World Politics 20, Midterm Study Guide
World Politics 20, Midterm Study Guide Poli Sci 20
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tina Tan on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Poli Sci 20 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Eric Bordenkircher in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see World Politics 20 in Political Science at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
World Politics Midterm Review Guide Possible IDs (Write on 10, 14 will appear, provide example, historical context, definition and significance, 5 points each for 50 total) League of Nations: In an attempt the make the world safer for democracy, Wilson proposed a security community at the Paris Peace Conference, the League of Nations. o Intended to maintain peace by ensuring justice and selfdetermination for all people. o The US did not want to join because they refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles and because of the notion of sovereignty and international law o Focuses on the aggressive policies of the state rather than the capacity of the state o Designed to be universal and global, no free rides Peace of Westphalia: The 1648 treaty that ended the Thirty Years War o Established the principle of sovereignty, the foundation of world politics and the essential element of the nationstate o Emergence of secular legal authority o Marked the beginning of the international system o Significance: essential element in the creation of them modern nationstate, political legitimacy could derive from secular legal authority rather than divine sanction paved way for the development of a constitutional government Sovereignty: Exclusive political authority over a defined territory and the people within it. A state’s absolute jurisdiction over its territory, a state has complete say over its affairs, it entails selfdetermination, independence; domestic affairs (legal system, how a country runs its government) and international affairs (foreign policy, economic policies) o Example: Peace of Westphalia System: A set of units/elements/actors/states that interact with each other in various capacities, the ability of a unit to be affected by others demonstrates they are part of a system o Neorealists (structural realists) concerned with the structure of the system and how it affects the behavior of states o The higher rate of interaction or interdependence, the easier a system can be conceptualized Weak/Failing nationstate: the inability of a nationstate to continually provide the delivering political (public) goods (i.e security, basic utilities like electricity, water, phone services) to its citizens living within its designated borders. Inability to coerce all its citizens living within its borders. Failed states: States whose governments no longer wield control over their territory or no longer have a monopoly on the use of power. A failed state cannot provide any of the aforementioned goods/services Balance of Power: A condition of equilibrium among states, equilibrium breeds a proclivity towards stability, states fear the emergence of a hegemon or a predominant state, therefore they will build up their defenses or seek allies to counter the strength of their enemies o Ex: WWI states seeking hegemony: Germany, balancing powers: Britain, France, Russia and US Structure: the ordering of units, usually states, within the system, usually on the basis of relative power, economic strength or class o Ex: structure of anarchy Realism: a theory that says the state is driven by survival o The state exists in the law of the jungle or it’s a dog eat dog world, a zerosum game (one entity’s gain is another’s loss o States must protect their independence and sovereignty o The nationstate is the primary actor in this environment o The nationstate is a unitary, integrated actor political differences are resolved internally, the state faces the world as a unitary actor o The nationstate is a rational, purposive actor (weighs the cost and benefits) o The nationstate that prioritizes cooperation or economic gain over security will not fare as well in world politics o Stability will be created by conflict o National interest is in terms of power hierarchy of power, not authority Constructivism: interaction of states is defined by the changing norms, ideas, values, rules and identity o Power is important but extends beyond the traditional notions of power o Actors include: nationstates, transnational organizations, international organizations, social movements, corporations, NGOs o “Anarchy is what you make of it” Zerosum: A situation in which a good, commodity, resource, or utility is constant so that one entity’s gain necessitates other’s loss since the good must be redistributed because it cannot be expanded. Also known as a selfhelp system, reliance on one’s own capabilities because there is no higher authority to which to appeal o Ex: why US and China won’t cooperate with climate change policies Anarchy: The absence of any legitimate authority above states o Under anarchy, there is no higher authority to whom to appeal, there is no arbiter, there are no universal, enforceable rules o States only become anarchic when they fail o Selfhelp is the principle of action in an anarchic order o Talk about how different theories think about anarchy Bretton Woods: Objective to create a smooth economic transaction system to allow nations to economically recover, 1944 conference held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire o Established the International Monetary Fund global lending agency that originally was to aid industrialized nations in stabilizing their economics after the shocks of the Great Depression and World War II. Goals today are to promote market economies, free trade and high growth rate o International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or World Bank initially created to help finance reconstruction after WWII. Since the 50s and 60s, it has lent money to developing countries to finance development projects and humanitarian needs Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear states were deterred to launch attacks because it ensured the end of their existence o Refers to the Cuban Missile Crisis and a potential nuclear war o See detente A nation without a state: o Nation a social