Infant Cries – Crying is the most powerful way that an infant can communicate their needs. There are four patterns of crying. The HUNGER cry is a rhythmic cry which is not always associated with hunger. The ANGRY cry is a variation of the rhythmic cry in which excess air is forced through the vocal cords. The PAIN cry is a sudden
onset of loud crying without preliminary moaning. Sometimes followed by holding the breath. The FRUSTRATION cry is two or three drawn out cries with no prolonged breath-holding. By 5 months of age, babies have learned to monitor their caregiver’s expressions and if ignored, will first cry harder in attempt to get attention and then stop crying.
Colic – Severe, often fluctuating pain in the abdomen caused by intestinal gas or obstruction in the intestines and makes the child cry excessively.
Self-Awareness – A realization that one’s existence is separate from others.
Social Cognition – The ways in which we process information about other people. The ability to understand that others have mental states and to gauge their feelings and intentions. Begins in the first year of life. Depends on having self-awareness. Embarrassment and empathy.
Temperament – An early-appearing, biologically based tendency to respond to the environment in predictable ways. Affects how children approach and react to the outside world as well as how they regulate their mental, emotional, and behavioral functioning. Closely linked to emotional responses to the environment and many responses, such as smiles or cries, are emotional in nature. EASY- generally happy and responds well to change and novelty. SLOW TO WARM UP- generally mild reactions, hesitant about new experiences. DIFFICULT- irritable and intense emotional responses.
We also discuss several other topics like What are the four types of zone of spill areas?
Erikson’s Stages of Development –
Developing Attachment – Attachment is a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver, each of whom contributes to the quality of the relationship. SECURE ATTACHMENT- pattern in which an infant cries or protests when the primary caregiver leaves and actively seeks out the caregiver on his or her return. Babies are flexible and resilient in the face of stress. They are comfortable with a stranger for a short period of time. AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT pattern in which an infant rarely cries when separated from the primary caregiver and avoids contact on his or her return. They continue to play in the room and frequently interact with the stranger. When the caregiver comes back, they ignore or reject them. AMBIVALENT (RESISTANT) ATTACHMENT- Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return. They are very difficult to settle and stay angry for a long time. DISORGANIZED DISORIENTED ATTACHMENT – Pattern in which an infant, after separation from the primary caregiver, shows contradictory, repetitious, or misdirected behaviors on his or her return. They lack a cohesive strategy to deal with the stress of a strange situation. We also discuss several other topics like What does parallax error mean?
Maltreatment of Children – deliberate or avoidable endangerment of a child. PHYISCAL ABUSE – injury to the body through punching, beating, kicking, or burning. NEGLECT – failure to meet a child’s basic needs, such as food, clothing, medical care, protection, and supervision. SEXUAL ABUSE – any sexual activity involving a child and an older person. EMOTIONAL MALTREATMENT – including rejection, terrorization, isolation, exploitation, degradation, ridicule, or failure to provide emotional support, love and affection. SHAKEN BABY SYNDROME- form of maltreatment found mainly in children under 2 years old. Shaking makes the brain bounce back and forth and causes bruising, bleeding and swelling and permanent and severe brain damage. Don't forget about the age old question of Does descartes believe that the mind is material or is it another substance all together?
Goodness of Fit – The key to healthy adjustment. The match between a child’s temperament and the environmental demands and constraints the child must deal with. Infants with difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to the quality of parenting than infants with easy or slow-to-warm-up temperaments and many need more emotional support.
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Bodily growth and change – Children grow rapidly between the age of 3 and 6. At around 3, children lose their roundish look and start looking more athletic. Abdominal muscles develop and potbelly tightens. Trunk, arms, and legs grow longer. Head is still large but the rest of the body starts to catch up. Boys are typically taller and heavier because of muscle. Girls have more fatty tissue. 2-3 inches per year and 4-6 pounds annually on average. Cartilage turns to bone at a faster rate than before and bones become harder. We also discuss several other topics like What type of climate is in the northeast part of east asia?
Sleep patterns/problems – By age 5, most kids sleep around 11 hours a night and give up daytime naps. Problems include frequent night walking and talking while asleep. 1 in 10 U.S. parents say that their child has sleep problems. Sleep
disturbances may be caused by accidental activation of the brain’s motor control system, incomplete arousal from a deep sleep, or triggered by disordered breathing or restless leg movements. These problems are often associated with separation anxiety. In most cases, sleep disturbances are only occasional and are usually outgrown. Persistent sleep problems might mean that the child has an emotional, physiological, or neurological condition that needs to be examined. A child that has a night terror usually wakes up abruptly in the night in a state of agitation. Sleep terrors usually occur between ages 3 and 13 and affect boys more often than girls. Sleep walking and night terrors are common and are best left alone while occurring. ENURESIS- repeated, involuntary urination at night by children old enough to be expected to have bladder control. 10-15 percent of 5 year olds wet the bed regularly. Mainly boys. Most outgrow the condition by age 8.
