Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Social Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide 2606
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claudia Mancl on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2606 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Brett King in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Colorado at Boulder.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Exam 2 Social Psych Notes 2/15/16 – 2/19/16 Social Self I. William James on the self a. Material self: who people see on the outside b. Spiritual self: who you really are, where sense of morality and free will come from, only show this to a few people in life c. Social selves: one has as many social selves for how many people they know II . Structure of the self a. Development of the self concept a. Does selfhood develop from hereditary influences or from environmental ones? b. Self-schema: organized set of experiences and knowledge that guides our self cognition a. Distinctiveness postulate: people focus on their unusual traits during self-analysis c. Objective self awareness: self focused attention on personal behaviors and beliefs a. General tendency for subjects to become self-critical during objective self-aware state b. Beaman et al Halloween study: two houses where a woman opens the door to trick or treaters and brings them inside and offers candy from a large bowl. The lady then leaves and says to take one piece. A mirror is in front of one bowl. Mirror brought out objective self awareness and children took more candy without mirror. c. Can objective self-awareness alter personal attitudes? i. Jurors in front of mirrors more likely to demand stricter punishment for defendant ii. Cameras in the courtroom bring out objective self- awareness? iii. Relationship between alcohol and objective self-awareness: intoxication takes attention off self III. Impression Management a. Situated identities: role of social situation on the self-schema leads to self awareness a. Private self-consciousness: attention to non-public, introspective aspects of self b. Public self-consciousness: projecting a positive image to others leads to an attempt to control self image c. Role of guilt (private anxiety) vs embarrassment (public anxiety) in situated identities b. Self presentation a. Ingratiation: use of spontaneous and well constructed flattery (goal = affection) b. Intimidation: aggressive strategy designed to dominate others (goal = fear) c. Self promotion: boasting behavior or extreme modesty focused on personal accomplishments (goal = appear competent) i. Basking in reflective glory: act of playing up our associations with high status people or events ii. Cutting off reflective failure: distancing ourselves from low- status people or events c. Self-monitoring: tendency to regulate one’s social behavior based on either social demands or internal factors a. High self-monitors: adapt social behavior to fit situations and public expectations b. Low self-monitors: ignore social demands and act based on personal values and beliefs c. Trends in self-monitoring research i. High self-monitors are better at facial expression, producing emotions on demand and reading social situations. More concerned with partner’s appearance ii. Low self-monitors: less likely to be persuaded by authority d. Self-disclosure: process of revealing intimate information about ourselves to others a. Strangers on a train: eavesdrop on conversations and people share a lot with strangers b. Stages in the development of self-disclosure i. Stage 1: orientation stage (stranger stage) ii. Stage 2: exploratory exchange iii. Stage 3: affective exchange (emotions) iv. Stage 4: stable exchange (all barriers come down and can tell the other person anything). Most relationships never make it to stage 4. c. Norm of reciprocity: expectation that both sides should make intimate self-disclosures Attraction I. General Evaluation a. Propinquity: geographical closeness or proximity may enhance attraction. This makes long distance relationships hard. (possible essay question) b. Physical attractiveness: Sir Francis Galton judged women on scale of attractiveness from different countries which produced the Galton Scale of Attraction. a. Names and attraction: there is an influence by the name someone has on how attractive they are to people b. Cultural shifts in perception of beauty: different views of what is beautiful in different cultures and time periods c. Ideal norms of physical attractiveness i. “ideal man”: thin legs and waist, broad shoulders, small buttocks, 6” taller than mate ii. “ideal woman”: medium sized breasts, medium sized buttocks and legs, thin waist and 4.5” shorter than waist iii. this was proven wrong and everyone finds people differently attractive c. Predictability a. Attraction is often conservative which means that predictability involves little risk b. Boring if too predictable: high level of predictability is good, but not too high d. Similarity a. Actual similarity: true degree of similarity between two people (beliefs, intelligence, physical attractiveness) b. Perceived similarity: degree of similarity that people believe exists between them i. Perceived similarity is usually more influential than actual similarity ii. People with an unfavorable self-concept may be more attracted to dissimilar people. c. Matching hypothesis (essay question): tendency to seek one’s physical attractiveness i. Matched couples reported greater levels of satisfaction than mismatched couples ii. Mismatched couples reported greater levels of dissatisfaction and higher divorce rates d. Attitude similarity (new week) i. Narcissism (Freud): We are attracted to those similar to us II. Sexual Attraction a. Response to certain cues that produce physiological and psychological arousal b. Sexual attraction in other species a. Cues to sexual readiness i. Sexual pheromones: bodily secretions that serve as olfactory cues to sexual readiness ii. Certain verbal vocalizations c. Human Sexual Attraction a. Role of smell: important but more complex than in other animals b. Psychological cues i. Arousal in verbal conversation (flirting) ii. Individual sexual preferences and fantasies (difficulties in matching) iii. Fetish: an object of displaced gratification III. Love and Affiliation a. Social development and attachment a. Attachment styles i. Secure ii. Avoidant iii. Anxious/ambivalent b. Passionate love: intense and possibly unrealistic emotional attraction a. Socialization: culture must teach concept of “passionate love” i. Greek and Roman society: perception that marriage destroys a loving relationship ii. Origin of passionate love: Middle Ages in Europe iii. 17 century England: ideal marriage based on love iv. The more a person thinks about love, the more likely she/he is to fall in love c. Types of love (John Lee) a. Three primary types of love i. Eros: romantic, passionate love ii. Ludus: game playing love: “Coolidge effect”: have to have a different “hen” or different lover in order to not get bored iii. Storge: friendship love b. Three secondary types of love i. Pragma: logical love ii. Mania: possessive, dependent love iii. Agape: selfless, altruistic love d. Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg) (one component will be on essay, mention all three A and B but not C) a. Intimacy: emotional component b. Passion: motivational/physical component c. Commitment: cognitive component d. Single components in love: i. Liking: intimacy (without compassion or commitment) ii. Infatuation: passion (without intimacy or commitment) iii. Empty love: commitment (without passion or intimacy) e. Multiple components in love (based on combinations of single components): i. Romantic Love: intimacy and passion but absence of commitment ii. Compassionate Love: intimacy and commitment but absence of passion iii. Fatuous Love: passion and commitment but absence of intimacy iv. Consummate Love: intimacy and passion and commitment Review: - 8 matching concepts, one column definitions and names. All come from lecture - Multiple choice 9-40. Some questions straight from the book - Short answer essay: six concepts, only have to do 5. All come from lecture. Freebee: three are attraction and three are selfhood - Three chapters: selfhood, attraction, relationships - Names: John Lee, Robert Sternberg, Beaman, William James - Rouge test - all matching is from attraction
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