group linked through common descent, culture, language or territorial integrity o State an organizational structure outside other socioeconomic hierarchies with autonomous officeholders o Ex: The Kurds Concert of Europe: After years of fighting, this was established in the Vienna settlement, where the great powers sought to cooperate in maintaining peace and order on the Continent o Quadruple Alliance: Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria agree that a French attack on one constituted a French attack on all o After Napolean’s defeat Liberalism: Cooperation is not only possible, despite anarchy and human nature, but beneficial. o International politics is a variablesum, not a zerosum game and states that focus on cooperation and mutual interests will do better in the international system than those that focus exclusively on security. o Agrees with realists that the international system is anarchic and that players are unitary and rational. o Hegemon is not necessary for cooperation Balancing: making or breaking alliances as needed to make sure that no state or group of states gains ascendency o Ex: how the great powers behaved between 1815 and the start of the twentieth century and during the cold war Bandwagoning: rather than allying themselves against a rising power, they ally themselves with it World Systems Theory: sees the world through the lens of economic development (Marxists approach) o The international system is the capitalist world economy Core: wealthy, industrialized states Periphery: underdeveloped states, the providers of raw materials from inexpensive natural resources and wide open markets Semiperiphery states: moving towards industrializations Selfperpetuating, hard for poorer states to break into the core. Colonialism: A policy by which a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign dependencies. o The two main types of colonialism Movement of people from the mother country to form a new political institution in the designated distant land External power’s rule over indigenous people o Various manifestations of colonialism: French: converted the natives to European values, religion and history = “Civilizing Mission” British: colonies used for economic interests, not interested in converting to a higher order Imperialism: A superiorinferior relationship in which one state controls the people and territory of another area o Manifests as intervention and colonialism Containment: U.S foreign policy during the Cold War aimed at halting Soviet expansion through American military and economic power o Under the perspective that the USSR was responsible for the Cold War since the US had to abandon their position of isolationism otherwise the Soviets would take advantage of western Europe’s wartorn and desolate conditions to conquer it Appeasement: Onesided concessions to a potential opponent o “antiwar sentiments would later guide the proponents of appeasement by conceding part of their demands to satisfy their appetite for expanding” Prisoner’s Dilemma game: can be used as a metaphor for the difficulty of achieving international cooperation in an anarchic system. Starts off with two prisoners who are being interrogated by the police, each prisoner would give up information on the other to receive a lesser sentence. There is an incentive for each side to defect (the most rational thing to do). The game is set up in such a way that two rational actors are guaranteed “irrational” outcome because the payoffs and logic demand defection over cooperation o Ex: Climate change, no one wants to act on reducing climate change because states cannot be held accountable to stick to the agreement. Those who defer are acting out of fear others will and those who are trusting end up worse off Levels of analysis: a way of methodically sorting the complexity of world affairs. Broken down into o Systemic level of analysis: provides biggest picture, encompasses the others because it focuses on the system as a whole. Describes how the stage is set for international actors; it sets the context within which they act. o Domestic level of analysis: examines the effect of domestic structures, institutions and cultures. Trying to find predictable patterns of world affairs based on countries’ internal mechanisms. Seek explanations for specific behaviors and actions. o Individual level of analysis: seeks specific factors or variables that can account for and predict, individuals’ behaviors Détente: French for “relaxation of tensions” o During the Cold War, détente between the United States and Soviet Union referred to cooperation on areas such as arms control, trade and technology o Brought by the Cuban Missile Crisis and a potential nuclear war o Limited Test Ban Treaty 1963 (restricted atmospheric nuclear tests) o US opened diplomatic relations with China (prevented China and USSR coming together) in 1972 o Moscow Summit 1972 produced SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Treat) froze arsenals but did not eliminate them o Ended because the Soviet was involved in the Ethiopian Civil War and the Invasion of Afghanistan, making them suspicious and untrusting NATO and the Warsaw Pact: NATO was established in April 1949, nations of western Europe joined the US and Canada to resist Soviet aggression. o The US renounced isolationism and joined an alliance for the first time in history. As a response, the Soviet Union joined eastern Europe to create the Warsaw Pact in 1955. Both were collective security organizations, an attack on one is an attack on all Truman Doctrine: Pledged US military and economic aid to countries (initially Greece and Turkey) to resist communism o The American people wanted to isolate themselves from the world so Truman had to scare the population into getting involved o March 12, 1947 “declaration of the Cold War” o Granted $400 million program to assist Greece and Turkey Versailles Settlement: o Treaty of Versailles states Germany was responsible for war reparations, especially to France. Required to return to AlsaceLorraine to France, ceded eastern territory to create Poland, demilitarize the Rhineland, disarm, stopped conscription, forced to accept conditions of the treat because of the blockade of port o AustroHungarian and Ottoman Empire fragmented o Significance: German humiliation fostered sense