Childhood Injuries – More than 7/10 deaths of children under age 5 occur in poor, rural regions of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, where nutrition is inadequate, water is unsafe, and sanitary facilities are lacking. More than 800,000 children die
from burns, drowning, car crashes, falls, poisonings, and other accidents worldwide. Most deaths among preschoolers occur in the home. That includes: fires, drowning in bath, suffocation, poisoning or falls. Don't forget about the age old question of Who is karl benz?
Living in poverty – In the United States, around 1.35 million children experience homelessness each year. Families now make up 33 percent of the homeless population. It is higher in rural areas and is now 1 in every 45 children. Many homeless families are headed by single mothers in their 20’s. Children that are homeless have more of a chance of dying in infancy than poor families that have homes. They tend to have depression, anxiety, academic and behavioral problems.
Medical Care -
Egocentrism – Children assume everyone else thinks, perceives, and feels as they do. EXAMPLE: Kara doesn’t realize that she needs to turn a book around so that her father can see the picture she is asking him to explain to her. Instead, she holds the book directly in front of her, where only she can see it.
Forming and retaining childhood memories – Young children do not remember as well as older ones. Young children tend to focus on exact details of an event, which are easily forgotten. Older children and adults focus on the gist of what happened. Because younger children have lesser knowledge of the world, they fail to notice important aspects of a situation; such as when and where it occurred. GENERIC MEMORY: begins at about age 2, produces a script (general outline of a familiar, repeated event). It helps a child know what to expect and how to act. EPISODIC MEMORY: awareness of having experienced a particular event at a specific time and place. These memories are temporary unless they recur several times. AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORY: a type of episodic memory, refers to memories of distinctive experiences that form a person’s life history. Only memories that have a special, personal meaning to the child. Generally emerges between ages 3 and 4. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of polygamy in courtship and marriage?
Basic Processes and capabilities – ENCODING: like putting information into a folder to be filed in memory; it attaches a “code” or “label” to the information so it will be easier to find when needed. STORAGE: putting the folder away in the filing cabinet.
Where the information is kept. RETRIEVAL: Searching for the file and taking it out. SENSORY MEMORY: a temporary storehouse for incoming sensory information. Ex:// the light trail that is left when moving a sparkler quickly at night. WORKING MEMORY: a short-term storehouse for information a person actively working on, trying to understand, remember, or think about. It is located in the prefrontal cortex. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION: the conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or to solve problems. It enables children to plan and carry out goal-directed mental activity. LONG-TERM MEMORY: a storehouse of virtually unlimited capacity that holds information for long periods of time. CENTRAL EXECUTIVE: controls processing operations in working memory. It orders information encoded for transfer to long-term memory. It also retrieves information from long-term memory for further processing.
Traditional Psychometric Measures – 3 to 5 year old children are more proficient with language than younger children, so intelligence tests for this age group can include more verbal items. These tests tend to be fairly reliable in predicting measured intelligence and school success later in childhood. STANDFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALES: used for ages 2 and up and take 45 to 60 min. Child is asked to define words, string beads, build with blocks, identify the missing parts of a picture, trace mazes, and show an understanding of numbers. Their score is supposed to measure fluid reasoning (the ability to solve abstract or novel problems). WECHSLER PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE, REVISED (WPPSI-IV): test taking about 30-60 minutes. Has separate levels for ages 2.5 to 4 and 4 to 7 and yields verbal, performance, and combined scores. Designed to measure both verbal and nonverbal fluid reasoning, receptive versus expressive vocabulary, and processing speed.
Private Speech – Talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate with others. Is normal and common in childhood. Piaget saw it as a sign of cognitive immaturity.
Emergent Literacy – The development of fundamental skills that eventually lead to being able to read.
Preschools-US vs Other Countries -
Handedness – Preference for using one hand over the other. Usually evident at about age 3. Because the left hemisphere of the brain is usually dominant, more people favor their right side.
Decentering – Being able to think about several aspects of a situation at one time. Preschoolers come to illogical conclusions because they cannot decenter.
