand good behavior and are firm in maintaining standards.  Their children tend to be the most self-reliant, self-controlled, self-assertive,  exploratory, and content.

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