of resentment and anger which were exploited by extremists, WWII Nonaligned Movement: Refers to those state leaders who, during the Cold War, chose not to align their countries with either superpower, instead playing one off against the other in the pursuit of their own interests o Emerged in international politics in the mid 1950s, with India’s Jawaharlal Nehru, Egypt’s Nasser, and Yugoslavia’s Josip Tito at the forefront o Played the US and Soviet Union against each other, these countries attempted to gain aid from the competing superpowers o The US was wary of this movement because it facilitated Soviet influence so they helped out US allies Security Dilemma: When distrust runs so high between states that when each seeks to increase its defensive capabilities, the other perceives that as a threat and increase its own, creating an arms race Collective Security: The notion of collective security, states willing to deter aggression by developing a powerful coalition, if deterrence failed they were willing to use force o Ex: League of Nations Possible Essays (2 questions will appear, and will be asked to write on one for 50 pts). 1. Considering that climate change affects every human being on the planet, why have nationstates struggled to reach and successfully implement an agreement on this critical issue? How would a scholar who supports a realist approach to international politics answer this question? And how would a scholar who supports a constructivist approach to international politics answer this question? And how would a scholar who supports a liberalism approach to international politics answer this question? Please make sure to define these theories and utilize any other applicable concepts in your argument. a. Presentation 2, slide 4 2 Youtube videos, slide 56 b. Realist: Cooperative efforts through international institutions have so far failed because the US and China, the two biggest greenhouse gas producers and each a great power, are worried that the other will accrue an advantage by not assuming equal costs of implementing climate change reduction policies c. Constructivist: The international cooperation to date on climate change represents a shift in the perception of climate change, a recognition of it as a threat, and the beginning of a global conversation that will, in turn, shape the potential next steps d. Liberalist: Act through institutions such as OPEC. Members joined an organization to ensure their mutual interests while setting in p lace means of preventing any one member from taking advantage of others’ willingness to cooperate. UNFCCC and the agreements that would take place at the annual COP e. Mention level of analysis as other applicable concepts. 2. After a relatively long period of peace, fighting broke out in 1914 on the European continent which became known as Word War I. What were the causes of this Great War? Please define and apply the levels of analysis and utilize any other applicable concepts in your argument. a. Six factors played into the outbreak of the war: i. Rise of Germany ii. System of Allianes iii. Changing Balance of Economic Power iv. Emergence of Nationalism v. Cult of the Offensive b. Levels of Analysis i. Individual level: Kaiser Wilhelm II desire to see Germany as a great power ii. Domestic Level: Problems within AustroHungarian Empire French concerns over Germany iii. Systemic Level: Distribution of power leading to creation of rigid alliance systems. Industrialization and the role it played in creating imperial rivalries 3. Why did the Versailles Settlement, the League of Nations and the years leading up to 1939 fail to bring lasting peace to Europe? Please define and apply the levels of analysis and utilize any other applicable concepts in your argument. a. Paris Peace Conference Wilson proposed the League of Nations but the US Senate were uncooperative so his plan never set off b. Treaty of Versailles US Senate refused to ratify c. Then caused WWII afterwards d. “In sum, the potential for an upsurge in German resentment, the American return to isolationism, the revolution and the civil war in Russia, splintering Eastern Europe made the European balance of power inherently unstable” e. Levels of Analysis i. Individual: Role of Hitler, Mussolini (Italy) and General Hideki Tojo (Japan) ii. Domestic: German people’s demands to reverse their fortunes. Territorial reach of Japan and Germany, US public’s insistence of on isolation iii. Systemic: Rise of Germany and Japan threatened to change the balance of power, Failure of League of Nations 4. Why do democracies rarely fight wars? How would you explain the tensions and mistrust that exist between democratic states? a. Democratic Peace Theory democracies don’t go to war with each other i. Held accountable by the will of the people ii. Not willing to risk/threaten public wealth (infrastructure and natural resources) b. Free nations are peaceful nations c. Democratic countries are more willing to cooperate and compromise d. France and Germany (post WWII) have not gone to war with each other e. BUT democracies do undertake covert operations against one another i. Not all countries in the world are democratic ii. And Iraq today is democratic yet still hostile towards democratic Israel 5. What impact did European Imperialism have on the Middle East? Was this impact uniform? Why or why not? How did imperialism affect the emergence of new nation states, their integration into the global economy and the emergence of identity? Please reference in detail at least three (3) examples in your answer. a. Not all nationstates are created equal or the same b. France and Lebanon c. Berlin Conference Europeans tired of fighting over territory, carves up the African continent with disregard to indigenous societies, agree to exploit the humans and the natural resources of the continent 6. How did bipolarity affect state behavior during the Cold War? Please reference at least three (3) examples in detail and utilize any applicable concepts in your answer. a. Structure defined by the number of states that are competing, or the ordering of states on the basis of relative power or economic strength b. First World: NATO and Western allies c. Second World: Warsaw Pact and Socialist d. Third World”: Neutral and colonies
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