Conservation – The fact that two things that are equal remain so if their appearance is altered, as long as nothing is added or taken away. Children usually make errors in choosing the correct answer when faced with this situation. Tests include: number, length, liquid, matter, weight, area, and volume.
Understanding and Regulating Emotions – The ability to understand and regulate, or control, one’s feelings is one of the key advances of early childhood. Children who understand their emotions are better able to control the way they show them and to be sensitive to how others feel. Emotional self-regulation helps children guide their behavior. They begin to understand emotions in a more sophisticated manner over time.
Gender Differences – Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females. Differences before the age of 3 remain more alike than different.
Perspectives on Gender Development – GENDER ROLES: the behaviors, interests, attitudes, skills, and personality traits that a culture considers appropriate for males or females. GENDER TYPING: the acquisition of a gender role, takes place early in
childhood, but children vary greatly in the degree to which they become gender typed. GENDER STEREOTYPES: Preconceived generalizations about male or female behavior: “All females are passive and dependent and all males are aggressive and independent.” BIOLOGICAL APPROACH: Many or most behavioral differences between the sexes can be traced to biological differences. (Genetic, neurological, and hormonal activity) EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH: Charles Darwin: Child develops gender roles in preparation for adult mating and reproductive behavior. (Natural and sexual selection). PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH: Sigmund Freud: Gender identity occurs when the child identifies with the same-sex parent. (Resolution of unconscious emotional conflict). COGNITIVE APPROACH: Lawrence Kohlberg: Once the child learns that he or she is a boy or girl, they act accordingly. (Self-categorization). GENDER-SCHEMA THEORY: Sandra Bem, Carol Lynn Martin, Charles F. Halverson: Child learns what culture sees appropriate for a boy or girl and acts accordingly. SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: Albert Bandura: Child mentally combines observations of gendered behavior and creates own behavioral variations.
Kohlberg’s View on Gender Development - Cognitive approach: Once a child learns she is a girl or he is a boy, the child sorts information about behavior by gender and acts accordingly.
Cognitive Levels of Play – FUNCTIONAL PLAY: occurs during infancy. It consists of repeated practice in large muscular movements, such as rolling a ball. CONSTRUCTIVE PLAY: the use of objects or materials to make something such as a house of blocks or drawing. DRAMATIC PLAY: involves imaginary objects, actions or roles; it rests on the symbolic function, which emerges during the last part of the second year.
Gender Influences and Play – Boys tend to be more physically aggressive and girls are more nurturing in play. Boys play spontaneously on sidewalks and roads while girls like to have more structured play that is adult supervised.
Aggression in Young Children (Boys vs Girls) – Boys engage in more direct aggression and tend to openly direct aggressive acts at a target. Girls tend to engage in relational aggression. They tease, manipulate, ostracize, and try to control. Such as spreading rumors, name calling, put downs, or excluding someone from a group.
Sibling Relationships – The earliest, most intense disputes are over property. Sibling rivalry is not the main pattern between brothers and sisters early in life. Affection, interest, companionship, and influence are also prevalent. The older they get, the less physical they get and more verbal in showing aggression. Same sex siblings play more peaceably than boy-girl pairs.
Only Child (Singletons) – They tend to preform higher and be more motivated than children with siblings are. These children do better because the parents spends more time with just them. There are no significant differences between only children and children with siblings. They tend to do better and have higher self-esteem because the love that the parents shower over them when they know that that child will be their first and their last.
Playmates and Friends- What’s Important – Children begin to have friends at age 3. They learn how to get along with others. They learn how to solve problems in relationships and how to put themselves in another person’s place and they see models of various kinds of behavior. Preschool children prefer prosocial playmates and do not like aggressive or demanding ones. Children that cope well with anger and generally more liked.
Self-Descriptions – Young children tend to describe themselves by what they do, what they look like, things they own, and people and animals in their lives. They speak in general abilities rather than general ones. At about age 7 they will describe themselves in more general terms.
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles – AUTHORITARIAN PARENTING: emphasizes control and unquestioning obedience. These parents try to make their children conform to a set of standard of conduct and punish them forcefully for violating it. PERMISSIVE
PARENTING: Emphasizes self-expression and self-regulation. They make few demands and rarely punish. They are warm, non-controlling, and undemanding. Their children tend to be immature. AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING: emphasizes a child’s individuality but also stresses social constraints. They are loving and accepting but also demand good behavior and are firm in maintaining standards. Their children tend to be the most self-reliant, self-controlled, self-assertive, exploratory, and content.